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Cbe &t&en*tim 




THE following work is an attempt to furnish in a single vol- 
ume of moderate compass what is most essential for the study of 
the Oscan and Umbrian dialects. In spite of the meagreness of the 
material, as compared with languages like Greek and Latin, and 
in spite of the many questions of detail which are still unsolved, 
the main features of these two dialects are well understood. And 
such is their relation to Latin that some acquaintance with them 
is important, not to the Indo-Europeanist alone, but to the student 
of the Latin language, and, in a less degree, to the student of the 
history and antiquities of Italy. In order that a knowledge of 
the dialects should become more general, it is not enough that we 
have now such excellent works as Conway's Italic Dialects, with 
its full presentation of the existing material, and von Planta's 
exhaustive Grammatik der Oskisch-Umbrischen Dialekte. The 
fullness of v. Planta's treatment, the conscientious weighing of 
possibilities, and the liberal citation of authorities, all add to its 
value as a work of reference, but the resulting bulk of 1372 pages 
is likely to deter one who can devote only a moderate amount of 
time to the subject. That there is need of a briefer grammar has 
long been the author's conviction, which has only been strengthened 
by inquiries and suggestions from others in this country and abroad. 1 

In order to secure the desired brevity, it has been necessary to 
eliminate almost wholly any detailed discussion of disputed points, 
as well as special references for the views adopted or rejected. 
Any one for whom the general bibliography given below is not 
sufficient may be referred to v. Planta. Only in a few cases, here 

1 So Skutsch, in a review of the author's Oscan-Umbrian Verb-System, Berliner 
Philologische Wochenschrift, November, 1895: "Der Verf. kame einem Bediirfniss 
entgegen, wenn er eine vollstandige Grammatik des O.-U. im Massstab seines Verb- 
Systems schriebe . Denn neben dem treffl ichen, aber weitschichtigen Werke v. Plantas 
ist einkurzes Handbuch zur Einfiihrung erwiinscht." 


iv Preface 

and there, I have added references in footnotes, mostly to discus- 
sions more recent than v. Planta. Generally I have simply stated 
the view which seemed to me on the whole the most probable, or 
else contented myself with a non liquet. It is scarcely necessary 
to state that in matters of dispute I have had no predilection for 
my own previously expressed views, but have with equal freedom 
rejected them in favor of others or retained them against others, 
according to my present judgment. 

That the treatment is historical and comparative, not merely 
descriptive, is a matter of course. But the emphasis is on Italic, 
rather than on Indo-European, relations. In the case of words which 
are peculiar to the dialects and not found in Latin, a fairly wide 
range of cognates is cited, as in sections 15, 16. But ordinarily 
comparison within the Italic is deemed sufficient, and forms from 
other Indo-European languages are introduced only for special 

The grammar is called a Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian, 
not of the Oscan-Umbrian dialects, for it does not pretend to treat 
systematically the minor dialects included under the name Oscan- 
Umbrian. Most of the characteristics of these dialects (so far as 
they are clear) are mentioned incidentally, mainly in the Introduc- 
tion. But to discuss or even mention all the questions arising in 
the attempt to generalize from material consisting of only a few 
lines, would require an amount of space not justified by the results. 
Unless the material from these minor dialects is notably increased, 
our knowledge of the Oscan-Umbrian group will be almost coinci- 
dent with what we know of its two principal dialects. And in 
this approximate sense a grammar of Oscan and Umbrian is also 
a grammar of Oscan-Umbrian. 

As the book has been practically ready for the press since the 
beginning of the year, and the Phonology in type since February, 
almost nothing in the literature of 1903 has been taken account of. 
But in what has appeared there is little which has entirely con- 
vinced me. Special mention may be made of Brugmann's discussion 
of the negative prefix an- and anter ' inter' (I.E. 15, 70 ff.). I have 
myself wished there were some way of equating these directly with 

Preface v 

the Latin, instead of assuming by-forms (as in 98 with c), which 
indeed seems out of the question in the case of Anafriss if = L. Imbribus 
(see 98, b). But Brugmann's assumption that " initial e before nasal 
+ consonant had a very open pronunciation in the Oscan-Umbrian 
period and had perhaps become identical in this position with 
Italic a" fails to convince me, in view of 0. embratur, Entrai, and 
especially U. iseceles 'insectis.' Nor do I see the necessity of 
separating 0. ant from L. ante because of its meaning t as far as ' 
(see 299, 2). 

For assistance I am indebted to Professors J. C. Rolfe and 
Minton Warren, who kindly offered to read proof, and especially 
to my pupils, Mr. W. C. Gunnerson and Mr. E. B. Nelson, who 
have gone over the proof with great care, devoting no small amount 
of time to the verification of references, citations, etc., and con- 
tributing in every way to the accuracy of the text. The remarkable 
keenness and intelligence of the proof-reader in the office of the 
publishers has also saved the work from many blemishes. 

C. D. B. 

DECEMBEB, 1903. 





. xiii 
















UMBRIAN .... ... 




a 29 

. 30 

:. 3i 

e 33 

i 3 * 

i 85 


U FOR .' 

B ... 38 

-;.-;: s 



I FOR U .... 


viii Table of Contents 


DIPHTHONGS .......... 41 

ai . 43 

ei 44 

oi 45 

au, eu, ou . . . . . . . . . 40 



ANAPTTXIS IN OSCAN ......... 50 





SAMPRASARANA .......... 60 

Loss OF FINAL SHORT VOWELS . . . . . . .61 

VOWEL-GRADATION ......... 62 

CONSONANTS ............ 66 

CONSONANTAL i (i) . . . . . . . . 66 

CONSONANTAL u (u) . . . . . . . . .67 

r 68 

1 68 

n AND m .......... 70 


FINAL n AND m 71 

ns 71 

s 73 


FINAL s 74 

an, sm, si, zd . . . . . . . .75 

INTERVOCALIC rs ........ 76 

rs BEFORE CONSONANTS ....... 77 

FINAL rs 77 

sr 78 

Is 78 

P 78 

pt . . 78 

ps . 79 

b 79 

bh . 79 


t 80 

FINAL t 80 

FINAL nt 80 

fl . . 82 

Table of Contents ix 

d . . . .... ... 82 

UM BRIAN f, rs, FROM d . . 82 

FINAL d . .84 

INITIAL di 84 

wd, dn ....... .84 

dh 85 

DENTAL + s . . .85 

DENTAL + DENTAL ........ 86 


THE GUTTURALS ...... 87 

k 88 

kt 89 


ks 91 


g 92 


gh 93 

k 94 

g 94 

gh .94 

Loss OF U IN kU ETC. ....... 95 







ACCENT ...... . . 101 


OSCAN .102 

UMBRIAN ...... . 107 




SECOND DECLENSION ..... . . 116 

ZO-STEMS .... ... . 119 

OSCAN GENTILES IN -iis ETC. . . 121 

THIRD DECLENSION .......... 124 




Talle of Contents 





DECLENSION ........... 133 

COMPARISON ........... 134 

ADVERBS . ... ....... 136 





PERSONAL PRONOUNS ......... 139 










SECOND CONJUGATION . . . . . . . . .156 


FOURTH CONJUGATION . . . . . . . . .159 








FORMS OF THE TYPE OF L. capio ...... 







THE SUBJUNCTIVE ........... 




Table of Contents xi 











NOUNS 182 

ADJECTIVES ........... 185 


DENOMINATIVES ........... 190 



VERBS 193 



THE GENITIVE ........... 195 


THE ACCUSATIVE .......... 199 



ABLATIVE USES .......... 200 




WITH THE ACCUSATIVE ONLY . . . . . . . 205 




WITH OTHER CASES ......... 210 


ADVERBS ............ 211 


VOICE . 212 

TENSE ; . . 213 






xii Table of Contents 





AGREEMENT ............ 

OMISSION OF WORDS ........... 



OSCAN 225 







THE CURSE OF VIBIA ........ 243 






OTHERS .256 


COINS 259 



V 260 

Vl-VIIandl 262 

I 288 

II 293 

III, IV 297 

COMMENTARY .......... 301 



OSCAN 311 








The history of the study of the Italic dialects might be expected 
to date from the discovery of the Iguvinian Tables in 1444, but for 
several centuries all the attempts to decipher these were wholly 
worthless. The first sign of progress is found in Lanzi, Saggio 
di lingua Etrusca e di altre antiche d'ltalia, Borne, 1789, in which 
the ritual character of the contents was recognized. In the first 
half of the nineteenth century fall, among others, the contributions 
of K. 0. Miiller, who in his great work on the Etruscans (Die 
Etrusker, 1828 ; 2d ed. by Deecke, 1877) definitely disposed of the 
error that Oscan and Umbrian were connected with Etruscan ; of 
the Sanskritist Lassen, who gave a critical treatment of a section 
of the Iguvinian Tables in his Beitrage zur Deutung der eugu- 
binischen Taf eln, Bonn, 1833 ; of Grotefend, celebrated for his 
decipherment of the Old Persian cuneiform, who treats selected pas- 
sages in his Rudimenta linguae Umbricae, Hanover, 1835-1839; 
of Lepsius, the future Egyptologist, who in his dissertation, De 
tabulis Eugubinis, Berlin, 1833, cleared up the remaining difficulties 
of the alphabet and proposed a chronological arrangement, of the 
tables which is still followed in the universally adopted numbering. 
Lepsius also brought out the first trustworthy edition of the Oscan 
inscriptions together with the Umbrian, the Inscriptiones Umbricae 
et Oscae, Leipzig, 1841. 

A work of prime importance for the study of Oscan and the 
minor dialects was Mommsen's Unteritalische Dialekte, Leipzig, 
1850. A similarly fundamental work for Umbrian was Aufrecht 
and KirchhofF s Die umbrischen Sprachdenkmaler, 1849-1851, the 
first really critical attempt to interpret the Iguvinian Tables as a 
whole. Kirchhoff was also the first to recognize the true character 
of the longest Oscan inscription, the Tabula Bantina, in his elaborate 
commentary, Das Stadtrecht von Bantia, Berlin, 1853. In Huschke's 
Die oskischen und sabellischeri Sprachdenkmaler, 1856, and Die igu- 
vischen Tafeln, 1859, a wealth of knowledge on the side of antiquities 

1 A full bibliography is given by v. Planta, II, pp. xi if. For the history of the 
interpretation of the Iguvinian Tables, see especially Breal, Tab. Eug., pp. i ff. 


xiv Brief Bibliography 

is marred by a lack of critical judgment, especially in grammatical 
points, so that while some of the many daring conjectures have 
proved serviceable, his works in general mark a step backward. 
Newman's Text of the Iguvine Inscriptions, London, 1864, is without 
much value. Grammatical questions were also discussed in numer- 
ous articles by Corssen, Ebel, Bugge, and others. Bruppacher's 
Oskische Lautlehre, 1869, and Enderis' Oskische Formenlehre, 1871, 
were convenient little manuals for the time, though valueless to-day. 

In the last quarter of the nineteenth century the most notable 
advance in the interpretation of the dialect remains was made by 
the works of Breal and of Biicheler. Besides their exhaustive com- 
mentaries on the Iguvinian Tables, cited below, each of these scholars 
has discussed in one form or another most of the more important 
Oscan inscriptions. Important contributions were also made by 
Bugge, Danielsson, Deecke, Jordan, Pauli, and others. New editions 
of the Oscan and Sabellian inscriptions with facsimiles were brought 
out by the Russian scholar Zvetaieff in 1878 and 1884 (cited below). 

The Italic dialects have always held an important place in the 
interest of Indo-European philologists, and Brugmann especially 
has done much to further their study, both as author and teacher. 
It is not too much to say that the works of former pupils of his, 
appearing from 1892 on, especially the treatises of Bronisch and the 
present writer, von Planta's grammar, and Conway's edition of the 
texts, all cited below, have put the whole subject on a new footing. 
Contributions on special points, too numerous to specify here, have 
been made in recent years by F. D. Allen, Bartholomae, Ceci, 
Ehlich, Fay, Horton-Smith, Pascal, Skutsch, Solrnsen, and others. 

The following is a list of the works which are now the most 
useful to the student. 

Indo-European Grammar 

BRUGMANN-DELBRUCK, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik 
der indogermanischen Sprachen. 5 vols. Strassburg, 1886-1900. 
Vol. I in 2d ed., 1897. Vols. I-II (Phonology and Morphology) 
by K. Brugmann (abbr. Brugmann, Grd.) ; vols. III-V (Syntax) 
by B. Delbruck (= Delbriick, Vergl. Syntax, I-III). 

The Oscan and Umbrian dialects are treated systematically and as fully 
as the wide scope of the work permits. 

Brief Bibliography xv 

BRUGMANN, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der indogermanischen 
Sprachen. Parts I-II, Strassburg, 1902-1903. 

In this shorter work, to be completed within the limits of a single volume, 
Oscan and Umbrian forms are mentioned only incidentally in connection with 
the treatment of Latin. 

Latin Grammar 

LINDSAY, The Latin Language. Oxford, 1894. 
SOMMER, Handbuch der lateinischen Laut- und Formenlehre. 

Heidelberg, 1902. 
STOLZ, Historische Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. Leipzig, 


Oscan-Umbrian Grammar 

VON PLANTA, Grammatik der oskisch-umbrischen Dialekte. 2 vols. 
Strassburg, 1892-1897 (abbr. v. Planta). 

A sound and exhaustive treatment, fundamental for all future work. 
Also contains the texts. 

A brief sketch of Oscan-Umbrian grammar is included in Conway's Italic 
Dialects, and of Umbrian grammar in the commentaries of Bre"al, Biicheler, 
and others, quoted below. Special chapters of the grammar are treated in : 

BRONISCH, Die oskischen I- und E-Vocale. Leipzig, 1892. 

BUCK, Der Vocalismus der oskischen Sprache. Leipzig, 1892 (abbr. 

Osk. Voc.). 
BUCK, The Oscan-Umbrian Verb-System. Chicago, 1895 (abbr. 


Texts and Commentaries * 
CONWAY, The Italic Dialects. 2 vols. Cambridge, 1897. 

The most exhaustive collection of the material, containing the inscriptions 
with full epigraphical data, the glosses, lists of proper names, etc., together 
with a brief sketch of the grammar, and a glossary. 

A concise but complete collection of the inscriptions is also included in 
v. Planta's Grammatik, cited above. 

CONWAY, Dialectorum Italicarum Exempla Selecta. Cambridge, 1899. 

Selections from the dialect inscriptions, with translation and brief notes. 
AUFRECHT UND KIRCHHOFF, Die umbrischen Sprachdenkmaler. 
2 vols. Berlin, 1849-1851. 

See above, p. xiii. Still to be consulted with profit. 

1 References for particular Oscan inscriptions are given in the Collection of Inscriptions. 

xvi Brief Bibliography 

BREAL, Les Tables Eugubines. Paris, 1875 (abbr. Tab. Eug.). 

This and the following are the two leading commentaries on the Iguvinian 

BUCHELER, Umbrica. Bonn, 1883. 

On the whole the most convincing interpretation of the Umbrian remains, 
and followed in large measure in the present work. 

MOMMSEN, Die Unteritalischen Dialekte. Leipzig, 1850 (abbr. 
Unterit. Dial.). 

See above, p. xiii. Still valuable for the epigraphical data and the geo- 
graphical and historical notes. 

ZVETAIEFF, Sylloge Inscriptionum Oscarum. St. Petersburg and 

Leipzig, 1878. 
ZVETAIEFF, Inscriptiones Italiae Mediae Dialecticae. Leipzig, 1884. 

These two collections are now mainly valuable on account of the accom- 
panying facsimiles. 

Contributions on special points of grammar and interpretation are found 
in the various journals, proceedings of learned societies, and series of studies, 
especially the following. 

American Journal of Philology (abbr. Am. J. of Ph.). 

Beitrage zur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen. Ed. by A. 

Bezzenberger (abbr. B.B. = Bezzenbergers Beitrage). 
Berichte liber die Verhandlungen der koniglichen sachsischen Gesell- 

schaft der Wissenschaft zu Leipzig. Philologisch-historische 

Classe (abbr. Ber. d. sachs. Gesell. d. Wiss.)./ 
Classical Review. 
Indogermanische Forschungen. Zeitschrift fiir indogermanische 

Sprach- und Altertumskunde (abbr. I.E.), with the Anzeiger fur 

indogermanische Sprach- und Altertumskunde (abbr. I.F. Anz.). 
Memoire de la Socie'te de Linguistique de Paris (abbr. Mem. Soc. 


Pauli's Altitalische Studien. 5 vols. Hanover, 1883-1887. 
Rheinisches Museum fur Philologie (abbr. Eh. M.). 
Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der 

indogermanischen Sprachen. Founded by A. Kuhn (abbr. K.Z. 
Kuhns Zeitschrift). 


Black type is used to transcribe words in the native alphabets, 
and italics for those in the Latin alphabet. The same distinction 
is commonly employed for separate letters or groups of letters. But 
sometimes, to save unnecessary repetition, italics are used referring 
to the spelling of both the native and Latin alphabets. Glosses 
cited are always indicated as such, except the frequently cAtedfamel. 

The meanings of words cited are usually given, though not 
always, especially where they can easily be inferred from the Latin 
cognates cited. Vice versa, Latin cognates are sometimes left to be 
inferred from the Latin translations. In the case of words of 
doubtful meaning these translations in the grammar are to be 
regarded as expedients, subject to amplification or correction in 
the glossary. In the texts uncertain letters are distinguished by a 
change of type, and where obvious mistakes are corrected the 
original reading is given in footnotes to the text. But in the gram- 
mar proper such matters are usually ignored except when bearing 
directly on the subject of discussion. 

T.he signs i and u are used for consonantal i and u, English 
y and w ; n, m, r, /, for the syllabic nasals and liquids assumed in 
Indo-European forms. The colon (:) is used to point out relation- 
ship, in the sense of "cognate with." Besides the abbreviations of 
works of reference mentioned above, the following are used. 

Av. = Avestan. O.Bulg. = Old Bulgarian. 

C.A. = Cippus Abellanus (no. 1). O.Eng. = Old English. 

Eng. = English. O.H.G. = Old High German. 

Fal. = Faliscan. O.Ir. = Old Irish. 

Germ. = German. O.Pruss. = Old Prussian. 

Goth. = Gothic. Pael. = Paelignian. 

Grk. = Greek. Sab. = Sabine. 

I.E. = Indo-European. Skt. = Sanskrit. 

Ital. = Italian. T.A. = Tablet of Agnone (no. 45). 

L. = Latin. T.B. = Tabula Bantina (no. 2.) 

Lith. = Lithuanian. U. = Umbrian. 

Marruc. = Marrucinian. Vest. Vestinian. 

0. = Oscan. 





1. The Italian peninsula, in the earliest period of history, 
was occupied by various peoples speaking a variety of languages 
and dialects. 

The Lig-urians in the northwest have usually been regarded 
as relics of an aboriginal, pre-Indo-European, population, but are 
now thought by some to be Indo-European. 1 The linguistic 
remains, consisting largely of geographical names, are too 
meagre to be decisive. 

The Etruscans (Latin Etruscl or Tusci, the latter from 
*Turscl; cf. Umbrian Turskum, Greek Tvparjvoi, Tvpprjvoi) occu- 
pied Etruria, and, previous to the Celtic invasions, much of the 
central part of northern Italy, in the valley of the Po. They 
were also masters of Campania from the eighth century B.C. 
down to the Samnite invasion in the last quarter of the fifth 
century B.C. The Etruscan inscriptions 2 number over six thou- 
sand, but only a few hundred contain anything more than proper 
names, and less than a dozen of these are of any considerable 
length. The interpretation is wholly uncertain and nothing 
positive can be affirmed as to the affinities of the language. 
But it is reasonably clear that it is not Indo-European. The 
riddle will probably remain unsolved until the discovery of a 
bilingual inscription of some length. 

1 Cf. Kretschmer, K.Z. 38, 108 ff. 

2 Now being collected in the Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarura. 


2 Introduction [l 

The Veneti, at the head of the Adriatic, and the Messa- 
pians and lapygians in Calabria have commonly been grouped 
together as of Illyrian origin. There are several hundred short 
Venetian inscriptions, 1 and the Messapian is also represented 
by some hundred and sixty short inscriptions. 2 From these 
remains it appears that the two languages, though Indo-European, 
do not belong to the same group, and it is uncertain whether 
the Venetian, or the Messapian with the modern Albanian, 
should be classed as Illyrian. 3 

Greek colonies occupied nearly the entire southern portion 
of Italy, many of them dating from a period earlier than the 
beginnings of Roman history and retaining their Greek char- 
acter for several centuries after Christ. 

Celtic tribes which poured in from the north, and in the 
early part of the fourth century B.C. sacked Rome, maintained 
themselves for some time in the central plains of northern 

The rest of Italy was occupied by tribes speaking dialects 
akin to the Latin and with it constituting the Italic branch of 
the Indo-European family. 


2. The Italic Dialects fall into two groups, the Latin- 
Faliscan and the Oscan-Umbrian. 

The Latin-Faliscan comprises the Latin, of which there 
were local variations in the different towns of Latium, and the 
Faliscan, spoken in the Faliscan plain in the southeastern part 
of Etruria. The few short inscriptions 4 are sufficient to show 
that Faliscan differed but slightly from Latin. 

The Oscan-Umbrian group is so named from its two most 
important members, the Oscan and the Unibrian, but includes 

1 Collected in Pauli, Die Veneter, Altitalische Forschungen III. 

2 Mostly in Fabretti, Corpus Inscriptionum Italicarum. 

8 On the Illyrian question, cf. Pauli, I.e.; Kretschmer, Einleitung in die 
gricchisclic Spnicligeschichte, 244 IT. ; Hirt, Festschrift fiir Kieport, 181 if. ; Pederscn, 
K.Z. 30, 299 ff. 4 Collected in Deecke, Die Falisker. 

3] Oscan External Data 3 

also the dialects of most of the minor tribes of central Italy, 
which may be conveniently designated as Sabellian. 1 The best 
known of these is the Paelignian, which shows a very close 
resemblance to Oscan. Much the same are the dialects of the 
neighboring Marmcinians and Vestiiiians, of which there are 
some scanty remains. Volsciaii, known only from an inscrip- 
tion of four lines from Velitrae, is more strongly differentiated 
and in several particulars resembles Umbrian more than Oscan ; 
but there is no sufficient reason for grouping it otherwise than 
among the Sabellian dialects. The Marsiaiis, Aequians, and 
Sabines are connected historically with the other Sabellian 
tribes, and their dialects doubtless belong properly to the 
same group. But they were subjected to Latin influence from 
a very early period, and the meagre remains that we have give 
no satisfactory picture of their characteristics. 


3. Oscan inscriptions have been found in Samnium (inclu- 
sive of the territory of the Frentani and Hirpini), Campania, 
northern Apulia, Lucania, and Bruttium, and in the Sicilian 
city of Messana from the period after its occupation by the 
Campanian Mamertines. These are precisely the regions which 
we know were occupied by Samnite tribes. In calling the lan- 
guage Oscan rather than Samnitic we are following the usage 
of the Latin authors, as when Livy (10, 20) relates how in one 

1 The etymological connection of Sabellus (from *Saf-no-lo-) , Sablnl (from 
*Saf-inoi), and Samnium (from *Saf-nio-m; cf. Oscan Safinim), together with the 
tradition of the Sabine origin of the Samnites and the minor tribes like the Paeligni, 
is a witness to the tribal relations of these peoples. The Roman writers use Sabellus 
in the sense of Samnitic, and it is properly a generic term including Samnitic. Strictly 
speaking the Samnite tribes were Sabellian, and their language, the Oscan, a Sabel- 
lian dialect. But the Samnites and their language occupy such a preeminent position 
that they are best grouped by themselves, and we may, for convenience, reserve the 
name Sabellian for the- closely related minor tribes and dialects. 

The so-called Old Sabellian inscriptions, found in various parts of central Italy, 
are wholly unintelligible, and certainly are not in any of the Sabellian dialects. They 
possibly represent the language of some Illyrian tribes. 

4 Introduction [3 

of the Samnite wars the Roman consul sent out spies who were 
acquainted with the Oscan language. Now the Oscans (Lat. 
Oscl, earlier Opscl, Grk. 'Oirifcoi) were a Campanian tribe, and 
it has been held by some that Oscan was not the original lan- 
guage of the Samnites, but was adopted by them after their 
invasion of Campania. But this is altogether improbable. We 
must, rather, assume that the Oscans were simply a detached 
branch of the Samnites, speaking essentially the same language ; 
and the principal reason why this language was called Oscan 
rather than Samnitic is that it was among the Oscans that the 
Greeks and Romans first came in contact with it. The Sam- 
nites entered the field of history as a politically distinct people 
from the Oscans ; but their language, being the same, was called 
by the name already established. Moreover it was among the 
Oscans, by reason of their early contact with Greek and Etrus- 
can civilization, that the language was first reduced to writing, 
so that while they did not give the Samnites a new language, 
they did give them its written form, and to a certain extent, 
probably, a sort of normalized standard of speech. This last 
supposition would help account for the fact that local variations 
of Oscan, outside of Campania, are far less marked than one 
would expect, considering the extent of the territory in which 
the language was spoken. 

4. The Oscan inscriptions number over two hundred, but 
more than half of \hese contain only proper names or fragments 
of words. About three quarters of them come from Campania, 
where Pompeii, and in recent years Capua, have furnished the 
greatest number. 

The period of time covered is nearly five centuries, the 
earliest remains being some coin-legends from the end of the 
fifth or first half of the fourth century B.C., while the latest are 
some of the graffiti of Pompeii, which there is reason to believe 
were scratched on the walls after the first earthquake in 63 A.D. 
But by far the greater part of the material falls between 300 B.C. 

the Social War in 90-89 B.C. After the Social War Oscan 

5] Oscan External Data 5 

ceased to be used in official documents, but continued to exist 
as a local patois for some time, how long we cannot tell. If 
at Pompeii it was still spoken, to some extent at least, in the 
first century A.D., it very likely lingered on for several centuries 
in the remoter districts of Samnium. 

Most of the inscriptions are written in the native Oscan 
alphabet, which is derived, through the medium of the Etruscan, 
from the Greek of the Chalcidian type. But a few from Lucania, 
including the longest Oscan inscription known, the Tabula 
Bantina, are in the Latin alphabet, and some from Sicily and 
various parts of southern Italy are in the Greek alphabet. 

5. As regards contents, many well-known classes of in- 
scriptions are represented. The Tabula Bantina, the longest 
inscription, itself only a fragment of the original, contains a 
series of municipal regulations. The next longest, the Cippus 
Abellanus, is an agreement between the cities of Nola and 
Abella touching certain temple property held in common. 
From Agnone in Samnium comes an inventory of statues and 
altars in a sacred grove. The Curse of Vibia, from Capua, 
together with a few shorter curses, belongs to the class of 
devotiones of which there are many examples among Greek 
and Latin inscriptions. There are several inscriptions on public 
works from Pompeii and elsewhere ; also dedications, including 
a peculiar series of 2<m7ae-dedications, mostly from Capua, the 
nature of which is not fully understood. Certain inscriptions 
painted on house-fronts near some of the street-corners in Pom- 
peii seem to be guides for the allied troops occupying the city 
in the Social War. There are numerous inscribed coins from 
various towns, some of them older than any of the inscriptions 
on stone ; also several from the time of the Social War, bearing 
the legend Viteliu 'Italia', and the names of the leaders of the 
allies. There are a few epitaphs, many bricks inscribed with 
names, and probably one of the well-known inscribed missiles ; 
also some illegible electioneering notices, not to mention various 
other insignificant scrawls, on walls in Pompeii. 

6 Introduction [6 

6. Besides the inscriptions, there are some secondary 
sources, such as the Oscan glosses, mostly in Varro and 
Festus, and the geographical and personal names from Oscan 
territory. But they contribute relatively little to our knowledge 
of the dialect. 

7. Oscan was not a mere patois, nor was it so regarded by 
the earlier Roman writers. Ennius, in boasting of having three 
souls because he could speak Greek, Oscan, and Latin, gave to 
Oscan a position which he had no thought of giving to the local 
vernacular of his home, the Messapian. For a long time, while 
Latin was still confined to Latium and its immediate borders, 
Oscan was spoken over a vastly wider territory. It was the 
language of the people which gave the Romans the hardest 
fight for the hegemony of Italy. In the early centuries the 
Oscans of Campania, under the Etruscan rule, and close to the 
Greek colonies of Cumae, Naples, etc., stood on fully as high 
a plane of civilization as the Romans of the same period. 
Eminent scholars like Mommsen have expressed the conviction 
that there once existed an Oscan literature, and certainly the 
conditions for the rise of a native literature were as favorable 
as at Rome. But nothing has come down to us, not even a 
reference to anything more pretentious than the puppet-shows 
introduced in Rome from Campania under the name oi.fabulae 
Atellanae or ludi Osci. At Rome, of course, these were no 
longer given in Oscan, but in rustic Latin. 


8. Aside from a few short inscriptions from various towns 
of Umbria, the Umbrian remains consist of the Iguvinian 
Tables, discovered at Gubbio, the ancient Iguvium, in the fif- 
teenth century. These jiro seven small bronze tablets (originally 
nine, but two were lost soon after the discovery), most of them 
inscribed on both sides, and containing together between four and 
five thousand words. This makes a far more extensive docu- 
ment than any representing any other dialect except Latin. 

11] General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian 7 

9. Some of the tables are written in the native Umbrian 
alphabet, which like the Oscan is derived from the Greek 
through the Etruscan, others in the Latin alphabet. These 
two divisions of the material are conveniently distinguished as 
Old Umbrian and New Umbrian, but the differences are in part 
merely orthographic, and, at most, far less marked than those 
which are usually associated with the terms Old and New in 
such a connection. The New Umbrian tables may date from 
the early part of the first century B.C. How much earlier the 
Old Umbrian tables are it is impossible to say; different parts 
were inscribed at different times, and even the relative order is 
not fully determined. See the Commentary on the Iguvinian 

10. The contents of the Tables consist of the acts of a 
certain corporation of priests known as the Atiedian Brothers, 
and in their general character resemble the Roman Acta Arva- 
lium. They contain directions for various ceremonies, such as 
the Purification of the Sacred Mount and the Lustration of the 
People, as well as the more private functions of the brotherhood, 
with minute prescriptions as to the taking of auspices, manner 
of sacrificing the victims, etc.; also statements as to the duties 
of certain officials, perquisites of the priests, contributions to 
be made to the brotherhood by certain gentes, etc. Some of the 
older tables contain matter which is repeated in an expanded 
form in the later tables. 



11. The most striking characteristics, as regards pho- 
nology, are : 

Change of the labiovelars q% and $#, which appear in 
Latin as qu and v (gu after n), to the labials p and b ; e.g. O. pis 
'quis', U. pisi, Volsc. pis, Marruc. nipis ; O. bivus ' vivi' ; - 
U. benust 'venerit' ; U. umen (from *imilen) 'unguen'. 

8 Introduction [11 

Extensive syncope of short vowels in non-initial syllables ; 
e.g. O. actud 'agito'; -- U. fiktu 'figito'; O. hiirz 'hortus'; 
U. Ikuvins 'Iguvinus'; O. akkatus 'advocati'. 

Assimilation of nd to nn\ e.g. O. upsannam ' operandam' ; 
- U. pihaner 'piandi' (n for nn, 26). 

Retention of s before nasals and liquids, where it is lost in 
Latin ; e.g. O. fisnam 'fanum', U. fesnaf-e, P&el.fesn. ; O. kersnu 
'cena', U. sesna ; Pael. prismu 4 prima'. 

Retention of a in medial syllables, where it is weakened in 
Latin to e or i\ e.g. O. Anterstatai 4 *Interstitae' ; - - U. antakres 
'integris'; -- U. procanurent * *procinuerint'. 

Representation of original bh and dh by/, not only initially 
as in Latin, but also medially, where Latin has b or d\ e.g. 
O. tfei, U. tefe 'tibi'; O. mefiai 'in media'; -- U. rufru 4 rubros'. 

Change of final a, which in Latin is shortened, in the 
direction of 0; e.g. O. molto, U. mutu, muta'multa'. 

Change of kt to ht, and of pt to ft (Umbrian, further, to 
Jit) ; e.g. O. Uhtavis ' Octavius' ; U. rente 4 recte' ; O. serif tas 
4 scriptae', U. screhto. 

Assimilation of ks to ss, s; e.g. O. destrst 'dextra est', 
U. destram-e. 

Change of ns to /, though under different conditions in 
Oscan and Umbrian; e.g. O. uittiuf'usus' from *oition-s ; - 
U. Ace. PI. eaf'e&s' (also Marruc. iaf-c) from *eans (but O. viass). 


12. DECLENSION. The types of noun-declension are suf- 
ficiently like the Latin to fall naturally into the same grouping 
of Five Declensions. But the Fifth Declension is represented 
by only a few forms, and in the Third Declension the consonant- 
stems and i-stems are kept distinct in a greater number of case- 
forms than in Latin. The Cases are the same as in Latin, except 
that, in the Singular, the Locative exists as a distinct form with 
full syntactical functions. The important differences in case- 
formation are as follows (for examples, see the paradigms) : 

13] General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian 9 

First Declension. The Gen. Sg. has the original ending -as, 
which is preserved in Latin only in phrases like paterfamilias ; 
the Nom. PI. has the original ending -as, which is lost in Latin. 
Second Declension. The Gen. Sg. has the ending -eis, from 
i-stems ; the Dat. Sg. has the ending -oi, which occurs in 
Latin only in Numasioi of the Praenestine brooch ; the Nom. 
PL has the original noun-ending -os for both nouns and pro- 
nouns, while the Latin has -I, from -oi, the pronominal ending ; 
the Gen. PL has only the original -dm (L. -um), there being 
nothing to correspond to L. -drum, which is a specifically Latin 

Third Declension. The Gen. Sg. always has -eis, the ending of 
z-stems, while Latin -is is the proper ending of consonant- 
stems ; the Ace. Sg. of consonant-stems has -om, from o-stems ; 
in the Nom. PL the consonant-stems and i-stems are kept 
distinct, the former having the original ending -es with syn- 
cope of the e, the latter -es as in Latin (O. humuns 'homines', 
but tris'tres'). 

13. CONJUGATION. The conjugation-types are the same 
as in Latin, the material grouping itself under the Four Conju- 
gations, leaving the relics of unthematic inflection as "Irregular 
Verbs." But the type represented by Latin capio is, in origin, 
more closely connected with the Fourth Conjugation than with 
the Third, and in Oscan-Umbrian is better grouped with the 

The Moods are the same. As in Latin, the Subjunctive is 
a fusion of original Subjunctive and Optative forms, and the 
distribution of the forms is the same as in Latin, except in the 
Perfect Subjunctive (see below). 

The Tenses are the same, except that, perhaps accidentally, 
there is no example of a Pluperfect. 

The Voices are the same, but of the Passive there are only 
forms of the Third Singular and Third Plural. 

Of the non-finite forms there are found a Present Active 
Participle, Perfect Passive Participle, Gerundive, Present Active 

10 Introduction [13 

Infinitive, Perfect Passive Infinitive, and Supine. The Ger- 
und, Perfect Infinitive Active, Future Infinitives, Present Infin- 
itive Passive, and Future Active Participle are lacking. The 
absence of examples of some of these forms is possibly a mere 
accident, but it is probable that most of them are specifically 
Latin formations. 

The important differences in formation are as follows : 

The Pres. Infin. Act. ends in -om ; e.g. O. ezum, U. erom'esse*. 

The Future is an ^-formation, in origin a short-vowel Sub- 
junctive of an s-Aorist ; e.g. O. deinast 'iurabit', U. ferest 'feret'. 

The Fut. Perf. is an ws-formation, probably based on an 
old Perf. Act. Partic. in -us combined with a short-vowel Sub- 
junctive of the verb 'to be'; e.g. O. efc'etttf 'dixerit', U. benust 

Among the different formations making up the Perfect 
System, the /-Perfect is characteristic of Oscan-Umbrian ; e.g. 
O. aikdafed 'decrevit', U. andirsafust 'circumtulerit'. (Oscan- 
Sabellian has also a ^-Perfect, and Umbrian an Z-Perfect and 
an TtH-Perfect.) The Latin vl- and s-Perfects are lacking. 

The Perf. Subj. is a real Subjunctive form with the mood- 
sign <?, not an Optative with mood-sign I as in Latin ; e.g. O. tri- 
barakattins 'aedificaverint', U. combifiansi 'nuntiaverit'. 

In the Third Singular and Third Plural there is a distinc- 
tion between primary endings, which are -, -nt, and secondary 
endings, which are -d (lost in Umbrian), -ns; e.g. O. faamat 
'habitat', but fakiiad 'faciat'; -- O. stahint 'stant', U. furfant 
'purgant', but O. deicans 'dicant', U. dirsans 'dent'. Latin 
shows -d in some of the earliest inscriptions, but nothing cor- 
responding to -ns. 

The unthematic form of the Third Plural, -ent, which in 
Latin is always replaced by the thematic form -ont, -unt, is pre- 
served, and even extended to thematic formations ; e.g. O. set, 
U. sent 'sunt', O. censazet 'censebunt'. 

The Third Singular and Third Plural of the Passive have 
an ending -ter, unknown in Latin, while the Latin -tur appears 

15] General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian 11 

only in Umbrian secondary tenses ; e.g. O. vincter 'convincitur', 
karanter 'vescuntur', U. herter 'oportet'; U. emantur 'accipiantur'. 

The Third Singular Passive has also a peculiar set of forms 
in which the ending is neither -ter nor -tui\ but simply -r ; e.g. 
U.ferar 'feratur', O. sakrafir (Perf. Subj.) 'sacrato'. 

The Imperative Passive has an ending -mo(d), O. -mo-r, 
which is of similar origin to the early Latin -mino ; e.g. O. cen- 
samur 'censetor', U. persnihimu 'precator'. 


14. The Syntax shows a remarkably close resemblance to 
the Latin. There are no uses of the moods and tenses which 
cannot be paralleled in the Latin, the agreement being closest, 
in some respects, with early Latin prose. The Passive forms 
include both genuine Passives and Deponents, as in Latin, but 
the frequent impersonal use is characteristic of Oscan-Umbrian. 
In the use of the cases there are many interesting constructions, 
of which the following are the most noteworthy. The Locative, 
being preserved as a distinct case-form, is used where the Latin 
requires in with the Ablative, e.g. O. eisei terei 'in eo territorio'. 
The Partitive Genitive has a wider scope than in Latin, e.g. 
U. iuenga peracrio tursituto 'iuvencas ex opimis fuganto'. A 
Genitive of Time is seen in O. zicolom XXX nesimum 'in die bus 
XXX proximis'. The Genitive is used more freely than in Latin 
to denote the matter involved ; e.g. O. eizazunc egmazum 'in these 
matters', U. pusi ocrer pihaner ' as in the case of the purification 
of the mount'. The prepositions corresponding to Latin inter 
and trans are used with both Accusative and Locative; those 
corresponding to ob and post are used with the Ablative. 

Vocabulary l 

15. Of words which are characteristic of Oscan-Umbrian 
as compared with Latin, the following are the most important 
examples : 

1 Special attention is given here to the lexical peculiarities, since these are not, 
like the other characteristics, the subject of fuller treatment in the grammar proper. 

12 Introduction [15 

1. her- 'velle'. O. herest 1 volet', heriam 'arbitrium, vim', Herenta- 
teis 'Veneris' (Pael. fferentas); U. heri'vult', heriest 'volet', 
etc., herter 'oportet', heris 'vel', pis-her 'quilibet'. Cf. L. horior, 
hortor, Grk. %atjO<, Skt. Jidrydmi 'be gratified, delight in', Goth. 
-gairns 'eager', Eng. yearn. This root completely displaces 
uel- (L. void) in the meaning 'wish', the latter appearing only 
in a specialized meaning ; e.g. U. veltu'deligito', ehueltu 'iubeto'. 

2. toutd- 'civitas, urbs, populus'. O. rwpro Ma/jLepnvo 'civitas 
Mamertina', toutad praesentid 'populo praesente', touticom 
'publicum', etc.; U. totam liouinam 'civitatem Iguvinam', 
tuderor totcor 'fines urbici', etc.; Mamie, toutai Maroucai 
'civitati Marrucinae'; Volsc. toticu 'publico'. Cf. Lith. tauta 
'people', O.Pruss. tauto 'country', O.Ir. tuath 'people', Goth. 
piuda 'people', O.Eng. peod 'people, nation', etc. 

3. <m-'sacer, divinus'. O. aisusis 'sacrificiis'; U. esona 'sacras', 
esono 'sacrificium'; Mamie. atfot ( d]fl'(?); Mars, esos 'dis'(?); 
Volsc. esaristrom 'sacrificium'; alaoi Oeol VTTO Tvpprjvwv 
(Hesychius), aesar Etrusca lingua deus (Suetonius). Per- 
haps related to Germ. Ehre (Goth. *aiza), and to Goth, aistan 
'revere', L. aestimo, from aiz-d-. 

4. Jcomno- 'comitium'. O. comono 'comitia'; U. super kumne 
'super comitio', kumnahkle 'in conventu'. From kom 'cum' 
+ suffix -no- (cf. L. pro-nus, trdns-trum). 

5. hontro- 'inferus'. O. hu[n]truis 'inferis'; U. hondra 'infra', 
Superl. hondomu 'infimo'. From horn-, related to L. humus, 
Grk. a/*a^ %^^, etc. For meaning cf. L. humilis, Grk. 
%^a/iaX,o'?, Lith. 8$ma8'low\ zemyn 'down', from seme 'earth'. 

6. medes-^ius 1 . U. mefs, mers 'ins', mersto 'iustum', mersuva 
'iusta'; O. meddiss 'meddix', official title (cf. Festus "meddix 
apud Oscos noraen magistratus est"; Livy 26, 6, 13 "medix 
tuticus [O. meddiss tiivtiks ; see above, 2] qui summus magis- 
tratus apud Campanos est"; cpd. like L. index from *iu*-dik-), 
medicim 'magistracy', meddikiai 'in the meddixship'; medicatinom 
'iudicationem', medicatud 'iudicato'; Pael., Volsc., medix (Nom. 
PL); Mars, medis. Cf. L. modus, modes-tus, Grk. /u-e'So/iat, etc. 

15] General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian 13 

7. ner- 'vir, princeps', title of rank. O. nerum (Gen. PI.), niir 
(Nom. Sg.); U. nerf (Ace. PL), nerus (Dat. PL). For related 
Sabine forms cf. Suetonius Tib. 1 "inter cognomina autem et 
Neronis adsumpsit, quo significatur lingua Sabina fortis ac 
strenuus"; Aul. Gellius 13, 23 "id autem, sive Nerio sive 
Nerienes est, Sabinum verbum est, eoque significatur virtus 
et fortitude"; Lydus de Mens. 4, 42 "vep(icr) <yap rj avbpia 
earl fcal vepwvas rou? avBpefovs ol 2a/3tz>ot /caXovaiv". Cf. 
Grk. avrip, Skt. war-' man', O.Ir. nert' strength'. 

8. nessimo- 'proximus'. O. nessimas (Nom. PL), nesimum (Gen. 
PL), nesimois (Abl. PL); U. nesimei ' proxime' (adv.). Cf. 
O.Ir. nessam 'nearest', etc. Cf. also O. nistrus 'propinquos'. 

9. pert 'trans'. O. pert viam 'trans viani', am-pert l not more 
than, dumtaxat'; U. pert spiniam ' trans columnam'(?). An 
extension of per. Umbrian also uses traf L. trans. 

10. postin 'according to'. O. piistin slagim 'according to the 
territory'; U. pusti kastruvuf ' per capita' (?) etc. An exten- 
sion of *posti (early Latin paste). 

11. pur- 'ignis'. U. pir 'ignis', pure-to 'ab igne'; O. purasiai 'in 
igniaria'. Cf. Grk. irvp, TTU/JO?, O.H.G./im^wr, Eng.^re, etc. 

12. sewo-'totus'. O. smoWomnino'; U. sewom'totum', sev-akne 
'sollemne'. Cf. L. so-lus, Goth. se-ls(?). 

13. tefro- 'burnt-offering'. O. saahtum tefuriim 'sacred burnt- 
offering'; U. tefra 'carnes cremandas', tefru-to 'ex rogo'. 
Probably from *tepsro-, related to L. tepor, Skt. tdpas, etc. 

14. re-'habitare'. U. trebeit ' versatur', tremnu 'tabernaculo'; 
O. triibum 'domum', tribarakkiuf 'aedificium', tribarakavum 
'aedificare', etc. Cf. O.Ir. treb 'dwelling-place', Lith. trobd 
'building', Goth, paurp 'field', Germ. Dorf, etc. 

15. wero-'porta'. O. veru 'portam'; U. uerof-e 'in portam', etc. 
Cf. Skt. vr- 'enclose', Goth. warjan'w&Td off', Lith. veriu 
'open, shut', varoi 'gate', L. aperio, operio. 

For other examples, see, in the Glossary, O. akenei, U. acnu ; 
O. aikdafed, U. eitipes ; O. eehiianasiim, U. ehiato ; O. eizo-, U. era-; 
O. pumperiais, U. pumpefias. 

14 Introduction [16 

16. Of the many words which are peculiar to Oscan (orOscan- 
Sabellian) or to Umbrian, the following may be mentioned here. 

A. OSCAN. 1. aeteis 'partis', a]ittium 'partium'. Cf . Grk. alua 
from air-La. 


2. amnud 'circuitu', amnud 'causa' (prepos.). From aw-'amb-' 
+ suffix -no-. (Cf. kom-no-, 15, 4.) Perhaps contained in 
L. soll-emnis. 

3. comparascuster 'consulta erit', kujmparakineis 'consilii'. From 
the same root as L. posed, precor, but with the meaning 
which it has more commonly in other languages of 'ask, 
question' (Skt. prcchami 'ask', sam-prcchdmi 'consult', Germ. 
forschen, etc.). 

4. deiud- 'iurare' (deiuatud c i\M?iio\ etc.). Denominative from 
*deiuo- 'god'. Cf. Lettic diwatl-s 'swear', from diws 'god'. 

5. egmo 'res', egmazum 'rerum', etc. Etym. uncertain (L.egeo?). 

6. eituam, eitiuvam 'pecuniam', eituas 'pecuniae', etc. Also 
Marruc. eituam 'pecuniam'. Etym. uncertain. 

7. feihuss 'muros', feihiiis 'muris'. Cf. Grk. reZ^o?, Skt. dehi 
'heap, wall', etc. From the same root as L. fingd, figura, etc. 

8. inim, mm'et'. Also Pael. inim and mom 'et'. Related to 
L. enim, U. enom'tum'. 

9. loufir 'vel'. In form a 3d Sg. Pres. Pass, from the same root 
as L. libet. Cf. L. vel from void, and U. heris 'vel' (15, 1). 

10. puklum 'puerum, filium'. Also Pael. puclois 'pueris'. Cf. 
Skt. putrd- 'son', and, from the same root, L. puer, Grk. vrat?. 

11. tanginom 'sententiam', Abl. Sg. tanginiid, etc. Cf. Festus 
i'tongere nosse est, nam Praenestini tongitionem dicunt noti- 
onem. Ennius 'Alii rhetorica tongent'". Cf . Goth, pagkjan, 
Eng. think. 

For other examples, see, in the Glossary, aflukad, ampt, 
amviannud, angetuzet, brateis, cadeis, karanter, deketasiui, ehpeilatas, 
faamat, fertalis, heriiad, iiiklei, iuvilu, lamatir, luisarifs, prupukid, 
serevkid, slagim, sullus, sverrunei, trutum, usurs, ualaemom, vereiiai. 

B. UMBRIAN. 12. anglaf, ancla i osGmes\ 

as L. oscines from cano. 

17] Greneral Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian 15 

13. anouihimu 'induitor'. From *an-ouio (Conj. IV); cf. 
L. ind-uo from *ind-ouo^ Lith. aviu 'wear (shoes)'. 

14. ape, appei^cum, ubi' (always temporal). Probably from ad 
+ pe (L. -que), and so in form like L. adque, atque. 

15. arsmor 'ritus', arsmatiam 'ritualem', arsmahamo 'ordamini', 
etc. Etym. uncertain. 

16. ctfwfo^a-'nuntiare, mandare' (combifiatu, kupifiaia, etc.). 
Probably from fif-, the same root as in L. fido, Grk. Trei^o), 
or possibly from fuf-, the same as in Grk. TrvvQavo^ai. 

17. gomia 'gravidas'. Cf. \j.gemo, and, for meaning especially, 
Grk. yefjico. 

18. nertru 'sinistro'. Cf. Grk. veprepos 'lower, nether'. Accord- 
ing to Italic ideas Imus = sinister. 

19. purdouitu 'porricito', purditom 'porrectum', etc. From 
*por-douio, with the root seen in L. duim, duam. 

20. tuder 'finem', tuderus 'finibus', tuderato 'finitum', eturstahmu 
'exterminato', etc. Etym. uncertain. 

21. wera?-'vertere' in ahauendu 'avertito', preuendu 'advertito'. 
Cf. Germ, wenden (Eng. wind). 

For other examples, too numerous to mention, see the 
Glossary. Many of them are technical terms, often of obscure 

17. Several words are used in a sense which is either 
unknown or nearly obsolete in Latin. 

1. O. kasit (L. caret) means 'decet' or 'oportet', e.g. fakiiad kasit 
'faciat decet'. Cf. Eng. "it wants to be done", that is "it 
needs to be done". 

2. O. castrom, U. castruo (L. castrum), mean either 'fundus, 
landed property', or, more probably, 'head'. 

3. O. carneis, U. karu (L. card), have the general meaning 'part, 
portion' (cf. also U. kartu 'distribuito'), e.g. maimas carneis 
senateis tanginud 'maximae partis senatus sententia', U. mes- 
tru karu fratru 'maior pars fratrum'. But Umbrian shows also 
the specialized meaning 'piece of flesh', e.g. aseceta karne 'non 
secta carne'. 

16 Introduction [17 

4. The forms corresponding to L. operor are used in the sense 
of 'make, construct', where Latin would employ facio; e.g. 
O. ekass viass uupsens ' has vias f ecerunt', triibum ekak upsannam 
deded'domum hanc faciendam dedit'; U. capirse perso osatu 
'capidi fossam facito'; Pael. Herec. fesn. upsaseter coisatens 
'Herculi fanum fieret curaverunt'. 

5. O. ant (L. ante) means 'usque ad', e.g. ant punttram 'usque ad 

6. U. com (L. cum), when postpositive, has developed a locative 
meaning, e.g. ueris-co 'at the gate', asa-ku 'at the altar'. 

7. O. op, up (L. ob), means 'apud', e.g. lip sakaraklud'apud tern- 
plum', op toutad i apud populum'. 

8. pro- ( sometimes has a temporal meaning 'before', for 
which in Latin prae-, or ofterier ante-, is used ; e.g. U. prupehast 
'ante piabit',O.prupukid'ex antepacto, by previous agreement'. 

9. U. emantur (L. emo) 'accipiantur' shows the original meaning 
'take' seen in Latin compounds and in the particle em. Cf. 
also Festus "emere, quod nunc est mercari, antiqui accipie- 
bant pro sumere". The specialized meaning 'buy' is found 
in emps on one of the short inscriptions, where it is perhaps 
due to Latin influence. 

10. U. prever (L. privus) means 'singulis', e.g. numer prever 
'nummis singulis'. Cf. Festus "privos privasque antiqui 
dicebant pro singulis". So also O. preiuatud means 'reo, 
defendant' (as rarely in Latin, e.g. Livy 26, 3, 8, etc.), the 
single man among the many making up the assembly. 

11. U. orto (L. ortus) is sometimes used in the literal sense of 
'rising, standing up', e.g. urtes puntis'the pentads rising'. 
Cf. Velius Longus (Keil, Gram. Lat. VII, 74) "oriri apud 
antiques surgere frequenter significat, ut apparet ex eo quod 
dicitur : oriens consul magistrum populi dicat, quod est sur- 
gens"; Livy 8, 23, 15 "consul oriens". 

1 2. U. tursituto, tursiandu (L. terreo), have the meaning ' drive off', 
which in Latin is only poetical ; e.g. ponne im-tn/ar tursiandu 
'cum iuvencae fugentur'. But also tursitu 'terreto'. 

18] General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian 17 

13. U. couertu (L. converto) always means 'return', with the 
intransitive meaning which is rare in Latin ; e.g. enom traha 
Sahatam couertu 'turn trans Sanctam revertito'. 

14. U. vurtus (L. verto) has the meaning 'take a turn, change', 
which is rare in Latin (verterat fortuna, Liv. 5, 49, 5) ; e.g. 
pune naraklum vurtus 'cum nuntiatio mutaverit'. 

15. U. ostendu (L. ostendo) has more nearly its etymological 
meaning than in Latin. It is used of 'stretching out', that 
is 'offering', fruits of the field or vessels; once of 'putting 
forward', that is 'choosing', an official. 

16. O. urust (L. oro ; see 21) is used in the technical sense of 
'plead, argue'; e.g. com preiuatud actud, - , in pon posmom 

con preiuatud urust 'cum reo agito, , et cum postremum 

cum reo oraverit'. Cf. Festus "orare antiquos dixisse pro 
agere"; Cic. Brut. 12, 47 "oravisse capitis causam" ; Livy 
39, 40, 6 "si causa oranda esset", etc. 

17. U. comohota (L. commotus) means 'brought, offered', in Di 
G-rabouie, tio comohota tribrisine buo, - , tiom subocau 'lup- 

piter Grabovi, te commoto ternione bourn, te invoco'. 

Cf. Cato, De Agric. 144 "lane pater, te hac strue commovenda 
(MSS. also ommovenda) bonas preces precor". 


18. The differences between Oscan-Umbrian and Latin are 
considerable. They are far greater, for example, than those 
between the Greek dialects, especially in the inflectional forms. 
But the resemblances with Latin, as compared with any other 
Indo-European language, are also notable, leaving no doubt 
that we have to do with two closely-related divisions of the 
same branch, sharing in many important characteristics which 
distinguish this among the various branches of the great family. 
This again is most marked in the inflectional system, so that 
we can maintain that the Latin inflectional system as a whole 
is also the Italic. The simplest proof of this lies in the fact 

18 Introduction [18 

that the general classifications which have been found most 
suitable for the treatment of Latin forms apply also to Oscan- 
Umbrian. For such classifications, as, for example, that of the 
verb-forms into the Four Conjugations with scattering Irregular 
Verbs, are not mere arbitrary devices, for which others equally 
good might be substituted, but actually reflect the distribution 
of the linguistic material in a given language. 

A few specific examples of these resemblances are : merging 
of the Instrumental with the Ablative ; extension of the Abla- 
tive in -d from the 0-stems to the other declensions ; partial 
fusion of z-stems and consonant-stems ; use of the Interrogative- 
Indefinite Pronoun as a Relative ; fusion of Aorist and Perfect ; 
formation of the Imperfect Indicative ; formation of the Imper- 
fect Subjunctive. 


19. Oscan is the Gothic of the Italic dialects. In the con- 
servatism and transparency of its vowel-system it is rivaled 
only by Greek of all the Indo-European languages. 

Diphthongs are preserved intact in all positions ; e.g. Dat.- 
Abl. PI. -ais and -ois: L. -is ; LOG. Sg. -ei: L. -I; Gen. Sg. 
of -M-stems in -ous : L. -us ; deicum : L. died ; muinikei : 
L. (com-)mtini8. So also Paelignian and Marrucinian. 

The finer nuances of pronunciation are expressed by a 
highly-developed orthographical system. The qualitative dif- 
ference between the long and short vowels (except the a-vowels), 
which is known to have existed in Latin, is more marked in 
Oscan than elsewhere. For example, the short e is denoted by 
the letter e, but long e has become so close in pronunciation 
as to be denoted by an ^-character (in the Oscan alphabet by i, 
the sign of the relatively open i)\ e.g. estud: L. esto, but ligud, 
ligatuis : L. lex, legdtus. Note also pod, pud : L. quod, but estud, 
estud : L. esto ; also (in the Oscan alphabet) pid : L. quid, but 
Abl. Sg. -id: L.-ld. 

20] Special Characteristics of Umbrian 19 

An original s between vowels, which becomes r in Umbrian 
as in Latin, remains a sibilant (also Paelignian) ; e.g. Gen. PI. 
-azum : L. -drum. Final d after long vowels is preserved, as in 
early Latin, while in Umbrian it is lost even after short vowels (20). 

A specifically Oscan (also Paelignian) process is the devel- 
opment of an anaptyctic vowel between liquids or nasals and 
mutes ; e.g. aragetud 'argento'; perek(ais) 'perticis': U. per cam. 
Among other secondary changes are the doubling of consonants 
before certain sounds, and the change of u after a dental ; e.g. 
kiimbennieis 'conventus', alttram 'alteram', tiurri 'turrim'. 

See also under 20. 


20. Umbrian, as compared with Oscan, is characterized 
mainly by a number of secondary phonetic changes, of which 
the most important are : 

Monophthongization of the original diphthongs in all posi- 
tions ; e.g. Dat.-Abl. PL -es, -ir, -er : O. -ois, L. -is ; ote : O. aut, 
L. aut\ pre: O. prai, L. prae. So also Volscian. 

Rhotacism, as in Latin, where Oscan preserves the sibilant ; 
e.g. Gen. PL -arum : O. -azum. 

Loss of final d ; e.g. -po in suepo 'sive': O. pod, L. quod ; - 
facia 'faciat': O. fakiiad. So also Volscian. 

Loss of I before t ; e.g. muta : O. molta, L. multa. 

Assibilation of k before front vowels, as in late Latin and 
Romance ; e.g. facia : O. fakiiad, L. faciat. So also Volscian. 

Change of gutturals before t to i; e.g. aitu: O. actud, 
L. agito (cf. French fait from L. factum). 

Change of intervocalic d to a sound written rs (f in 
Umbrian alphabet) ; e.g. persi, peri : L. pede. 

Change of ft (in part from pt) to ht ; e.g. screhto 'scriptum': 
O. serif tas, L. scrlptus. 

Assimilation of secondary's; e.g. osatu 'facito': O. upsan- 
nam, L. operor. 

Change of initial I to u ; e.g. vutu : L. lavito. 

20 Introduction [20 

Among other Umbrian peculiarities are : 

Development of original final -ns to -f, for which Oscan has 
-ss; e.g. U. eq/'eas': O. viass'vias'. So also Marmcinian. 

Retention of intervocalic rs ; e.g. tursitu 'terreto'. 

Ending of Abl. Sg. of consonant-stems in -e, as in Latin, 
while Oscan has -od after o-stems ; e.g. natine ' natione' : O. tan- 
ginud 'sententia'. 

Ending of D at.- Abl. PI. of consonant-stems in -us, after 
w-stems, where Oscan has -iss, -is, after i-s terns ; e.g. fratrus 
'fratribus' (as if L. *fratrubus): O. ligis 'legibus'. 

Presence of pronominal forms with sm ; e.g. pusme 'cui', 
eswe^'huic': Skt. kdsmdi, dsmdi, etc. 

Imperative futu, contrasted with O. estud, L. esto (also 
Volsc. estu). 

Perfect in I and nki, contrasted with O. ^-Perfect (13). 

Passive endings both -ter and -tur, Oscan having only 
-ter (13). 

Use of et-&s the usual connective, as in Latin, for which 
Oscan has inim (16, 8). 

Arrangement of the proper name, which is praenomen, 
father's name, gentile, while in Oscan it is the same as in Latin. 


21. The borrowed words consist mainly of Greek words in 
Oscan, introduced from the neighboring Greek colonies. These 
are mostly names or epithets of divinities, such as Appelluneis 
(Dor. 'A7reXXft>*>) ; Evkliii (probably Ew/coXo?, an epithet of 
Hermes in Magna Graecia); Herekleis ( f H/3arXr}?, with syn- 
cope of the a and shortening of the vowel before r + conso- 
nant, whence, with anaptyctic vowel in different positions, 
come both the Oscan and Latin forms ; the Oscan form, in 
contrast to the Latin, is an o-stem, Dat. Sg. Herekliii ; cf. also 
Vest. Hereto)} Piistiai (IJmo9; cf. Zeu? ITta-rto? for luppiter 
Fidius in Dionys. Hal. 4, 58 ; the ii of the Oscan is perhaps due 
to contamination with some such form as Piihiiii); Herukinai 

21] Borrowed Words 21 

Herentatei Herukinai corresponds to the Sicilian 'A(/>/oo- 
j, the worship of whom as Venus Erycina was also 
introduced among the Romans in the second Punic war; cf. 
Livy 22, 9, 10) ; Meeilikiieis (MetXr^to? ; eei is merely the result 
of an attempted correction of ee to ei) ; Arentika[i (Hesych. 

But there are also a few common nouns of the same class 
as those introduced into Latin at the same period, such as the- 
savnim (Orjo-avpos ; the Oscan form is neuter), kiiiniks (%omf), 
passtata (Trao-ra?), tiurri, with L. turris (rvppis); limu'famem' 
is also suspicious, since cognates of Grk. Xtyu-o? are otherwise 
unknown in Italic. 

Latin influence shows itself in some official titles, as 
O. aidil ' aedilis' (the d of L. aedes comes from dh, which would 
be/ in Oscan) ; O. kenzsur (cf . also Kenssurineis) beside the regu- 
lar keenzstur, censtur 'censor' (see 244, l,a) ; probably O. kvaisstur, 
U. kvestur 'quaestor', though there is a possibility that the initial 
was not qu, but ku, and that this gives O.-U. ku, not p (141, a). 

O. urust is best taken as a borrowed legal term (see 17, 16), 
since we should expect *uzust (see 112) as a cognate of L. oro 
according to what is still the most probable derivation of the 
latter, namely from os. 

Some proper names show Latin or half-Oscanized Latin 
forms, as Niumeriis 'Numerius', for which the genuine Oscan 
form would be *Niumsiis (cf. the praenomen Nijumsis). 

0. Mener, if, as is probable, an abbreviation of a form corresponding to 
L. Minervium, shows that the Oscan, like the Etruscan, name of the divinity 
was borrowed, together with the cult, from a dialect in which rhotacism took 
place (*Menes-ua). Though the cult of Minerva may have originated among 
the Faliscans, as many suppose, it probably reached the Oscans through the 
medium of the Komans, but at a time when the Latin form was still Menerva 
(CIL. V 703, 799, VI 523, etc.) Pael. Minerua is likewise borrowed. 

U. vinu 'vinum' (and O. Viinikiis ' Vinicius', if related) must be borrowed 
from t)mum, if the latter is from *ueino-, earlier *uoino- (olvos). For the change 
of uoi to uei is probably Latin only (U. uocu : Grk. FoDcos ?), and even if it were 
Italic, we should expect then U. *venu (65). 

A possible example of borrowing from one of the minor dialects is U. felsva, 
See 149, 6, 





22. The native Oscan. alphabet consists of the following 
twenty-one characters : 

R, a D, v \l, 1 ^, s 

9, b I, z(= ts) kM, m T, t 

>, g B, h H, n V, u 

9, d I, i R, p 8, f 

3, e X, k Q, r ' H(H k), i V, ii 

The last two letters are simply differentiations of the ordi- 
nary characters for i and u, and are not found in the oldest 
inscriptions. 1 They are commonly transcribed by i and ii, but 
sometimes by i and u, the latter also by o. The i is used to 
indicate an open z-sound, representing etymologically a short 
i (44), an e (41), a short e in hiatus (38, i), and occurring regu- 
larly in i-diphthongs (61, 1) and in the combination ii representing 
i (47). The ii denotes an 0-sound, the character o being lacking 
in both Oscan and Umbrian. 

Double consonants are indicated in the writing, except in 
some of the oldest inscriptions. 

The length of vowels is often shown by a doubling of the 
vowel, as in aasas : L. dra ; Fluusai : L. Flora. 

23. The Latin alphabet of the Tabula Bantina is of the 
usual type, z does not denote the sound ts as in the native 
alphabet, but the voiced sibilant (English z in zero}, which in 

1 The occurrence of h on a few Boeotian inscriptions (CIGS. 11888, 1943, 2456), 
representing an open i which comes from original ei or from e before vowels, but in 
the usual Boeotian orthography is not distinguished from t, suggests that it may not 
be an Oscan invention after all, but possibly borrowed at a comparatively late period 
from some type of the Chalcidian alphabet in southern Italy. 


25] Alphabet 23 

the native alphabet is not differentiated from s ; e.g. Gen. PI. 
-azum (-asum). 

Double consonants are only rarely indicated, and the dou- 
bling of vowels to denote length is unknown. 

24. The Greek alphabet, used in a few inscriptions of 
Sicily and southern Italy, is of the Tarentine-Ioiiic type, such 
as appears in the Heracleian tables. This is the normal Ionic 
with the addition of I- = h and L v. Neither 77 nor co is used 
to indicate quantity. 

According to the system of orthography represented in 
no. 62 and some others, rft and o>/r are used to represent the 
diphthongs ei and ow, as in Gen. Sg. -776? = -eis, TCD/TTO = touto ; 
while et and ou represent monophthongs, the former the open 
i-sound, the i of the native alphabet, the latter the w-sound of 
original <J, e.g. peBSeit; = meddiss, ovrraev^ = uupsens. 

But in some inscriptions ei and ou are used for diphthongs, 
and original o then appears as o, e.g. Fepcro/aet 'Versori' (contrast 
the last two syllables with those of A-TrTreXXouz^t, 110. 62), 
Aov/cavofji 'Lucanorum' (cf. Liivkanateis ; for the last syllable 

a. The spelling Atov/rei (cf . Diiivel, luvei) is probably due to the fact that 
the syllabic division was not clear. Cf. U. auuei beside usual aueif 'avis'. 

6. A character S, occurring in Se<rrtes and a^aSa/cer (nos. 65-66), is of 
disputed value, but is probably the equivalent of Oscan 8. Cf. also the coin- 
legend ^EN^EP beside Fensernu. 

c. In Nivfjurdiriis = Niumsieis, the cr5 is probably connected in some way 
with the dialectic use of <rS for the usual f, though in the latter case it repre- 
sented the actual pronunciation. 


25, The native Umbrian alphabet consists of the following 
nineteen characters : 

fl, a *, z(=ts) KM (A), m >(T), t 

9, b 0, h H, n V, u 

S, f I, i 1, p 8, f 

3, e >l, k Q, r d, 9 

1, v ,1,1 *, s 

24 Phonology [25 

There are no signs for d and </, the letters t and k answer- 
ing for both surds and sonants. 

The ^ represents a sound which comes from an original 
intervocalic d and appears in the Latin alphabet as rs. For 
convenience it may be pronounced simply as rs, but probably it 
was a sort of sibilant r, like the Bohemian r, from which comes 
the usual transcription f. It is also transcribed, with more 
regard for its origin than for its pronunciation, as d or tf. 

The d , transcribed c, also sometimes s, represents a sibilant 
derived from k before a front vowel. 

Double consonants are not indicated. Vowel-length is some- 
times shown by an added h, e.g. kumnahkle with suffix -dklo-. 

a. A by-form for m, A , occurring also in Etruscan, is regularly employed 
in Table V. The san, M, occurs twice for s, and the theta, 0, is twice used 
for t. The appearance of p in place of f in kutep, vitlup, turup (I b 3, 4), for 
which there is no likely phonetic explanation, is perhaps to be accounted for by 
the existence of a by-form for f resembling the form of p (cf. Faliscan T). 

26. The Latin alphabet is of the usual type, but with 
no z. The secondary sibilant, the d of the native alphabet, is 
denoted by , which is transcribed s. q is used before the 
vowel w, as often in Latin inscriptions (pequnia) ; e.g. pequo, 
dequrier, peiqu. Double consonants are rarely indicated. Vowel- 
length is shown by an added A, by vowel + h + vowel, rarely by 
doubling of the vowel ; e.g. spahmu, spahamu, eetu. 

NOTE. For the probable origin of the use of an added h to denote vowel- 
length, which is characteristic of Uinbrian of both alphabets, see 75. The use of 
vowel + h + vowel is probably a combination of this with the double-vowel method. 

Relation of the Alphabets 

27. Both the Oscan and Umbrian native alphabets are derived from the 
Greek alphabet of the Chalcidian type, through the medium of the Etruscan. 
That they are not derived directly from the Greek is shown by the absence of 
the letter o, as well as by other evidence. At the same time, the presence of 8 
points to an earlier type than that of the extant Etruscan inscriptions. Dif- 
ferences between Oscan and Umbrian may be attributed to both local and 
chronological variations of Etruscan, as well as to divergent development after 
borrowing. It is extremely probable that the Oscan development was influenced 
in some particulars by the neighboring Greek, 

28] Notes on Orthography 25 

The fact that >, g, is present in Oscan, but not in Umbrian, is sometimes 
explained by the supposition that the Oscan alphabet was borrowed earlier than 
the Umbrian. But at all periods Etruscan possessed both characters, > and )l, 
used as by-forms for the surd. Umbrian took only , possibly because this was 
preferred in the local type from which it was derived. Oscan took over both 
characters and differentiated them again. That in this process the original 
value of the signs in Greek was restored, instead of the opposite (see follow- 
ing), might be accidental, but is very likely due to the influence of Campanian 
Greek usage. 

The apparent transposition of the signs for d and r is accounted for as 
follows. The Etruscans had no sound d, but used Q as a by-form of S = r, in 
fact preferred it, as less likely to be confused with T = p and with this value 
it was adopted by the Oscans and Umbrians. But the old signs for r were also 
taken over and employed for the sound d, ft by the Oscans, S by the Umbrians. 
This early Umbrian use of S as d is seen in some of the minor inscriptions. 
But with the change of intervocalic d the letter was retained for the new sound, 
that which we transcribe f, and thenceforth the unchanged d was expressed by 
the letter t. 

The origin of the sign 8, f, is disputed. Possibly it is a rounded form 
of B, used first in combination with C, and then alone, as vice versa in Latin 
first FB, then F. 

The relation of the alphabets may be seen from the following 1 : 

Chalcidian Greek 

Latin Primitive Etruscan 

Campano-Etruscan Oscan Etruscan Umbrian 

(of Etruria) 

Notes on Orthography 

28. Resume of methods of indicating vowel-length. The 
length of a vowel may be indicated : 

1) by doubling of the vowel sign, in Oscan of the native 
alphabet, rarely in Umbrian of the Latin alphabet. See 22, 26. 

2) by vowel + A, in Umbrian of both alphabets. See 25, 26. 

3) by vowel 4- h 4- vowel, in Umbrian of the Latin alphabet. 
See 26. 

1 From Comvay's Italic Dialects, Part II, which also contains a comparative 
table of the alphabets with the variant forms of the letters. 

26 Phonology [28 

But oftenest there is no designation of the length, and in 
such cases it is not customary to supply marks of quantity, as 
is done in the case of Latin, where metrical usage furnishes 
a criterion lacking in the dialects. For example, we write 
O. aasas, eituas, U. totar, though in this case there is no doubt 
of the vowel-length in the last syllable (Gen. Sg. ending -as). 

In Oscan the designation of length is, with a few excep- 
tions, confined to root-syllables. 

29. Use of ei, ei, in Umbrian. While in Oscan the digraph 
ei, ei, uniformly designates the diphthong ei, its uses in Umbrian, 
where the original ei had become a monophthong, are various. 
Sometimes it designates a secondary diphthong, the i of which 
comes from a guttural, e.g. teitu, deitu < dicito' (143). 

But it is frequently used in the Latin alphabet, and rarely in 
the native, much as in Latin inscriptions of the first century B.C., 
as one of the various spellings of a monophthong. It is notably 
frequent in the first thirty-odd lines of Table VI a. Oftenest it 
stands for original i, e.g. screihtor (L. scriptus); sometimes for the 
close e resulting from oi in final syllables (67, 2), e.g. Dat.-Abl. 
PL uereir, or from original e, e.g. nesimei 'proximo' (adverb in 
-e), heriiei (Perf. Subj. with mood-sign e). There are also a few 
reasonably certain instances of its use for a short i, namely Dat.- 
Abl. PL aueis (*-ifs), Ace. Sg. Fisei (-im), 3d Sg. Pass, hertei 
beside herti, herter (-tir from -ter; see 39, 2). 

Puzzling is the use of ei in neip, neip 'nee' (with neifhabas ; 
see 84), in eikvasese, eikvasatis, of uncertain meaning, and in 
eiscurent 'arcessierint'. For eitipes see 264, 2. 

a. For eikvasatis and eikvasese connection with L. aeqiius is plausible ; and 
for eiscurent the comparison with O.H.G. eiscon (Germ, heischeri), Lith. jeszkoti 
'seek', etc., pointing to a Present *ais-sko (Skt. icchdmi from *is-sko with 
reduced grade of root) is the most probable of all suggestions offered. Yet 
according to the usual orthography we should expect e for the open e coming 
from ai (63). It is conceivable however that we have here isolated survivals of 
archaistic spelling, representing not the earliest period when ei was still pro- 
nounced as a diphthong, but a second period, in which the spelling ei was 
retained for the sound resulting from ei and extended to the same sound resulting 

30] Notes on Orthography 27 

from ai (both ei and ai resulted in an open e see 63, 65). Cf. early Latin 
deico and inceido. 

The ordinary use of ei for z, close e, etc., as described above, cannot be 
the result of any such orthographical development within the Umbrian, since it 
does not appear where the sound was originally ei. It must rather be regarded 
as borrowed from contemporary Latin spelling. 

b. For neip, neip we might also assume archaistic spelling (cf. 0. neip), 
but its almost uniform appearance in this particular word (neip, neip 9 times, 
once nep) would remain to be accounted for. A suggested derivation from *ne 
(from *ne, 0. ni, or *nei, 0. nei) + particle -I + p would explain the spelling, as 
representing a genuine diphthong, but for various reasons seems improbable. 

30. While Oscan orthography, barring the inconsistency in 
the designation of vowel-length and a few other, mostly local, 
variations, is remarkably uniform, Umbrian orthography is as 
diverse as possible. Various spellings of the same_sound are 
used, sometimes wholly promiscuously, sometimes with a marked 
preference for one spelling in certain portions of the tables or 
in certain classes of forms. Among the commonest variations 
are the following : 

1. Variation between e and i. In the great majority of instances this 
occurs where the sound lies between e and i, or, more correctly, between the 
extremes of an open e and a close i ; that is, it is either the open i from original 
short i (45), or the, close e from original e (42) or from oi in final syllables 
(67, 2). The spelling e is relatively more frequent in the native than in the 
Latin alphabet. The use of e for closed I from original I, or, vice versa, of i 
for the open e from original short e, or for open e from original ai or ei, is rare. 
The variation between e and i corresponds then in general to the Oscan use of f . 

2. Variation between ei and e or i. See 29. 

3. Variation between o and u (only in the Latin alphabet, of course, since 
the native alphabet has no o), mostly in the case of original 6 (54), sometimes 
for short o, especially before r (51). 

4. Variation between a and u (in the native alphabet only ; in the Latin 
alphabet always o) for the rounded a (as in English call), coming from final -a (34). 

5. Variation in the designation of vowel-length, e.g. ee, eh, or ehe (in 
native alphabet only eh), or, oftenest, simply e, e, without indication of length. 
See 25, 26, 28. 

6. Variation between p and b in the native alphabet, e.g. habina, hapinaf. 
It is doubtless owing to the double value of t and k, which answer for both 
surds and sonants, that p is also used not infrequently for b. 

7. Variation between single and double consonants. Double consonants 
are not indicated in the native alphabet, and only occasionally in the Latin. 

28 Phonology [so 

8. Presence or absence of h. The weak pronunciation of h in Umbrian 
is responsible for considerable inconsistency in spelling, just as is the case in 
Latin. See 149, a. The use of h as a sign of hiatus is common to both Oscan 
and Umbrian, e.g. O. stahint 'stant', U. ahesnes 'ahenis'. 

9. Presence or absence of n before a consonant (108, 1). 

10. Presence or absence of r before s (115, 116). 

11. Presence or absence-of most final consonants (164, 9). 

31. An important difference between the orthography of 
the native alphabets and that of the Latin alphabet, in both 
Oscan and Umbrian, is the following. The glide sound which 
naturally intervenes between i or u and a following vowel is 
regularly expressed in the native alphabets, but nearly always 
omitted in the Latin alphabet, as in the spelling of Latin. So 
U. triia, but trio (L. trio) ; U. tuves, but duir (L. duo) ; O. eitiuvam, 
but eituam. 

a. ii, I. In Umbrian, of words occurring in both spellings the examples 
are: triia (9), trio (2); heriiei (1), Aeriei, herie (4); Atiiefiur etc. (17), Atiersur 
etc. (5) ; Klaverniie (2), Claverniur (1) ; Vehiies (2), Vehier (4) ; in all, 46 occur- 
rences with no exception to the distribution of the two spellings as stated. In 
Oscan too the spelling ii is employed consistently, as in the oblique cases of 
names in -iis, contrasted with i in the oblique cases of names in -is ; e.g. 
Dekkieis Rahiieis Gen. Sg. of Dekis Rahiis (174). 

Since ii is so evidently the normal spelling in the case of vowel i, there is 
the strongest presumption that, where the spelling in the native alphabets is 
simply i, this must represent something different, namely the consonantal i. 
And this is often corroborated by other evidence, such as doubling of consonants 
in Oscan, occasional omission of the i in Umbrian, etc. (100, 3). 

Yet some exceptions must be admitted. In O. Dekkviarim and U. tekvias 
i cannot possibly represent a consonantal i ; O. Itiviass is not to be separated 
from Iiiviia ; in O. viu, U. via, vea, consonantal i is of course impossible, and 
that the vowel is other than original i (cf. L. via) is improbable ; consonantal i 
is also impossible in U. arvia, and improbable even after v preceded by a vowel, 
as in aviekla etc. It is perhaps for the very reason that there would be no 
ambiguity, that i is so often used in place of ii after v. 

A different case is that of the Oscan i coming from original e before a 
vowel (38, 1). Here too in the earliest inscriptions the spelling is ii, but after 
the introduction of the character i this alone is used ; e.g. iiuk, later ftik 'ea'. 

b. uv, u. In Umbrian the contrasting examples are : tuves etc. (5), 
duir (2); kastruvuf (4), castruo (11); prinuvatur (5), prinuatur (8); vatuva (G), 
uatuo (6); in all 47 occurrences with no exception to the distribution of the two 
spellings as stated. But we find saluuom, saluua, once each beside 24 examples 

32] Vowels 29 

of saluom etc., and fama'tua' once beside 18 examples of tua, tuer (once also 
touer). The omission of v in purtuetu is doubtless accidental, and aruvia beside 
usual arvia is probably an engraver's error. In Oscan, v is used instead of uv in 
sakrvist beside sakruvit, in eitiv. for eftiuv(ad), and probably in minive (no. 31 6). 
So possibly in U. iveka 'iuvencas', though here the omission of u seems much 
stranger, and many assume an actual phonetic change of iuu- to iu-. 


32. 1. a in initial syllables remains unchanged, as in Latin. 
So O. actud : L. ago ; U. ager : L. ager ; O. allo : L. alius ; 

- O. patir, U. patre : L. pater ; O. fakiiad, U. facia : L. facio ; 

- O. castrous, U. castruo : L. castrum ; O. ant : L. ante. 

2. Final a is also unchanged, as in the Umbrian Vocatives 
Tursa, louia, etc. See 169, 5. 

3. Likewise in medial syllables, where in Latin a has been 
weakened to i or e, it is regularly preserved. So O. Anterstatai: 
L. *Interstita (cf. Praestitia) ; - - O. tribarakavum 'aedificare': 
L. (co)-erceo ; - - U. antakres : L. integer ; - - U. procanurent : 
L. (oc)-cinui ; --U. afkani 'cantum': L. *accinium ; U. tuplak 
'furcam' (?) : L. duplex (cf. Grk. SnrXaf). See 85. 

1 The arrangement of the material and the choice of headings is dictated by 
considerations of convenience. Since we are dealing primarily with the relations of 
the sounds of the dialects to one another, rather than with their relations to the 
sounds of the other Indo-European languages, the material is arranged with refer- 
ence to what belongs together from the Italic point of view. Thus, under the heading 
a is considered the history of Italic a, regardless of its various I.E. sources (a, 9, etc.) ; 
en from I.E. n has the same history as original en, and need not be treated separately ; 
similarly with or, ol, from r, I, ou from eu, etc. Only in the treatment of Vowel- 
Gradation is there any necessity of reverting to the I.E. vowel-system. But the 
headings do not always represent the Italic sounds. It is often simpler to take the 
I.E. sounds as the starting-point, as, for example, in the case of the sonant aspirates, 
dh, bh, etc., for which the precise stage of development reached in the Italic period 
is not in all cases certain. Or, again, it may he desirable to discuss in one place 
the history of a sound or group of sounds, which is partly of Indo-European, partly 
of Italic, and partly of still later origin, as, for example, in the case of ns. In 
general, the author has not hesitated to sacrifice consistency to convenience. 

30 Phonology [32 

4. But a weakening in the direction of w, where a labial 
consonant precedes or follows, is seen in a few words. See 86. 


33. a, except when final, remains unchanged, as in Latin. 
So O. fratrum, U. fratrum: L. f rater ; O. Maatreis, U. Matrer : 
L. mater ; O. aasas, U. asam: L. dra ; Abl. Sg. of First Decl., 
O. toutad, U. iota : L. -a ; suffix -dno-, O. Abellanus, U. Treblanir: 
L. Romdnus. 

34. Final a, which in Latin is shortened, preserves its 
quantity, but is changed in quality to a rounded sound like the 
a of English call. In Oscan it went so far in the direction of 
o that it is never denoted by the letter #, but always by u, 0, o, 
or, rarely, by u, u. In Umbrian the sound is written both a 
and u in the native alphabet, but always o in the Latin. Ex- 
amples are the forms of the Nom. Sg. of a-stems, which ended 
in a, as shown by Greek, Sanskrit, etc., and of the Nom.- Ace. 
PL Neuter, in which the , belonging properly to o-stems, was 
extended in the Italic period to other stems. 

OsCAN. viii 'via', fiisnu 'fanum' (Ace. fiisnam), iiu-k, iii-k, 
io-c 'ea', molto 'multa', allo 'alia', touto 'civitas'; -- comono 
'comitia', teremenniu 'termina', petiru-pert,* petiro-pert 'quater' 
(192, 2). 

UMBRIAN. muta, mutu 'multa', panta 'quanta', etantu 'tanta'; 
- veskla, vesklu 'vascula', vatuva, vatuvu, uatuo 'exta'(?), proseseto 
'prosecta', atru, adro 'atra'. See also 235, 236, 2, 237, 300, 9. 

35. In Umbrian this rounding of the d takes place also 
before final -ts (from -to-s or -ti-s by vowel-syncope). So pihaz, 
pihos 'piatus', kunikaz, conegos 'conixus' (in form as if L. *coni- 
gdtus), Casilos 'Casilas' (Dat. Casilate), -vakaz, -uacos 'vacatio, 
intermissio' from *uakdt(i)-s. 

a. A similar variation in spelling, which can hardly be separated from 
the phenomenon just described, is seen in Prestate, Prestote, and Tesenakes, 
Tesenocir. The former word, although L. Praestitia suggests * prae-stfita-, may 
be from a by-form *prae-stata- (cf. L. prae-status beside prae-stitus), and for 

37] Vowels 31 

the latter word a suffix -ako- is in itself more probable than -ako-, the existence 
of which is doubtful. But the explanation is difficult, since elsewhere there is 
no indication of a change of a except under the conditions described above. It 
is possible that in the later Umbrian even the a of medial syllables changed 
slightly in the direction of o, but not enough to affect the usual spelling. Yet 
it is strange that the o is so consistently employed in these two words, and never 
found as a variant in the great majority of words containing a. But to regard 
the o as standing for short a only increases the difficulty. Such a weakening 
of a where there is no contiguous labial consonant (86) is unsupported and 

A somewhat different, but equally difficult, case is subotu if this is the 
same word as subahtu 'deponito' with secondary a (121, 75). 

36. 1. e generally remains unchanged. So O.edum: L. edo; 
O. ezum, est, estud, U. erom: L. esse, etc.; O. destrst 'dex- 
tra est', U. destram-e : L. dexter; --O. mefiai: L. medius-, 
U. ferest, fertu : L. fero ; O. aragetud : L. argentum. 

2. e also remains before I + consonant, or final Z, where in 
Latin it becomes first o, then u. So U. pelmner : L. pulmentum ; 

- (also U. veltu 'deligito', eh-velklu 'sententiam', but in these uel- 
is from uele-: L. volt, vult) ; O. famel : L. famul ; U. sumel : 
L. simul (early inscr. semol). 

3. e also remains generally in medial syllables, where in 
Latin before a single consonant it is weakened to i. So U. tagez, 
tasetur : L. tacitus ; U. maletu : L. molitus ; O. Genetai : 
L. genitus. 

4. But before a labial in medial syllables a weakening 
occurs, resulting, just as in Latin, sometimes in u, sometimes 
in i. See 86. 

37. A change of. e to o is seen in *pompe 'quinque' (O. pum- 
perias, U. pumperias ' *quincuriae', O. pomtis 'quinquiens') from 
*kenke (150), where it seems due to the position between 

a. The combination sue which becomes so in Latin (soror from *swesor, 
etc.) remains unchanged in O. sverrunei (96), but Umbrian shows the same 
change as Latin in sonitu : L. sono, from *suen- (Skt. svan-). 

32 Phonology [38 

i for e 

38. OSCAN. 1. Before another vowel, e becomes an open i 
and is invariably denoted by an i-cliaracter (i in the native 
alphabet, earlier ii; see 31, a). Compare Ital. mio from L. meus, 
cria from L. creat, etc. So iiu-k, iii-k, io-c 'ea', ion-c 'eum', ius-c, 
iussu 'iidem': L. ea etc. (cf. also Mamie, iaf-c 'eas'); fatium 
'fari': L. fateor; putiiad, piitiad 'possit', as if L. *poteat;- 
tummiiad 'torqueatur', as if L. *tormeat ; - - Tianud 'Teano,' 
Loc. Sg. Tiianei ; Tiiatium ' Teatinorum'. 

2. Before r the e had a closer pronunciation than usual, as 
is shown by amiricatud '*immercato', with which may be com- 
pared rustic Latin Mircurios, stircus, etc. ; further by Tirentium 
' Terentiorum' and Virriis 'Verrius'. But the change was so 
slight as to be commonly ignored in the spelling (cf. pert, perek., 
pumperias, etc.). 

3. Tintiriis, if, as probable, from *Tinktrio- and related to 
L. tingud, tinctus (Grk. rt&yyw), is evidence of the same change 
as occurs in Latin before n + guttural. 

4. In nistrus 'propinquos' beside nessimas 'proximae' etc., the i is prob- 
ably only a misspelling. 

5. For 1st beside est 'est', see 217, 2. 

39. UMBRIAN. 1. Before another vowel e had a rela- 
tively close pronunciation, as shown by farsio, fasiu 'farrea', 
tursiandu 'terreantur', and by iepi, iepru, in case these are from 
the stem eo-. But the change did not go so far in the direction 
of i as in Oscan, and the spelling is regularly e, e.g. earn, eaf, 
eo, etc. 

2. From ostensendi for *ostensender (ending -ter, 238, 1) and 
herti (4 times), hertei (once), beside herter, herte, we may assume 
that e before final r had a close pronunciation verging on i. 

3. In cringatro, krikatru 'cinctum' beside krenkatrum, from 
*krengh- (O.Eng. hring, O.Bulg. kragu 'circle'), we have a 
change of e in the direction of i, as in Latin before n + guttural 
(tingud, lingua, etc.). See 38, 3. 

41] Vowels 33 

4. In mr 'his' beside esir, iso, issoc 'ita' beside eso, esoc, isec, isek 
'item', isunt 'item', the i is perhaps due to a partial contamination of the 
stems esso- and i-. But see the following. 

5. The single occurrence of tasis against 21 examples of tases etc., and 
of visti$a against 18 examples of vestica, vestigia, etc., show that in the following 
forms, which occur but once each, we may have, accidentally, the abnormal 
rather than the normal spelling: tiit: L. decet; iseeles 'insectis', with i for 
e(ri)-; vafetum-i se 'in vitiatum sit'(?) with i for postpositive e(ri). But it 
cannot be wholly accidental that in all these cases (cf . also isir etc. , above) the 
vowel is followed by a sibilant. Apparently the i-quality of the sibilant has 
had some effect on the preceding e but so slight that in most words it is never 
shown in the spelling. 

6. In U. vitlu 'vitulum', uitlu, etc. the i is Italic (L. vitulus, also O. Viteliu 
'Italia'), though probably from original e ('yearling'; cf. L. vetus, Skt. vatsd- 
'calf '). Where and how the change came about is unknown. 


40. e had a closer pronunciation in Latin than the short e, 
as we know from its development in the Romance languages 
and from statements of the grammarians. It was the French 6 
of 6te rather than the e of mere. It probably had this rela- 
tively close pronunciation in the Italic period, and in Oscan 
and Umbrian progressed still further in the direction of i. 

41. In Oscan it has gone so far that we may speak of a 
change to f, since it is invariably denoted by an i-character. 
This I was a relatively open i, indicated in the native alphabet 
by i or ii, being thus distinguished from original t, which was 
close. 1 Examples: ligud 'lege', ligatiiis 'legatis': L. lex, legd- 
tus ; fiisnii, fiisnam, fisnam 'fanum': L.festus, feriae (99, 1); 
likitud, licitud 'liceto': L. liceto ; hipid 'habuerit', from *heped 1 
belonging to the same Perfect-type as L. cepl, legl, and with the 
Subjunctive-sign e; fusid 'foret', hjerrins 'caperent' with the 
same mood-sign e as the Latin Imperfect Subjunctive, but with- 
out the shortening seen in L. -et, -ent (78). 

1 This and similar statements as to the distinction in use between i and i refer 
to the normal Oscan orthography. It must be remembered that the I is lacking in 
the oldest inscriptions, and also that after its introduction it was so carelessly 
employed in some inscriptions, mostly those of Capua, that their evidence in this 
regard is to be ignored. 

34 Phonology [41 

a. An e which is the result of contraction in the Italic period has the 
same development as original e. Thus tris : L. tres, from *treies ; hiirtin 
'in horto' from *hortei-en. See 82, 1. 

6. But an e resulting from some later process of vowel-lengthening retains 
the quality of the short e, and is riot written i e.g. keenzstur, censtur, eestint, 
etc. (73, 77). 

42. In Umbrian the spelling i occurs frequently, especially 
in the Latin alphabet, but e is far more common. 

The Imperatives of the Second Conjugation always have i 
in the Latin as against e in the native alphabet, but this dis- 
tinction does not hold for other words. Thus habitu, habetu : 
L. habeto ; tursitu, tusetu: L. terreto ; - - filiu, feliuf 'lactentes' 
from thefe- of !L.fe-mina ; plener, plenasier : L. plenus ; rehte : 
L. recte, earlier *rected. In a few cases the spelling ei occurs ; 
e.g. heriiei 'voluerit' with the Subjunctive-sign e\ nesimei 'pro- 
xime', adverb in e like rehte; sei-(podruhpei) 'seorsum': L. sed-. 

Evidently e in Umbrian had a very close pronunciation, 
but had not gone as far in the direction of I as in Oscan. 

43. i remains an open i. This open quality is shown by its 
designation i in the Oscan alphabet, 1 and for Umbrian by the 
frequent spelling e (30, 1). Final i, unless dropped, remains i 
in Oscan, but becomes e in Umbrian, as in Latin. Thus U. ute, 
ote 'aut': O. auti-,--\J. sakre, sacre, etc. (Nom.-Acc. Sg. N. of 
i-s terns). 

44. OSCAN. Examples: dadikatted 'dedicavit': L. dedico ; 

- meddiss, meddis 'meddix', Gen. Sg. medikeis, Nom. PL meddiss, 
/xeSSetf (for et see 24; compare also eiveifji = inim), a compound 
of dik-i like L. index, iudicis (15, 6); likitud, licitud 'liceto': 
L. liceo\ uincter 4 convincitur' : "L.vincd; tiurri: L. turrim; 

- pis, pis, pid, pitpit : L. quit, quid, etc. ; suffix -iko, e.g. tiiv- 
tiks 'publicus', toutico 'publica'. 

a. When the consonantal i intervening between the vowel i and another 
vowel is expressed in the writing, as is nearly always the case in the native 

1 See footnote, p. 33. 

47] Vowels 35 

alphabet (31), the vowel i is then written i, not i; e.g. fakiiad 'faciat', heriiad 
'capiat', Heleviiefs 'Helvii'. 

6. An i arising from consonantal i by saniprasarana (91, 1) seems to have 
differed in quality from original i, judging from the spelling of piistiris * poste- 
rius' with -is, not -is, from -ios, in consequence of which the anaptyctic vowel 
is also i, not f. Cf. also the proper names like Vibis ' Vibius' etc. (172-174). 
For i in Mais etc., see 176, 3. 

c. Isolated examples of e for i are : menvum 'minuere' on the carelessly 
written Curse of Vibia ; esidum, esidu[m], for the usual isidum 'idem', on two 
inscriptions of Samnium, possibly due to a local contamination with the stem of 
essuf 'ipse'. 

45. UMBKIAN. The spelling is either i or e, oftener the 
former. As is the case also with other sounds which are rep- 
resented by both spellings, the e is more frequent in the native 
alphabet than in the Latin. See 30, l. For the rare ei, see 29. 

Examples: ticel 'dedicatio', tikamne 'dedicatione': L. dicd- 
tio etc.; dersicust 'dixerit' from *de-dic-ust : O. dicust (44, 95) ; 
-uirseto 'visum' from *uideto-: L. video:, steplatu, stiplatu, 
stiplo : L. stipulor ; sestu, seste : L. sisto ; tefa, dirsa, dersa 
'det' (from Redupl. Pres. *dido): O. didest 'dabit'; - - pif-e, 
pirs-i, pers-i, etc. : L. quid, O. pid ; suffix -iko-, e.g. Pupfike 
'Publico' (?), fratreks, fratrex '*fratricus'. 

a. The Accusative Singular of i-stems nearly always appears as -e(m), 
-e(m), e.g. uvem, uve, ocrem, ocre, etc. (178, 4), indicating that before final m 
an i was more than ordinarily open. Contrast the -i(m), -i(m), -ei, of jo-stems, 
in which the i comes from consonantal i by saniprasarana (91, 1). Cf. 44, 6. 

46. I had a closer pronunciation in Latin than the short i, 
as is proved by the Romance development ; e.g. Ital. chi, scritto 
from L. qm, scrlptus, contrasted with che, lece from L. quid, 
licet. The same qualitative difference existed in Oscan-Umbrian, 
as is shown by the fact that original I is indicated in Oscan by 
i, not i, and that in Umbrian the spelling e, so common for short 
i, is rare. 

47. OSCAN. The spelling is i, not i, but where doubling 
is employed as a mark of length we find ii, not ii like aa, etc. 

36 Phonology [47 

This spelling ii may possibly indicate a nuance of pronunciation 
something like le, but more probably it is purely a matter of 
orthography, ii being avoided on account of its other uses. 

Examples: liimitu[m] 'limitum': L. limes; imad-en 4 ab 
imo': L. Imus ; serif tas 'scriptae': L. scriptus ; Abl. Sg. 
slaagid contrasted with Ace. Sg. slagim ; suffix -mo-, e.g. deivi- 
nais 'divinis', Bantins 'Bantinus', Ma/ie/ort^o 'Mamertina'. 

48. UMBRIAN. The spelling in the native alphabet is i, ih, 
rarely e; in the Latin it is i, ihi, ei (very frequent in the first 
thirty-odd lines of VI a), rarely e. 

Examples : persnimu, persnihmu, persnimu, persnihimu 4 pre- 
cator', Imperative of the Fourth Conjugation ; scre'hto, screih- 
tor : L. scrlptus ;--peica, peico, peiqu (10 times in Via 1-17): 
L. pica, plcus ; pehatu, pihatu, 'pi&to', pihaner, pehaner, peihaner 
'piandi': L. pio from *pw, O. Piihiiii ' Pio' ; suffix -mo-, e.g. 
Ikuvins 'Iguvinus', louinam, loueine (ei once only in over 100 

49. o remains for the most part unchanged, and appears in 
the Latin alphabet as o, in the native Oscaii alphabet as ii. 
But in the native Umbrian, and also in the earliest type of the 
Oscan, the V did duty for both o and u. All forms from these 
sources must therefore be ignored in distinguishing the sounds 
of o and u. 

Examples: O. up, op, U. ostendu 'ostendito' from ops-: 
L. 05, obs; O. piist, post, U. post : L. post; O. pud, pod, 
U. puf-e, pors-e: L. quod; O. upsannam 'faciendam', U. osatu 
'facito': Ij.operor; O. hiirz: L.hortus; U.poplom: L. populus. 

The o is also preserved before I + consonant and before n -h 
guttural, where in Latin, except in early inscriptions, it appears 
as u. Thus O. molto 'multa', miiltasikad 'multatica', U. motar: 
L. multa, early molta, moltdticod ; - - O. ultiumam 'ultimam': 
L. ultimus from *oltimo-; O. ionc 'eum', with which compare 
L. hunc, early hone. 

51] Vowels 37 

u for o 

50. In Oscan, before final m the o became w, or at least 
was changed so far in the direction of u as to be commonly 
written u. Thus the Present Infinitive (ending -ow, 241), with 
the possible exception of tribarakavum (n not certain) on the 
Cippus Abellanus, shows -urn, -um; e.g. acum, deicum, ezum, 
censaum, deikum, fatium. The enclitic particle -om (201, 5) always 
appears as -um; e.g. jMm-tm'cuiuspiam',pidum 'quidquam' (C. A.), 
isidum 4 idem'. The Ace. Sing, of 0-stems, however, though 
sometimes showing -um, as in dolum, trutum, Nuvellum, etc., 
usually appears as -om (more frequent than -um on the Tabula 
Bantina) or -um (always on the Cippus Abellanus). It is alto- 
gether probable that this spelling of the Ace. forms is a sort of 
pedantic orthography, due to the o of other case-forms (-oi,ui-,etc.), 
while the spelling of the other forms, which were not subject to 
such influence, represents more faithfully the actual pronunciation. 

NOTE. In Umbrian not only does o remain unchanged before final m, 
but even u becomes o (57). 

51. In Umbrian before r + consonant, or even before r 
alone, we find so many examples of the spelling u, although o 
also occurs, as to make it evident that the vowel was consider- 
ably modified in this position. Thus curnaco, curnase (5 times) : 
L. cornlx; prefix pur- in purditom 'porrectum' etc. (10 times, 
never por-): L. por-\ tursitu 'terreto' etc. (4 times) from *tor- 
seo (97); courtust 'reverterit' for *couurtust beside couortus: 
early L. vorsus, advortit, etc. (97); furo 'forum': L. forum (it 
is unnecessary, though possible, to assume that furo contains 
the reduced grade dhur-, like Grk. 6vpd, as compared with dhuor- 
in L. forum) ; tursiandu 'fugentur' with -du for -tur from -tor ; 
uru 'illo' beside orer <illius'(?). 

a. Possible examples of u for o before rs from d (131) are du-pursus, petur- 
pursus (but see 94) ; also atripursatu ' tripodato', the explanation of which depends 
on the view taken of L. tripudium etc. beside early tripodo (late weakening of 
o to w, or contamination with a derivative of a root pud- related to pavio?). 

b. An isolated instance of u elsewhere is sunitu beside sonitu : L. sono. 

38 Phonology [52 

52. The relation of o to o is parallel to that of e to e. We 
know that in Latin the o had a closer pronunciation than the 0, 
and the same is true of Oscan and Umbrian. But the develop- 
ment of o in the direction of u has gone further in Oscan than 
in Umbrian. 

53. In Oscan, o becomes u, and is regularly denoted by u, 
uu, u, not by u, o (except duniim 'donum', no. 53, which is doubt- 
less due to an error). Examples: Fluusai 'Florae': L.flos, Flora ; 
djuunated 'donavit' : L. dono ; pru 'pro' : L. pro ; uupsens, 
upsens, ouTrcrez'? 'fecerunt', Perf. with lengthened vowel to *opsd- 
seen in upsannam (49); suffix -tor- in Regaturei 'Rectori', kvais- 
stur 'quaestor', censor 'censor', kenzsur, censtur 'censores'; - 
suffix 4on- in tribarakkiuf 'aedificatio', liittiuf 'usus'; Impera- 
tive ending -tod in likitud, licitud, estud, actud, factud. 

The only exceptions to this orthography are case-forms in o 
such as Abl. Sg. -od, Nom. PL -as, Gen. PL -dm, 1 which on the 
Cippus Abellanus and other specimens of the standard Oscan 
orthography appear as -lid, -us, -um. But we also find -ud, -us, 
-um, and in the Latin alphabet always -ud, -us, -um. So that the 
spelling u is probably another piece of pedantry in the standard 
spelling, due to the u of other case-forms (see also 50). Exam- 
ples : Abl. Sg. tanginud, amnud, sakarakhid, Buvianiid, etc., but also 
tanginud, aragetud, tribud, tristaamentud, amnud, dolud, amiricatud, 
etc. ; Nom. PL Abellanus, Nuvlaniis, etc., but also ius-c ; Gen. PL 
Abellaniim, Niivlanum, fratrum, etc., but also nesimum (once zicolom), 
nerum, egmazum, MapepTLvovfj, (ov as in oi/Trcrew ; for Aovtcavofji 
see 24). 

a. The Pompeian inscriptions have Abl. Sg. in -ud, not -tid. Hence, in 
no. 3, Nom. PI. iussu is more probable than fiissu, though from the stone it is 
impossible to tell whether u or u was intended. 

54. In Umbrian both u and o are found, but not promiscu- 
ously. The spelling of individual words is uniform, likewise 

1 Here and in 54 it is assumed that -dm had not been shortened to -om. See 78, 4. 

54] Vowels 39 

that of most formations. It is not clear whether we have to do 
with an actual difference in pronunciation, or with an artificial 
regulation of what was once a promiscuous use of both spellings 
for the same sound. 

The spelling u is universal in the Imperative endings -tod, 
-mod, e.g. fertu, deitu, etc. (some 300 occurrences); likewise, 
with one or two exceptions (171, 6, a), in the Abl. Sg. ending -od, 
e.g. poplu, pihaclu, etc. (over 100 occurrences); in the suffix 
-tor-, e.g. arsferture. The Nom. PI. M. of 0-stems, ending -os, 
has -ur (on the forms in or see 171, 13), e.g. Atiersiur, tasetur-, 
note especially the contracted form dur 'duo' from *dm~tr, *duos. 
The Ace. PL M. of o-stems, with secondary o (74 ; but see also 
74, note) usually shows -u, e.g. torn, rofu, but sometimes -o, e.g. 
ueiro (171, 11, a). Cf. also du-pursus 'bipedibus', petur-pursus 
'quadrupedibus', probably containing pod- (94) ; bue 4 bove', 
Ace. PL buf (cf . Dor. /3wv, /3w?) ; the pronominal adverbs pue 
6 ubi' (202, 7), podruhpei 'utroque' (190, 2), panupei 'quandoque' 
(202, 12). 

The spelling o is found in the Gen. PL ending -dm, 1 with a 
single exception (pracatarum) ; in the suffix -on-, as Acersoniem, 
homonus, etc. ; in the pronominal adverbs ulo 'illuc,' imo 4 retro,' 
eso(c) 'ita', etc. (190, 2); in the root-syllables of several words, 
as name 'nomen' (nearly 100 occurrences): L. nomen; pone 
'posca': L. po-sca, po-tus, etc. 

NOTE. Observing that the occurrences of u are in final syllables, or 
syllables which were final before the addition of enclitics (podruh-pei etc.), or 
before r (arsferture etc.), we may surmise that in these positions the o actually 
had a closer pronunciation than elsewhere (for the position before r compare u 
for short o, 51). Further, the predominance of o even in final syllables before 
m might be attributed to the same influence of m which is seen in the change 
of original u to o (57). So much is reasonable, perhaps even probable. But 
to make further distinctions in final syllables for example, to account for the o 
in eso etc. as compared with the u of the Ablatives on the ground that these 
adverbs are Instrumentals, and so ended in -o, not -od is to lay more stress 
on the spelling than Umbrian orthography will warrant, not to speak of the 
additional complication caused by podruh-pei etc. It is not unreasonable to 

1 See footnote, p. 38. 

40 Phonology [54 

suppose that even in final syllables the sound was one which might be denoted 
by o, and that in the almost complete uniformity of spelling in the Ablatives 
there is something artificial, which would not necessarily affect the spelling of 
the adverbs, whether themselves of Ablative or Instrumental origin. 


55. Original u remains in general unchanged. Examples : 
O. supruis 'superis', U. super, super-ne, subra: L. superus, super, 
supra ; O. purasiai 'in igniaria', U. pure-to 'ab igne': Grk. 
Trupero?, Trf/ao?, etc.; O. puf, puz 1 , U. pufe, puse: L. ubi, uti\ 
U. rufru, Rufrer: L. ruber. 

Oscan iu for u 

56. In Oscan, after the dentals t, d, n, and once after s, 
is found the spelling iu. Thus Diumpais 'Lumpis': L. lumpa 
from *dumpd; tiurri : L. turrim ; eitiuvam 'pecuniam' : eituam 
in Latin alphabet ;-- liltiumam 'ultimam' with secondary u 
(86, 1); Niumsieis, Ntu/>tcr8i7;t9 'Numerii'; - - Siuttiis ^Suttius'. 
This spelling is not found in the Latin alphabet, and to judge 
from eituam, eituas, was not used. Just what modification of 
the sound this iu was intended to represent it is impossible to 
say. But the theory that it was iu like our English pronun- 
ciation of u in cube etc. meets with the least objection. 

Umbrian o for u 

57. In Umbrian, o appears regularly for u before m. Thus 
somo: L. summus; Ace. Sg. of it-stems, e.g. trifo 'tribum'; 
Supine in -turn, e.g. aseriato 'observatum'. Before p also, the 
spelling, though usually u (superne, dupla), is sometimes o, as in 
sopa, sopam, sopo, beside supo : L. suplnus. Here too the sound 
must have been open, but not so markedly as before m. Another 
example of o for u, the cause of which is not clear, is sorser 
'suilli', sorsom, sorsalem, etc., probably from *su-do-, *su-d-<tli- 
(cf. L. pecu-d-, pecu-d-ali-) : L. su- in su-bus etc. 

1 Oncepons, but the oil is probably a mere slip of the on^ravcr, whose eye was 
caught by the ou of the following word on the copy, touto. 

60] Diphthongs 41 

a. A change of initial iu to i is generally assumed on account of U. iveka 
'iuvencas'. But possibly this is only a matter of spelling, as in O. eitiv for 
eltiuv(ad) etc. See 31, b. 


58. u generally remains unchanged, as in Latin. Exam- 
ples : O. Fuutrei 'Genetrici' from bhu- (cf. Grk. <0/>ta, Skt. bhuti-, 
etc.); O. fruktatiuf fructus': L. frux, fructus; U. mugatu 
4 muttito': L. mugio. Note also the secondary u in U. strul^la, 
strusla 'struem, *struiculam' from *struuikeld-. 

i for u 

59. It is probable that a change of u to I (through the 
intermediate stage of a u pronounced like French w, German u) 
is to be recognized for monosyllables in Umbrian and perhaps 
for final syllables in both Oscan and Umbrian. Examples : 
U. pir 'ignis': Grk. TTU/O; U. sim 'suem' from *su-m (Grk. v-v), 
Ace. PL sif from *su-f; -- "U.frif Bruges' from *frug-f: fix; 

-Abl. Sg. of w-stems, e.g. U. trefi 4 tribu', afputrati 'arbitratu', 
mani'manu', O. castrid 'capite'(?) (Gen. Sg. castrous). 

NOTE. The author has elsewhere (Osk. Voc., p. Ill ff.) shown the 
possibility of explaining U. pir etc. without the assumption that they come 
from forms containing u. But it must be admitted that the direct comparison 
with forms in u (especially pir : TrO/a) is far simpler. The Ablatives might be 
explained as examples of heteroclism, but if the change is admitted at all, it 
may be assumed for these also. At best, however, the precise conditions under 
which the change took place cannot be formulated with certainty without more 


60. In the following sections are considered together not 
only the original diphthongs ai, oi, etc., but also those which, 
with shortening of the first element, come from I.E. di, <n, etc., 
as in the Dat. Sg. of a- and J-stems (Grk. -at, -77*, -wi). For 
there is no evidence of the preservation of a long diphthong as 
such even in Oscan, and the monophthongization in Umbrian 
presupposes an intermediate stage of short diphthongs. 

4:2 Phonology [60 

But under certain conditions the long diphthongs, instead 
of shortening the first element, lost the second element, and in 
this case their further history became identical with that of the 
original long vowels. Thus the Dat. Sg. ending of o-steins, -oi 
(Grk. -cot), became on the one hand -oi, represented by the Oscan- 
Umbrian forms and by early Latin (Praenestine) Numasioi, on 
the other hand -o, represented by the usual Latin form. 

a. It is uncertain whether the Dat.-Abl. PI. ending of o-stems, -ois (like- 
wise Grk. -ots), represents the old Instrumental ending -ois (Skt. -fa's) or the 
Locative ending -ois(i) (Grk. -oun) or both. After the analogy of -ois was 
formed the -ais of a-stems. 

61. Diphthongs are always preserved unchanged in Oscan, 
while in Umbrian they have become monophthongs, even such 
as are retained in Latin. 

1. In the Oscan alphabet the ^-diphthongs appear as ai, ei, 
ui, the i, as usual, denoting the open quality of the second ele- 
ment (cf. ae, oe, in Latin). 

2. The w-diphthongs appear in the Oscan alphabet as av 
(rarely au), ev, uv, that is with the sign U, not V . But there is 
no reason to believe that this represents a. pronunciation like 
that of modern Greek au, eu, in which the second element is a 
spirant (English v or /). The sign we transcribe v denoted 
simply the consonantal u (English w) and might with perfect 
propriety be used for the second element of a diphthong. Com- 
pare the occasional appearance in Greek inscriptions of a/r, o/r, 
for the usual au, ou ; e.g. Na/rTraKTtW, 

a. In the Oscan inscriptions of the Greek alphabet we find likewise A/rSetey, 
, but also ravpofji, Av<TK\i, and beside the last the curious spelling AW-I/<TK\I, 
that is AvhvffK\i (cf. also Ahvdiu on a fragment). 

3. But the history of z-diphthongs followed by consonantal 
i is exceptional, as it is also in Latin, and is not included in the 
following treatment of the several diphthongs. In Oscan the 
second element is written i, not i (compare fakiiad, 44, a), and 
in Umbrian the diphthong does not become a monophthong. 
Thus O. Piimpaiians "Ponipcianus", Pumpaiianeis, Pumpaiiana, etc., 

62] Diphtliongs 43 

U. pernaiaf, pustnaiaf (pusnaes for *pusnaies, like pernaies), pefaia, 
persaia, persaea (for pefaem, pefae, persae, see 173, 1), with suffix 
-aiio- (253, 1) ; O. Maiiui 'Maio' (147, 3) ; O. vereiiai, vereias (once 
verehias?), U. Teteiesf?), with -eiio- (253, 2); O. Kerriiai, Kerriiuis, 
etc., with -eiio- (253, 3); O. puiiu, puiieh : L. quoins, Grk. vroto?, 
from *quoi-io- (199, b). The pronunciation is most exactly 
represented by the spelling with two i's, which is usual in 
Oscan and frequent in Latin inscriptions and early manuscripts 
(Maiia preferred by Cicero to Maia, eiius, quoiius, etc.). But a 
single z, representing a sound belonging equally to both sylla- 
bles, was also sufficient, and this spelling is regular in Umbrian, 
occasional in Oscan (Buvaianud, Tantrnnaium, vereias ; Maraies 
beside Maraiieis, 176, 4), and usual in Latin. 

a. With O. ai, ei, lii, not ai etc. , compare L. mai(i)us, quoi(i)us, not*mae(i)us, 
*quoe(i)us, and with the preservation of U. diphthongs in this position compare 
L. ei(i)us contrasted with died from deicd, and quoi(i)us, hoi(i)us, contrasted with 
unus from oinos (the change to cui(i)us, hui(i)us, is much later than that in unus 
and of an entirely different character). L. Pompeianus beside O. Pumpaiians 
shows that -aiio- became -eiio and so was merged with original -eiio. That is, the 
diphthong ai became ei, as regularly in medial syllables (cf. *in-caidd, inceido), 
and this ei instead of passing on to I (incldo) retained its diphthongal value 
before the i (as in ei(i)us). At least it remained ei in Pompeii, Pompeianus. 
But for many proper names which sometimes show -ems, as Pobleiios, Publeius, 
Clodeius, etc., and which seem to belong here, the normal Latin form has -ius, 
as Publius, Clodius, etc. Cf. also Harms beside Faliscan Hareio, 0. Haraies. 
One might assume that these names simply yielded to the analogy of the com- 
moner type of proper names in -ius. But in view of L. Bovidnum beside 
O. Buvaianud, 1 it is worth while to consider the possibility that in medial sylla- 
bles, even before i, the ei became i, which was then shortened to i; and that 
it was retained, as in Pompeianus, only under certain (accentual?) conditions no 
longer understood. 


62. OSCAN. Examples : kvaisstur, Kpaia\rop (borrowed ? 
See 21) : L. quaestor ; aidil borrowed from L. aedllis ; ajittium 
'portionum', aeteis 'partis': Grk. alcra (*aiT-ia); prai, praesen- 
tid 'praesente': L. prae; svai, suae 'si'; -- Dat.-Loc. Sg. of 

1 That this word, which occurs in an inscription found on the site of Boviamun, 
has nothing to do with the name of the toAvn, as some assume, is incredible. 

44 Phonology [62 

-stems (60), e.g. Fluusai "Florae', ejisai viai mefiai 'in ea via 
media', Bansae 'Bantiae'(Loc.) ; Dat.-Abl. PI. of -stems (60, a), 
e.g. Diumpais 'Lumpis', kerssnais 'cenis', exais-c-en 'in his'. 

a. The ai of the last example, as contrasted with usual ae in the Latin 
alphabet, is due to the following s. For mats see 91, 1, for maimas 114, b. 

63. UMBRIAN. ai became an open e. Its open quality is 
attested by the fact that the spelling e, so frequent in the case 
of original e, or oi in final syllables, never occurs (cf. also 
82, 2, a). Examples: kvestur: O. kvaisstur; pre, pre, prehabia, 
etc. : L. prae ; sve, sve : O. svai, suae ; Dat.-Loc. Sg. of 
rt-stems, e.g. ase 'arae', tute, tote 'civitati', Turse 'Torrae'; Dat.- 
Abl. PL of a-stems, e.g. tekuries, dequrier 'decuriis'; semenies, 
sehmenier 'sementivis.' 

a. For the possible appearance of ei as an archaistic spelling representing 
an intermediate stage in the development of ai, see 29, a. 


64. OSCAN. Examples : deikum, deicum 4 dicere', deicans 
'dicant': L. died, early deico-, Deivai 'Divae', deivinais 'divinis': 
L. dlvus, early deivus; feihiiss 'muros': Grk. ret^o?;- 
preiuatud Teo' ': L. prlvdtus; - - ehpeilatas 'erectae, set up 1 : 
L. pila ; Gen. Sg. of i-stems, I.E. -eis (Skt. -es) transferred to 
consonant- and 0-stems, e.g. Maatreis 'Matris', carneis 'partis', 
eiseis, eizeis 'eius', Korret^t? 'Cottii', 2raTTt?;t? 'Statii' (for rji see 
24); Loc. Sg. of o-stems like Grk. ot/cei, Lat. -i, e.g. muinikei 
terei'in communi territorio', comenei i iu comitio'; Dat. Sg. of i- 
and consonant-stems, e.g. Diiivei, Atou/ret 'lovi', kvaisturei 'quaes- 
tori', A]7nre\\ovvr]i, 'Apollini', etc. 

a. The form ceus ' civis' : L. clvis, early ceivis, if not merely a misspelling, 
indicates a special development of ei before w, such as is seen in L. sen beside 
slue, early seive. 

b. In some Campanian inscriptions, mixed with Etruscan, we find e for ei, 
e.g. Gen. Sg. Luvcies 'Lucii'; cf. also Gen. Sg. ptiiieh ' quoius' (no. 39). 

65. In Umbrian the ei appears regularly as e, e, the spel- 
ling i being of the utmost rarity. This indicates an open c, 

67] Diphthongs 45 

like that from ai (63), as contrasted with the close e from origi- 
nal e, or oi in final syllables, for which the spelling i is so 
common. Contrast the spelling of the Gen. Sg. ending, from 
-eis (64), which is regularly -es, -er, and only once -ir, with that 
of the Dat.-Abl. PL from -ois, which in the Latin alphabet is 
nearly always -ir (or -eir). See also 82, 2, a. 

Examples: prever 'singulis': L. pnvus, O. preivatud; etu, 
eetu, from *ei-tod : L. io ; pronominal stem ero-, e.g. erer 'eius', 
erar, etc. (once, amid countless examples of e, irer) : O. eiseis, 
eizeis, eizois, etc.; Gen. Sg. of z-stems etc. (see 64), e.g. Matrer 
'Matris', katles 'catuli', popler 'populi'; --Dat. Sg. of i- and 
consonant-stems (64), e.g. luve 'lovi', karne 'carni', nomne 
4 nomini'. 

a. For the uses of the spelling ei, ei, in Umbrian see 29 with a. 


66. In Oscan, oi remains, both in initial syllables, where 
in Latin it becomes ii, and in final syllables, where in Latin it 
becomesi. Examples: miiiniku 'communis': L. corn-munis, early 
comoinem (Goth, ga-mains etc.); liittiuf 'usus': L. ntor, early 
oetor; Dat. Sg. of o-s terns (60), e.g. hiirtui 'horto', Abellaniii 
'Abellano'; Dat.-Abl. PI. of o-stems (60, a), e.g. feihuis 'muris', 
eizois 'eis', nesimois 'proximis'. Cf. also Pael. coisatens (67, 1), 
oisa 'usa', Dat.-Abl. PL puclois, etc. 

a. Since in all the examples in the Latin alphabet the oi is followed by a 
sibilant, in which case we also find ai, not ae (62, a), it is likely that the ordi- 
nary spelling was oe. 

67. UMBRIAN. 1. In initial syllables oi becomes o. The 
most obvious examples are in the native alphabet, where u 
might denote either u or <?, namely: unu 'unum': L. units, early 
oinos, oenus; kuraia 'curet': L. euro, early coir aver e, coeravit, 
Pael. coisatens 'curaverunt'; muneklu 'sportulam': L. munus, 
related to corn-munis etc. (66; cf. also Lith. mamas 'exchange'). 
But in the Latin alphabet there are several more or less certain 
examples, on the basis of which we assume that the sound was 

46 Phonology [67 

o, namely: pom 'qua': O. poizad (thought by some to contain oi, 
but see 199, d) ; Nom. Sg. poei, poe, poi, which probably con- 
tains *po, from *poi (O. pui), with the enclitic -i; nosue 'nisi', 
which is most naturally explained as containing *noi, a by-form 
of nei (cf. O. nei suae 'nisi') ; uocu-cum, vuku-kum 'ad aedem' (?), 
perhaps: Grk. /rot^o?, oZ/co? (sometimes used of a temple or 
special shrine), L. vlcus. 

2. In final syllables oi became a close e, written e, 0, i, t, ei. 
Examples: Dat. Sg. of o-stems (60), e.g. Tefre, Tefri, Tefrei 
'Tefro', pople 'populo';--Dat.-Abl. PL of 0-stems (60, a), e.g. 
pre veres Treplanes ' ante portam Trebulanam', uerir Treblanir, 
uereir Treblaneir. 

For the contrast with the open e f rom ai or ei, see 63, 65; 
also 82, 2, a. 


68. OSCAN. Examples : avt, aut 'at, aut', auti 'aut': L. aut; 
Avdiis, A/rSete? 'Audius'; - - Aukil 'Aucilus'; - - ravpo/ji 'tau- 
rum': L. taurus; thesavriim, from Grk. Or^aavpo^ (21). 

69. In Umbrian, au becomes o. Examples: ute, oie'aut': 
L. aut (see 68); turuf, forw'tauros' (see 68); uhtur, official 
title : L. auctor ; frosetom 'fraudatum' : L. fraudo. 


70. Original eu became ou in the Italic period, so that its 
further history belongs with that of ou, given below. There 
are no examples of secondary eu resulting from contraction, as 
in L. neu etc. But it occurs in O. Evkliii borrowed from the 
Greek (21). 


71. OSCAN. Examples: touto, rwpro 'ci vitas', tuvtiks 
'publicus', etc.: Goth, piuda 'people' etc. (15, 2) ; - - Luvkanateis 
'*Lucanatis', Aovtcavo/j, 'Lucanorum', Liivkis 'Lucius': L. lux 
etc., Grk. Xeu/co?; Gen. Sg. of M-stems (L. -v/s, Goth, -aus, etc.), 

74] Lengthening of Vowels 47 

castrous 'capitis'; loufir'vel* (96); luvkei 'in luco': L. lucus 
(early loucom); Luvfreis ' Liberi' (Pael. loufir 'liber'): L. liber 
(with dissimilation of ou to oi, ei, between I and labial ; cf . lubet, 
libet), Grk. e\ev6epos. 

72. In Umbrian, ou becomes o. Examples : tuta, totam 
'civitatem': O. touto etc. (71); rofu 'rufos' (96); Gen. Sg. 
of u-s terns (71), trifor 'tribus'. 

a. If Vuv^is is 'Lucius' (O. Ltivkis etc.), as seems probable (104), it is an 
example of the. archaistic spelling often found in proper names, in this case 
handed down from a period prior to the monophthongization of ou. The normal 
spelling is seen in Vuiia-per, if 'pro Lucia'. 

Lengthening of Vowels 

73. In Latin, vowels are regularly lengthened before ns, 
nf, net, nx, and so also in Oscan-Umbrian, at least before ns, 
and, with accompanying loss of n, before net. Thus O. keenzstur 
(nz = nts from ns; 110, 1) 'censor': L. censor; O. saahtum 
'sanctum', U. sahta, sahatam: L. sdnetus ; - - U . sihitu ' cinctos', 
ansihitu : L. cinctus. 

a. For lengthening before w/, U. aanfehtaf 'infectas, non coctas'(?) is 
more doubtful evidence, since, with one a at the end of a line, the other at the 
beginning of the next, simple dittography is not unlikely. 

74. In Latin, final ns loses its n with accompanying length- 
ening of the preceding vowel, as in the Ace. PL endings -Js, -is, 
etc. from -ons, -ins, etc. The Umbrian change of -ns to/ (110, 2) 
seems to have been accompanied by lengthening of the preceding 
vowel, since the 0-stem forms are usually written with u (for 
o; 54), e.g. torn, rofu, and the z'-stem forms sometimes with ei 
(for i ; 48), e.g. aueif, treif. 

NOTE. If, as some suppose, the endings were originally -ons, -ms, etc., 
and if, further, the shortening of vowels before n + consonant had not yet 
taken place, the long vowels in the forms cited might be regarded as original 
rather than secondary. This would have the advantage of enabling us to 
explain the -/ from -ef in the Ace. PI. of consonant-stems as due to regular 
syncope instead of to analogical influence. See 178, 10. Nevertheless, in view 
of the uncertainty of the two premises, especially the second, the above state- 
ment has been preferred provisionally. 

48 Phonology [75 

75. In Umbrian the h resulting from k before t (142) or/ 
before t (121) was weakly sounded or wholly lost, as is obvious 
from its frequent omission in the writing, and its time seems to 
have been added to that of the preceding vowel. For only on 
the supposition that the pronunciation was substantially that of 
a simple long vowel can we understand such a spelling as 
sahatam beside sahta (where, however, the vowel was already 
long before the reduction of h ; see 73), or the extension of the 
spelling h to cases where it had no etymological value but was 
only a mark of vowel-length. For example, by assuming that 
in apehtre 'ab extra' (cf. O. ehtrad) the eh was pronounced e, we 
understand how the same characters could be used as a sign of 
length in ampr-ehtu 'anibito' beside eetu. 

76. There are certain examples of lengthening, which, 
although not all on precisely the same plane, have this in com- 
mon that the vowel is or had been followed by rs. 

1. U. meersta 'iusta'. In Umbrian the r of rs was weakly sounded, as is 
shown by its frequent omission in the writing. And this is true not only of 
original rs (e.g. /asio, fasiu ' farrea' beside farsio ; sesna ' cenam' beside $ersna- 
tur), but also of the rs which in the Latin alphabet represents original d (e.g. 
Acesoniam beside Acersoniem : Akefunie). In meersta the rs belongs to the 
latter class, for it is a derivative of mers, mefs (15, (i) ; moreover, in all 
examples of the word the r happens to be written. But the spelling with ee, 
though occurring only once, may fairly be taken as an indication that in general 
the reduction of r was accompanied by a lengthening, perhaps but slight, of the 
preceding vowel. 

2. O. peessl[iim beside pestlum ' templum' from *perstlo-: U. .persklum 
'sacrificium', persclo, pescler. In Oscan there is no such general reduction of r 
in rs as in Umbrian (cf. kersnu 'cena' always written with r), but apparently it 
was differently treated in the group rstl. That the lengthening is confined to 
peessl[tim and connected with the loss of t (139, 2), is unlikely. 

3. U. frateer ' f ratres' from *frater(e)s points to lengthening before final 
rs, the s then disappearing. 

NOTE. The early Latin use of ter, from *ters, as a long syllable 
is not parallel, since the form was not ter with vowel-lengthening, 
but terr, like hocc, miless, etc. The same is true of far, from /ars, 
which occurs as a long syllable in Ovid and is cited by Priscian 
(Keil II, 313) among words ending in fir. 

4. 0. teer[um 'territorium', related to L. terra from *tersa. This form 
is commonly, and perhaps correctly, derived from *terso-, it being assumed 

78] Shortening of Vowels 49 

from this that original rs between vowels in Oscan became r with lengthening 
of the preceding vowel (115, 1). But as this is the only example for such a 
development of rs, it is well to point out another possible explanation, which is 
as follows : There once existed a simple neuter s-stem *ters- with Nom.-Acc. Sg. 
*ters which became O.-U. *ter according to 3. The oblique cases were affected 
by the analogy of the Nom.-Acc., e.g. Gen. Sg. *terseis being replaced by 
*tereis (tereis), just as U. Gen. Sg. *farser was replaced by farer under the 
influence of far. The word then went over completely to the commonest 
neuter type, that of the o-stems, giving Nom.-Acc. Herom. 

77. 1. The e of O. eestint 'exstant', eehiianasum 'emitten- 
darum', U. eheturstahamu 'exterminate', etc., like L. e- beside 
ex-, must be due to secondary lengthening, but the conditions 
under which this took place cannot be the same as in Latin, 
and are not yet clear. 

NOTE. The e in Latin is readily explained as due to the lengthening which 
regularly accompanies the loss of s (in this case from ks) before m, n, Z, etc. 
But this cannot hold for Oscan-Umbrian, where s remains in these positions (114). 
The Umbrian e might be explained as coming from ek- before t according to 
75, but there seems to have been no such reduction of h in Oscan, since in all 
other forms it is uniformly written. 

2. The a of O. aamanaffed 'locavit', U. ahauendu 'avertito', 
etc., like L. d beside ab, abs, is likewise due to a secondary length- 
ening, the conditions of which for Oscan-Umbrian are not clear. 

NOTE. It is possible here to assume a distinct prefix, original a-, 
but the difficulty in the derivation from abs is no greater than that 
involved in the e of O. eestint, where original e, even if there were 
evidence for any such prefix, is out of the question (41). 

3. The o of U. ooserclom, if this is '*observaculum,' offers the same diffi- 
culty. But meaning and etymology of the word are uncertain. The explana- 
tion as '*aviservaculum' (6 from au(i)- ; 69) is also possible. 

Shortening of Vowels 

78. Vowel-shortening such as is seen in Latin before final 
r, Z, , m, or when the vowel is itself final, is not observable in 
Oscan or Umbrian. Positive evidence for the preservation of 
the long vowel is furnished as follows : 

1. For final , by the forms in -u, -u, -o (34), since final 
short a remains (32, 2). 

50 Phonology [78 

2. Before -r, by O. patir 1 : L. pater (Grk. Trarrfp), since the 
i points to e (41); O. keenzstur, censtur : L. censor (Grk. -cop), 
since the u, u points to o (53) ; similarly by the Passive forms 
O. loufir (Pres. Indie, of Second Conj. ; 238, 2), sakrafir (Perf. 
Subj. with mood-sign e; 234). 

3. Before -t, by O. kasit 1 : L. caret (17, 1), with i for e of 
the Present Stem; cf. also (before -d) O. fusid: lu.foret, with i 
for e of the Subjunctive. 

4. Before w, by O. paam, L. quam. 

NOTE. As this form is a monosyllable, it would still be possible 
to assume shortening in polysyllables. But the analogy of the cases 
in 2 and 3 is against this, and moreover the forms of the Gen. PL are 
more easily understood as retaining -dm than as having -om. The 
Oscan forms might indeed be taken as -om according to 50, but in 
Umbrian even the single occurrence of -um in pracatarum is of weight 
in favor of -om, since -om never appears as -um. 

a. It is probable that the shortening of a long vowel before n + consonant, 
whether final or not, as in L. amant from *ama-nt, Partic. amant- from *ama-nt-, 
took place in the Italic period, but the evidence in Oscan-Umbrian is very 
meagre. See 215, 2, on 0. stahlnt ; 217, 4, on 0. amfret ; also 74, note. For the 
similar shortening before r + consonant, cf. 0. Herekleis, L. Hercules, from Grk. 
'KpaK\r)s (21). 

The long vowel before the secondary ending -ns (e.g. Imperf. Subj. 
O. hjerrins 'caperent'), which has replaced original -nt, may well be due to the 
analogy of the other forms (0. fusld etc.). Or, if the explanation given in 
128, 1, is correct, the change of nt through nd to n may have antedated the 
shortening process. 

Anaptyxis in Oscan 

79. Anaptyxis, or the development of a secondary vowel 
between a liquid or nasal and another consonant either preceding 
or following, is a wide-spread phenomenon in Oscan, though 
unknown in Umbrian. It is necessary to divide the examples 
into two classes according as the liquid or nasal precedes or 
follows the other consonant. If it precedes, the quality of the 
new vowel is that of the vowel preceding, while if it follows, 
the new vowel has the quality of the following vowel. In 

1 We should expect patir, kasit, but the inscriptions containing these words 
are careless in the use of i and i. 

80] Anaptyxis 51 

other words, the newly developed vowel has the quality of the 
vowel of the syllable in which the liquid or nasal stands. 

a. In the case of mn it is n which is parallel to the nasal in other groups, 
e.g. comenei from *komnei (81). In fact there is no example of an anaptyctic 
vowel developed through ra. 

b. For the secondary vowel-development in connection with samprasa- 
rana see 91. 

80. The liquid or nasal precedes. This type of anaptyxis 
is one of the marked characteristics of the Oscan (and Paelig- 
nian). The regularity with which it appears makes it well nigh 
certain that the newly developed vowel was not a mere glide, 
as in vulgar Latin dulicia for dulcia, etc., but formed a full 
syllable. An interesting parallel is seen in Russian, e.g. golova 
'head' from *golva, bereg 'bank' from *bergu. 

1. LIQUID. The vowel develops between a liquid and a 
guttural (including h) or a labial (including u) ; but not between 
a liquid and a dental. Examples : aragetud 'argento'; Herekleis 
'Herculis'; - - Mayue/je/ae? 'Mamercius'; - - tribarakavum 'aedifi- 
care' from *treb-ark-: L. arx ; amiricatud '*immercato' (38, 2) ; 
Mulukiis 'Mulcius'; Verehasiiii 'Versori' from verh-i L. ver- 
go(?) ; kulupu 'culpa'(?) ; -- Urufiis 'Orfius'; Alafaternum 'Alfa- 
ternorum'; - - turumiiad 'torqueatur' : L. tormen; - - teremniss 
'terminibus'; Salaviis 'Salvius' (salavs, o-aXa/r? 'salvus' owes its 
form to the oblique cases, for *saluos would give *salus in the 
O.-U. period;. see 91, 1); Kalaviis 'Calvius' (Calavius on Latin 
inscriptions is simply the Oscan form); Heleviieis 'Helvii' ; 
serevkid 'auspicio' from *seru(i}kio- ; uruvii 'flexa'(?) : urvum(?). 
Cf. also Pael. Herec., Alafis, Helevis, Salauatur. 

As examples of the lack of anaptyxis before dentals may 
be mentioned Ma/ue/mz'o 'Mamertina', molto 'multa', alttrei 
'alteri', carneis 'partis', kerssnais ' cenis', Fepcropei 'Versori.' 

2. NASAL. The vowel develops between n and /, and in 
some cases between n and a guttural. Examples : 

Anafriss 'Tmbribus'(?) ; aamanaffed 'locavit', from *manf(e)- 
fed (223); avafa/cer (for/ see 24, 6) 'dedicavit' from *anfciked\ 

52 Phonology [80 

Anagtiai 'Angitiae' from * Ang (e)tid--, Liganakdikei, name of 
a goddess, from *legdn(i}ko-dik- (or from *legndko-, and so 
belonging in 81?). Cf. also Pael. Anaceta ' Angitiae' beside 
Anceta, Anacta. 

NOTE. Usually there is no anaptyxis between n and a guttural, e.g. 
tangintid. The conditions under which it took place are not clear. 

81. The liquid or nasal follows. This sort of anaptyxis, 
the same that is seen in Latin poculum, pidculum, etc., is of a 
less determinate character than the preceding. It is subject to 
local variation : at least in the inscriptions of Capua there is 
no indication of it in the spelling. Elsewhere it occurs regu- 
larly after short syllables, but is not entirely confined to this 
position, the more precise conditions not being clear. 1 Exam- 
ples : paterei 'patri' (contrast maatreis 'matris'); puterei-pid 4 in 
utroque', Nom. PL puturus-pid, etc., from *potro- (88, 4); petiro- 
pert 4 quater' for *petirio-pert (100, 3, c), from *petrid-pert (192, 2); 
- Sadiriis 4 Satrius'; pustiris 'posterius' from *postrios (88,4), 

1 Thurneysen, who first assumed that anaptyxis occurred only after short 
syllables (K.Z. 27, 181 ff.), has since modified his view to the extent of admitting 
anaptyxis even after a long syllable in the case of r followed by consonantal i or i 
in hiatus (I.F. Anz. 4, 38). This would cover pustiris, Aadiriis, etc. In this he 
is followed by Brugmann, who however treats the development in these cases as a 
distinct phenomenon (Grd. I 2 , p. 825). But still further restrictions are necessary. 
As regards zicolom 'diem', Ace. PI. d]iikulus, we agree with Thurneysen against 
v. Planta that the suffix, though originally -kelo-, has passed through the stage -klo-, 
and that the vowel of the penult is as truly anaptyctic as any other. But we can 
see no plausibility in his view that the first syllable of this word, and also of Diiviiai, 
is to be taken as dii- from dio-. Such a change is without even the remotest analogy 
in Oscan phonetics. And what of the preservation of (d)io not only in iuklei and luviia, 
with which Thurneysen equates zicolom and Diiviiai, but also in Diuvei, Aiou/rci, 
luveis, etc.? Does he mean to assume a local change confined to Bantia, Samnium, 
and the land of the Frentani ? But Diuvei is also Samnitic. There is no real diffi- 
culty in assuming that anaptyxis in the case of kl took place without regard to the 
quantity of the preceding syllable. Its absence in sakarakhim may well be due to 
the preceding anaptyxis (cf. Herekleis). 

The .author is convinced that the quantity of the preceding syllable is not the 
only factor to be considered, but that others, such as relative rapidity of utterance, 
local variations aside from that of Capua, inconsistency in the spelling of what was 
perhaps not a full vowel, etc., are to be reckoned with. In Latin, where the material 
is so much more plentiful, it is admitted that the factors are t >o complicated to allow 
any precise formulation of the conditions of anaptyxis. 

82] Contraction and Hiatus 53 

but Capuan pustrei 'in postero'; Aadiriis 'Atrius' (whence by 
extension Aadirans) ; Vestirikiiiii 'Vestricio'; sakaraklum 'sacel- 
lum' from *sakrd-klo-, sakarater 'sacratur', aaicopo 'sacrum', but 
Capuan sakrim, sakrafir, etc. ;-- tefunim 'burnt-offering' from 
*tefro- : U. tefra 'carnes quae cremantur' ; Pukalatiii '*Puclato', 
but Capuan puklum ' filiurn' ; zicolom 'diem', Abl. Sg. ziculud, 
Loc. Sg. zicel[ei], Dat.-Abl. PL zicolois, Ace. PL djiikiilus, from 
*die-klo- 1 : L. diecula ; Patanai 'Pandae' from *Pat-nd--, akenei 
'in anno'(?), Gen. PL acunum (probable reading): U. acnu ; 
comono 'comitia', Loc. Sg. comenei, from *komno- (15, 4): 
U. kumne; O. Safinim 'Samnium', from *Safniom: L. Samnium. 
Cf. also Pael. sacaracirix, pristafalacirix, as if L. *-sacrdtrlx, 

a. In kujmparakineis 'consilii', comparascuster 'consul ta erit', it is uncer- 
tain which a is anaptyctic ; but if the second, and so falling under 80, 1, it 
would be the only example before s. Against the assumption that the first a is 
anaptyctic, the preceding long syllable is not decisive. See footnote, p. 52. 

Contraction and Hiatus 

82. Like vowels are contracted. 

1. The loss of intervocalic^' in the Italic period was attended 
by contraction of like vowels. Thus the ending of the Nom. PL 
of i-stems, originally -eies (Skt. -ay as), became -es, and the e had 
the same history as original e. So O. tris : L. tres ; U. pacrer 
'propitii', from stem pakri-. Another example of the same 
contraction is O. hurtin 'in horto' from *hortei-en (Loc. Sg. with 
postpositive en; 171, 7). 

2. In Umbrian the close e resulting from oi in final sylla- 
bles (67, 2) was so near in quality to e, that in the Dat. Sg. and 

Dat.-Abl. PL of stems in -iio- and -io- it contracted with the 


preceding i (and i). Contracted and uncontracted forms are 
found side by side, but the latter are due to the influence of 
the other case-forms. Thus Dat. Sg. luve, loui, beside luvie, 
louie, Dat.-Abl. PL Atiersir beside Atiersier, etc. Compare 

1 See footnote, p. 52. 

54 Phonology [82 

Latin Nom. PI. fill beside fllil, Dat.-Abl. PI. auspicls beside 
auspicils, etc., the contracted forms being very frequent in 
inscriptions. Contraction of u with the sound resulting from o 
is seen in U. dur 'duo' from *duos (54). 

a. There are no such contracted forms in the case of the open e from 
original e (Voc. Sg. arsie), or the open e from ei (Loc. Sg. Fisie, Gen. Sg. Fisier) 
or from ai (Dat.-Abl. PI. of First Decl. dequrier). 

83. Unlike vowels remain uncontracted, and sometimes h 
is used as a mark of the hiatus. Thus we find uncontracted: 
do, in Infinitives of the First Conjugation, O. moltaum, tribara- 

kaviim (v is simply the glide sound preceding the rounded 

vowel ; cf. occasional Grk. apvrdp for avrdp, etc.). 
do, in U. stahu 'sto' from * staid, U. subocau, subocauu 'invoco' 

from -did (uu uu with glide as in tribarakavum ; less probably 

doubling to indicate length, since this is very rare in final 

ae, in U. ahesnes 'ahenis' from* a(i)esno (Skt. dyas) ; U. staheren 

'stabunt' from *sta(i)esent. 
de, in Present Subjunctive of First Conjugation, O. deiuaid, 

sakahiter, from -die-. 


eo, ed, in O. ioc, ionc, iak, U. earn, etc.: L. ea, eum, etc., from 

*eio-, eid-. For O. i, see 38, 1. 

/> " 

oe, in U. Puemune : Sabine Poimunien, L. Pomona, pomum from 

*po-emo- (cf. comd from *co-emo). 1 
ol, in U. pue 'ubi' from *po (L. quo) + T; U. poei 'qui' from 

*po (earlier *poi) -f i. 
al, in O. stahint 'stant', U. stahitu 'stato'. But the retention of 

the hiatus here is probably due to analogy, partly of other 

forms of this verb, partly of the corresponding endings in 

forms of other verbs. 

a. Between i and a following vowel there is no hiatus, but a glide j, 
which is indicated in the spelling of the native alphabets (31). The consistent 
use of h in U. pihatu 'piato', pehatu, pihaner, etc. and O. Piihiui'Pio' (also 
Volsc. pihom 'pium') is remarkable, and without adequate explanation. 

i Osthoff, I.F. 5, 317 ff. 

86] Weakening of Vowels 55 

84. Of the various phenomena which take place when 
vowels of two different words are brought together in the 
sentence, namely "crasis," "aphaeresis," "slurring," etc., we 
have but little evidence. 

With L. bonast for bona est etc. are obviously parallel 
O. teremnatust 'terminata est' and destrst (for *destrust) 'dextra est'. 
A more anomalous case is U. neifhabas 4 ne adhibeant', if for 
nei(-a)rhabas. With animadverto from animum adverto, with slur- 
ring, is parallel U.eitipes ' decreverunt' from *eitom *hipens (264, 2). 

a. For 0. pusstist (C. A. 33) the meaning 'positum est' is so much more 
suitable to the context than that of 'post est' that we cannot reject the possi- 
bility that the form comes from *piistum 1st, in spite of the fact that the regu- 
larity with which final m is written in Oscan, except at Pompeii, would naturally 
point to its full pronunciation. That it is not the vowel of the enclitic that is 
absorbed, as in teremnatust, would be accounted for by the fact that the 1st of 
the Cippus Abellanus is est (217, 2). 

Vowel- Weakening in Medial Syllables 

85. The wide-spread weakening of short vowels and diph- 
thongs which occurs iri Latin in medial syllables, such sylla- 
bles being in the earlier system of accentuation unstressed, is 
unknown in Oscan-Umbrian. Examples of unchanged a and e, 
such as U. pro-canurent : L. (oc}-cinul, or U. tacez : L. tacitus, 
have been cited in 32, 3, 36, 3. 

86. But in the position before a labial, or in some cases 
after a labial, a weakening takes place, which results sometimes 
in w, sometimes in i. In the corresponding Latin phenomenon 
the determining factor in the development to u or i respectively 
was the character of the vowels of the surrounding syllables 
(cf. occupo, nuncupo, but anticipo, occipio, etc., from cap-), but 
so many secondary changes have taken place, owing to the 
mutual influence of forms belonging to the same system or for- 
mation, that the original distribution is only partially reflected 
in the actual forms. Much the same is true for Oscan-Umbrian. 

1. The superlatives, formed from the suffix -(t)emo- (I.E. 
-(t)mmo-), show the influence of the preceding vowel. Thus 

56 Phonology [86 

with L. optumus, maxumus, proxumus, ultumus (eventually 
optimus etc., under the influence of the commoner type) may 
be compared O. ultiumam 'ultimam' (iu from u\ see 56) and 
U. hondomu 'infimo' (o from u before m; see 57); while wi^h 
the Latin forms in -imus may be compared O. nessimas 'proxi- 
mae', nesimois, U. nesimei, and O. messimass 'medioximas'(?). 
But note U. nuvime 'nonum' from *nouemo- (Skt. navamd-). 

2. In O. pertumum 'perimere' from *pert-emom the follow- 
ing vowel seems to have been a factor, though in pertemust, 
peremust, as well as in pertemest, the e is retained, apparently 
under the influence of the simplex ("recomposition"). 

3. In O. sifei 'sibi' (cf. Pael. sefei, U. tefe), as in L. sibi, the 
weakening is due to the enclitic use of the pronoun, to which 
points also O. tfei. In L. simul, early semol, semul, from *semel 
the weakening in the first syllable is likewise due to enclitic use, 
and to this probably corresponds U. sumel ' simul', although it is 
possible to see in the latter an original som- (Grk. oy 

NOTE. The single occurrence of O. tfei is not sufficient warrant for 
assuming actual syncope of the e, but on the other hand, taken in connection 
with slfei, it cannot be regarded as a mere graver's error without any foun- 
dation in the actual pronunciation. It is doubtless a careless spelling, but one 
that is due to the reduced pronunciation of the vowel. 

4. U. prehubia 'praehibeat' beside prehabia may owe its u to 
the existence of such forms as *prehubust (cf. habus), just as the 
u of early Latin derupio is probably due to a *derupu7. 

Although there are no examples of i for original a, it is 
altogether probable that, as in Latin, the a had the same double 
development as the e, as seen in the superlatives cited above ; 
in this case we must regard prehabia as an example of recom- 
position for *prehibia. 

5. O. praefucus 'praefectus' beside facus 4 factus', where the 
labial precedes, is different from any case known in Latin, but 
here too the vowel of the following syllable is obviously a 
factor. A still different, though uncertain, example is O. pru- 
pukid 'ex ante pacto', which is most naturally derived from 

88] Syncope 57 

*pro-pakio-, although it is possible that this is a case of vowel- 
gradation (u = o in interchange with #, <7). 

6. A change of o to u is seen in O. amprufd 'improbe'. 

7. In Latin we find a similar interchange of u and i, where the original 
vowel is either u or i. A parallel to L. dissipo beside the more original dissupo, 
or lacrima beside lacruma, would be U. combifiatu 'nuntiato', if this were related 
to Grk. TTvd- (n-wffdj'o/ etc.); but this is uncertain, since connection with Grk. 
TTi0- (irelQu etc.) is also possible. Vice versa, with L. pontufex beside pontifex 
we may compare U. atropusatu beside atripursatu 'tripodato', if the former 
spelling is not simply a mistake. 

8. A change of ou to w, such as is seen in L. denuo from *de novo, has been 
assumed for Oscan-Umbrian, but on insufficient evidence. 

Syncope in Medial Syllables 1 

87. Syncope of short vowels in medial syllables, as in 
L. caldus beside calidus, rettull from *retetuli, etc., is far more 
extensive in Oscan and Umbrian than in Latin, yet there are 
numerous examples of the retention of short vowels. We must 
confine ourselves to a statement of the facts. 

NOTE. Even in Latin the factors involved are so complex and have been 
so obscured by subsequent leveling that it is impossible to formulate the precise 
conditions, though much progress has been made in this direction. For Oscan- 
Umbrian, with the limited amount of material before us, it is almost useless to 
speculate upon the original conditions of the syncope. 

88. Syncope of e. 1. In the Imperatives of the Third 
Conjugation the original e, which in Latin is changed to i 
(agito), is always lost, except after n. Thus O. actud, U. aitu 
(ai from ok, 143): L. agito ; U. kuvertu: L. convertito ; simi- 
larly U. ostendu, fiktu, ninctu, etc. ; but U. kanetu : L. canito. 

2. In the Participles in -eto- the e is retained, e.g. U. tasetur 
'taciti', maletu ' molitum', etc. (244, 4). 

3. Further examples are : O. pniffed 'posuit' from *pro-fefed, 
aamanaffed 'locavit' from *man-fefed: L. pro-didit, etc.; O. upsed 
'fecit', upsannam 'faciendam', U. osatu 'facito', from *opesa-: 
L. operor; O. cebnust 'venerit': U. benust; O. Dekmanniuis 

1 For a few examples of haplology (L. fieinestris from *se(mi)-mestri8), see 
201, <;, 236, 2, , 237, a, 251, 5. 

58 Phonology [88 

'*Decumaniis': L. decumdnus, decimus from *dekemo-; O. fruk- 
tatiuf 'fructus' from *frug'ttetdtidn-, as if L.*fruitdtio ; U. mersto 
'iustum' from *medes-to : L. modes-tus. 

4. Syncope is usual in the suffixes -kelo-, -elo-, -tero-, -ero-, 
-men-. In some few cases the short form may be an inherited 
variety of the suffix, such as -tro- beside -tero-, -lo- beside -elo-, 
etc. But for the majority of the examples tliis is improbable, 
and for some distinctly impossible, e.g. in U. tiglu on account of 
the 9 (144), in U. katlu because original tl becomes kl (129, 2), etc. 
Examples: U. ticlu 'dedicationem' from *dikelo- (in Norn. Sg. 
tigel the o of the final syllable is lost and the e remains) ;- 
U. veskla 'vascula' from *ves-kelo- ; - - *die-klo- (whence O. zicolom 
'diem' etc., 81) from * die -kelo- -,-- U . katlu 'catulum' from 
*katelo- (Norn. Sg. katel like tigel) ;--U. vitlu 'vitulum' from 
*uitelo- (cf. O. Viteliu 'Italia', 250); O. pustrei, U. postra, 
*postrios (whence O. pustiris, 81, 91, 1): L. posterns, posterius; 
*potro- (U. podruhpei 'utroque', O. puterei-pid by 81): Grk. 
Trorepo? ; O. alttram : L. altero- ; O. teremniss : L. terminibus 
(but O. teremenniu : L. *terminia) ; --U. nomner: L. nominis. 1 

89. 1. Loss of i is seen in O. minstreis 'minoris': L. minis- 
ter ; O. Pupdiis 'Popidius' beside Piipidiis ; U. totcor, todceir : 
O. tiivtiks, toutico (15, 2). The loss is common to Latin also in 
dexter, O. destrst, U. destram, etc.: Grk. Sef/re/oo?, and in the 
prefix of L. amb-igo, am-plector, O. am-viannud, U. an-ferener, 
etc. : Grk. a^i. 

2. Loss of a is seen in O. eestint 'exstant' from *eks-stahint 
(cf. stahint 'stant') ; O. embratur : L. imperdtor, from *em-pardtor 
(paro)-, O. pruftu 'posita' from *pro-fato- (244, 1). 

3. Loss of o is seen in O. akkatus 'advocati' from *ad-uokdto- 
through *adokdto- (cf. 102, 3 ; otherwise we should expect 
*adukatus by 91, 1); perhaps in O. meddiss (263, 1, with foot- 
note) and O. Vezkei (256, 8). 

1 In O. teremnfss, U. nomner, tikamne, etc., it is possible to assume the retention 
of the reduced grade -ran- instead of syncope. But the probability is that these have 
the same grade as the Latin forms. That the latter owe their -rain- to anaptyxis 
(Sommer, Lat. Laut- und Formenlehre, 154) we are not convinced. 

90] Syncope 59 

Syncope in Final Syllables 

90. In final syllables also, syncope is far more wide-spread 
than in Latin. 

1. A short 0, e, or i is dropped before final s. Examples : 
Nom. Sg. of o-stems, e.g. O. hurz'hortus' from *hortos, Bantins 
'Bantinus', Pumpaiians 'Pompeianus', tiivtiks 'publicus', Mutil 
'Mutilus', U. Ikuvins 'Iguvinus', fratreks '*fratricus', pihaz, pihos 
'piatus' from *piatos, U. ticel 'dedicatio' from *dikelos ; Nom.- 
Acc. Sg. N. of s-stems, e.g. O. min[s 'minus' from *minos, U. mefs 
'his' from *medos ; Dat.-Abl. PI. (ending -fos : L. -bus), e.g. 
O. luisarifs 'lusoriis', teremniss 'terminibus', ligis 'legibus', U. avis 
'avibus',/mrws 'fratribus'; Nom. Sg. of i-stems, e.g. O. ceus 
'civis', aidil'aedilis', U. fons 'favens' (suffix -ni-\ cf. Nom. PL 
foner) ; Nom. PL of consonant-stems (ending -es : Grk. -e?), 
e.g. O. humuns 'homines', meddiss 'meddices', censtur 'censores', 
U. frater 'fratres'. (See also 2.) 

a. Before final m vowels are retained, e.g. Ace. Sg. 0. hiirtiim, touticom, 
slagim, U. poplom, etc. 

b. That u was not dropped even before final s is in itself probable. Cf . its 
universal retention in Latin, and likewise in Gothic (dags from *dagas, ansts 
from *anstis, but sunus). So 0. sipws'sciens', which in its relation to L. sapid 
evidently contains the form of the root which characterizes Perfects like L. cepi 
to copio, etc. (225), may be a stereotyped Perfect Active Participle with Nom. 
Sg. in -ws, like Skt. vidus, Avest. vldus. But it is also possible that it comes 
from *sep-wos, like O. facus from *fak-uos (91, 1) ; cf. Volsc. sepu 'sciente' from 

2. Syncope of e before final s and also before a final dental 
is seen in the 2d Sg. and 3d Sg. Fut. and Fut. Perf. as in 
U. heries 'voles', heriest 'volet', from *herieses, *herieset. See 
221, 230. 

But e remains in the 3d Sg. Perf. Indie. (O. kiimbened 'con- 
venit', etc. ; 223 ff.); also in the 3d Sg. Pres. Indie, of the Third 
Conjugation, though the only examples are from the minor 
dialects (Marruc. feret 'fert', Vest, didet 'dat'). U. seste also, 
though variously taken, is probably 'sistis', with e retained, 
perhaps under the influence of a *sistet. In U.pis-her 'quilibet', 

60 Phonology [90 

probably from *-herit (216), the syncope is due to the enclitic 
use of the verb. 

NOTE. Assuming that under conditions no longer apparent both synco- 
pated and unsyncopated forms existed in the Present and Perfect, the survival 
of the latter may be due to the fact that many of the syncopated forms would 
have lost their distinctive character, e.g. *kumben(e)d would have become 
*kumben. The Put. and Put. Perf. forms retained or seemed to retain the 
characteristic endings -s, -t. 


91. In those cases of syncope in which the consonant pre- 
ceding the syncopated vowel itself assumes the function of a 
vowel, so that there is no reduction in the number of syllables, 
the phenomenon is known as samprasarana. Such cases are 
best kept apart from the preceding, not only on account of the 
additional process involved, but because, when samprasarana is 
possible, syncope may take place in positions where it does not 
otherwise occur. Thus, in general, syncope does not occur 
before final m (O. hiirtum, etc. 90, 1, a), but this need not 
prevent our assuming that -iom becomes -im. 

1. uo to u\ io to i. Examples: O. facus 'factus' from 
*fak-uos (suffix -no--, 258, 1); O. fortis 'potius': L. fortius;- 
O. pustiris from *postrios (81): L. posterius-, so probably mais 
'plus' from *maiios (*magios; see 147, 3): L. mains, like Mais 
' Maius' beside Dat. Sg. Maiiiii ; Nom. and Ace. Sg. M. and 
Nom.-Acc. Sg. N. of jo-stems, e.g. O. Pakis'Pacius', Ace. Pakim, 
medicim 'magisterium', U. Fisim ' Fisium', etc. (see 172 ff.). 

2. ro and ri to r (syllabic r), later er. Examples : U. ager : 
L. ager, from *agros\ U. pacer 'propitius' from *pakris (cf. 
L. deer from *dkris) ; U. -per 4 pro', as in tota-per 'pro populo', 
etc., from -pro; O. Aderl. 'Atella' from *Atro-ld (cf. L. agellus 
from *agro-los) ; O. Abella- (Abellaniis) probably from *Apro-ld- 
(L. aper). Observe also O. trstus 'testes' from *tristo- 1 : L. testis 
from *tristi- (but O. tristaamentud : L. testdmentum) ; O. Tantrn- 
naium from *Tantrinnaio-(?). See also 239 on O. -ter. 

i That is, ' third party '. Sec Skiitsdi, B.B. 2:5,100, Sohnson, K.Z. 37, IS. 

92] Syncope 61 

a. The parallel change of no (cf. L. Sabellus from *Safno-lo-) is seen in 
U. Padellar from *Padenla, *Padnla, *Patno-la (cf. O. Patanai). For the 
corresponding development of lo there are no certain examples, since U. ti9el, 
katel, perhaps also 0. /ameZ, contain the suffix -do- (88, 4). O. Fiml, Mill 
probably stand for *Fimel, *Mitel (*Mitel : L. Mitulus = O. famel : L. famulus). 

b. U. ocar, ukar'mons', although its oblique cases are from the stem 
okri-, is not from *okris, but from a by-form with suffix -an-, or an-. 

NOTE. The chronology of this process, is a difficult problem. 
The agreement between Latin and Oscan-Umbrian would lead us to 
infer that it took place in the Italic period. But 0. Aderl. and 
Abella-, with the change of surd to sonant which is observed else- 
where before r (157), would indicate that in the Oscan-Umbrian 
period the development had not passed beyond the stage r, and now 
comes the Latin form s]akros = sacer on the newly discovered forum- 
inscription, which, unless an analogical restoration, proves that the 
whole process took place independently in Latin. 

The reduction of ri in accented syllables (L. ter from *tris, 
etc. 1 ) was doubtless later than the change in unaccented syllables, 
and this is borne out by the existence in Oscan of tristaamentud. 
But here too the development seems to have begun in Oscan, judging 
from trstus. 

Loss of Final Short Vowels 

92. As in Latin, final short vowels are sometimes dropped, 
sometimes retained. It may be assumed that in the Italic 
period sentence-doublets arose, of which the dialects inherited 
now the form with the vowel, now the one without it. 

The primary personal endings -ti, -nti (Grk. -rt, -vn) are 
without the final vowel in Oscan-Umbrian, as in Latin, e.g. 
O.-U. est'est', O. stahint 'stant', etc. Further examples are: 
U. et : L. et, from *eti (Grk. en) ; O. nep, neip, U. neip : 
L. nee beside neque ; O. avt, em'at, aut', but also O. auti 
'aut', U. ate : L. aut ; O. ant : L. ante ; O. puf, but U. pufe : 
L. ubi ; O. pan, but U. pane : L. quamde ; O. pun, but 
U. ponne : L. *quomde. 

1 The contrast between ter, testis, and tribus, not to speak of triplex, etc., shows 
'that in Latin the change was conditioned by the nature of the following sound. It 
took place before s (cf. change of final -ros, -ris), and possibly before n, though cernd 
is not decisive. 

62 Phonology [93 


93. In many cases the difference in the vowel of related 
words is not due to any of the regular vowel-changes of a 
particular dialect, such as have been described in the preceding 
sections, but is inherited from a system of Vowel-Gradation, or 
Ablaut, already existing in the parent speech. It is unnecessary 
here to enter into any discussion of the subject as a whole, but 
will be sufficient to mention such of these inherited variations 
as show themselves in the relation of Oscan-Umbrian forms to 
one another or to the cognate Latin forms. 

94. e, 0, etc. The interchange of e and o (L. tego : toga) 
is seen in L. gemo : U. gomia 'gravidas' ; U. mefs 'ius', O. meddiss, 
etc. (15,6): L. modus, 1 modestus; U. nurpener '-pondiis': L. pon- 
dus, du-pondius. Less certain examples are U. sukatu 4 decla- 
rato'(?), probably a denominative from *soko- : L. insece ; - 
U. pruzufe 'praestante'(?), possibly for *pro-sode : L. sede.o. 

The e-grade is seen in U. prusikurent 'pronuntiaverint': 
L. insece (cf. L. sedl : sedeo) ; O. triibum 'domum' etc. (15, 14): 
U. trebeit 'versatur', tremnu ' tabernaculo' (L. trabs, if related, 
has a reduced grade). 

The o-grade is probably seen in U. du-pursus 'bipedibus', 
petur-pursus (cf. Dor. TTW?, Goth, fotus) : L. ped-, ped-, although 
the o-grade is possible. 

95. ei, i, etc. The interchange of ei and i (L. deico, died : 
dictus) is seen in O. deicans 'dicant': O. dicust, U. dersicust 
'dixerit', U. tigel 'dedicatio', etc.; O. feihiiss 'muros' (Grk. 
ret^o?) : L. Jingo, figura, etc. 

An example of the oe-grade is U. nosue 'nisi', if from *noi- 
suai (67, l) : O. nei, L. nei, nl. 

Nouns formed with the suffix -ien- show an interchange 
between the strengthened grade -ion- and the long reduced 
grade -In- (181, a). 

a. O. Diiviiai ' Diae' beside Defvai etc. would point to a reduced grade dlu-. 
But this, although not inconceivable in view of such forms as Skt. divyati 
1 But some regard the o in modus as due to assimilation. 

97] Vowel-gradation 63 

'plays', sivyati 'sews', is regarded with suspicion, since the cognates such as 
Skt. divyd- point rather to diu-. Possibly the Oscan form is due to an error. 1 

96. ou, u, etc. Since eu becomes ou in Italic (70), ou may 
represent either this or the original cw-grade. Examples : O. lou- 
fir 'vel': L. lubet, libet; --U. iouies 'iuvenibus' : L. iuvenis ; 
U. ro/k'rufos': U. rufru 'rubros', L. ruber ; U. purdouitu 
'porricito' : U. purditom from *dmto- (cf. L. duam). 

The interchange of ue and u is seen in O. sverrunei 'spokes- 
man' (?) from *sueresdn : L. susurrus from *sii-sur-eso-, the root 
suer-, sur-, being the same as in Skt. svdrati 'sounds' and Eng. 
swear and answer. 

97. er (el), or (0Z), etc. Since I.E. r becomes or in Italic, 
or may represent either this reduced grade or the original or- 
grade. Examples: U. couertu 'revertito': Fut. Perf. couortus 
etc. (early L. vorsus, advortet, etc.); --L. terreo: U. tursitu 'ter- 
reto'; U. persclo 'sacrificium', persnimu 'precator': U. pepurku- 
rent 'poposcerint', L. posed from *porkskd (Skt. prcchami) ; 
L. circulus (i from e): U. kurclasiu ' *circulario, extreme' (?). 

The <?-grade is seen in the Nom. Sg. of nouns of relation- 
ship, as in O. patir 'pater' (78, 2), beside Dat. Sg. O. paterei from 
*patrei (81), U. patre, with reduced grade as in L. patrl, Grk. 
Trar/H; O. niir 'vir', beside Gen. PL nerum with the e-grade 
(cf. Skt. na, Vedic Gen. PI. naram). 

The o-grade is seen in the -tor- of agent-nouns, which 
belonged originally to the Nom. Sg., but was extended to all 
cases, as in Latin. See 53, 54, 180, 1. The reduced grade -tr- is 
seen in some derivatives, as U. kvestr-etie beside kvestur, etc. 
(cf. L. victr-ix). See 246, 1, a. 

The long reduced grade r becomes ar or rd in Italic. Prob- 
able examples are: O. kujmparakineis 'consilii', comparascuster 
'consulta erit', with park or prdk (81, a) : L. posed (see above); - 
U. mantrahklu from *man-trdg-klo- : L. mantele from *man-terg- 
sli- (terged). 

1 See Solmsen, Stud z. lat. Sprachgeschichte, 112. Neither the explanation of 
v. Planta, I, 173, nor that of Thurneysen, I.F. Anz. 4, 38 (see footnote, p. 52) is at 
all probable. 

64 Phonology [97 

U. comatir, kumates 'commolitis', with loss of I as in mutu 
fc multa\ is an example of al for I (cf. Skt. murnd-), while the 
oZ-grade 1 (cf. Goth, malan, Lith. malti) is seen in Pres. Imperat. 
comoltu, kumultu (kumaltu is probably due to confusion with the 
preceding). For maletu see following. 

The antevocalic form of the reduced grade, that is rr, 
becomes ar in Italic, as in L. card, U. karu, from the root ker- 
(Grk. iceipo) etc.); O. karanter'vescuntur', eana'panis' (gloss) 
(cf. Grk. Kop&rpvfju, Lith. szeriu 'feed'). Of similar origin is al 
in U. maletu 'molitum' and in O. ualaemom 'optimum': L. void. 

a. The relation of 0. aflukad 'deferat'(P) to Fut. Perf. aflakus is wholly 
uncertain, as is the etymology, though connection with L. flecto seems probable. 
They might contain the root in the forms flok and flak from/$fc (cf. L. falx), but 
such an interchange between Present and Perfect stems is without parallel in 
Italic. A more natural interchange would be that of flak and flak, but the 
assumption of weakening of a to u in aflukad is somewhat bold, in spite of the 
uncertainty as to the precise conditions of this phenomenon (86). 

98. en, on, an. Italic en may represent either original en 
or the reduced grade n ; and an may represent either the long 
reduced grade n, or, according to a view which we regard as 
probable, the antevocalic reduced grade nn (L. canis, etc. ; 
cf. card with ar for rr, 97). The negative prefix, which repre- 
sents the reduced grade of the ne seen in O. ne, L. ne-fas, etc., 
appears in Latin as in-, from en-, n, but in Oscan-Umbrian always 
as an--, e.g. O. ancentto'incQnssS, U. anhostatu'non hastatos'. 
That this an- represents n, for which there is no other evidence, 2 
is less likely than that it is a generalization of the antevocalic 
form (Grk. av-, Skt. an-) as compared with the generalization in 
Latin of the anteconsonantal form (Grk. a-, Skt. a-). 

a. In O. tanginom ' sententiam' beside L. tonged, tongitio, the an might 
represent n (cf. g, and on in Goth. J>ugkjan beside tagkjan), but the assumption 
of a grade n in this root meets with difficulty. Perhaps it is a case of secondary 
gradation, with interchange of a and o (99, 3). 

1 L. mold is commonly derived from *meld (O.Ir. meliro),but U. ol cannot have 
this origin (36, 2). 

2 On Grk. vr)Ktp8r)s see now Brugmann, Sitzungsberichte d. kouigl. siichs. 
Gesellschatt d. \Viss. 1901, p. 102. 

99] Vowel-G-radation 65 


6. O. Anafrlss, if related to L. imber (*m-bhri-; cf. Skt. abhrd- 'cloud', 
Grk. d<ppfc) would seem to point to a by-form *m-bhri-, but this is regarded 
with rightful suspicion. The connection of the two words is entirely uncertain. 

c. The relation of O.-U. anter to L. inter is almost certainly a different 
one. It is probable that *en-ter, containing en 'in' (L. in, Grk. ev), was replaced 
by a similar formation from an- (L. an- in an-helo, Grk. ajc), which in Umbrian 
is used interchangeably with en- (andendu, endendu). Cf. O.Bulg. atrl 'within' 
(as against jetro 'liver': Grk. ei/repo?), which is of similar origin. 

99. Other variations are : 

1. e, a (I.E. d). U. fetu 'facito': O. fakiiad, U. facia (cf. 
L. feel: facia) ; O. fiisnam, U. fesnaf-e, from *fes-nd- (cf. L. 
festus,feriae): L.fdnum from * fas-no-. Cf. also the ^-Perfects 
to Presents with a, O. hipid ' habuerit', sipus 'sciens' (90, 1, b). 

2. a, a (I.E. d). O. Staatiis : stahint (short a shown by 
eestint), statif, status, probably also with short a (cf. L. stare, 
prae-stdtus, etc.: statio, praestitus, etc.); L. fdrl : O. fatium, 
L. fateor (denominative from a Partic. *fato-, replaced in Latin 
by fdto-); O. faamat 'habitat, tendit': L. famulus, familia, 
O. famel, famelo. 

3. a, o, d. L. acies, acuo, etc. (Grk. a/epo?) : L. ocris, 
U. ocar (Grk. o'/ept?) : L. deer (so probably O. akrid, but possibly 
&k-) ; O. kahad: L. incoho ; L. hasta : U. hostatu, etc. 

4. e, a. Of this variation, which is seen in the relation of 
L. pateo, pando, O. patensins, to Grk. Trerapw/jii, the following 
are uncertain examples: L. tepor: U. tapistenu 'caldariolam'(?); 

- U. erietu (or e?): L. aries. 

5. i, I. L. vir (Goth, wair, O.Ir. fer) : U. ueiro, uiro 
(Skt. vlrd-, Lith. vyras). 

NOTE. The three occurrences of the spelling ueiro make it less likely 
that this is to be added to the rare cases of ei for short i (29). Cf. also Volsc. 
couehriu ' curia' from *co-uirio- (L. curia from *co-mria-). 

6. u, ii. U. pure-to, O. purasiai : U.^V 4 ignis' (59). 

7. The relation of U. veskla ' vascula' to U. uaso, L. vds, is 
not clear. A variation of e or e with d is not w.ell established. 

8. o, o. O. upsannam, etc. (49) : O. uupsens, etc. (53). But 
see 225, a. 

66 Phonology [100 

Consonantal i (i) 

100. 1. Initial i remains unchanged, as in Latin. Thus 
U. iouies 4 iuvenibus' : L. iuvenis (Skt. ydvainA. 
For i from di, see 134. 

2. Intervocalic i was lost in the Italic period, and of the 
resulting vowel-combinations some are contracted, while others 
remain in hiatus. See 82, 83. But between i and a following 
vowel there naturally intervenes a glide, or transition sound, i, 
which is shown in the spelling of the native alphabets, but not 
in the Latin ; e.g. U. triiu-per, but trio-per: L. tria. See 31, a. 

The i following an t-diphthong is also retained. See 61, 3. 

a. For U. portaia, kuraia, etc., see 232 ; for U. fuia, fuiest, 215, 3; for 

0. staiet, 215, 2. 

3. Postconsonantal i, which in Latin becomes a vowel 
(e.g. medius for original dissyllabic ^medh-io-), retains its con- 
sonantal function. In the Latin alphabet it is impossible to 
know whether an i stands for consonantal or vocalic t, but in 
the native alphabets, where the latter regularly appears as ii, a 
single i is evidence of consonantal value, though there are 
some few cases in which it is used carelessly in place of ii. 
See 31, a. 

But more direct evidence of the consonantal function is 
furnished in those cases in which a preceding consonant has 
been affected, as follows : 

a. Gemination of consonants before i is frequent in Oscan, 
e.g. kumbennieis 'conventus', Mamerttiais 'Martiis', tribarakkiuf 
'aedificatio', etc. See 162, i. 

b. In Umbrian, i palatalizes a preceding n and &, and the i 
is then sometimes omitted in the writing. So spina beside 
spinia, Ruline beside Rupinie ; fa$u beside fagiu, etc. (144). 

c. In the local dialect of Bantia, i unites with a preceding 

1, r, t, d, k, to form 1(1), r(r), s, z, x. Thus allo from *alid : 
L. alia; famelo from *famelid: L.familia; so perhaps 

102 Consonants 67 

mallom, mallud, malud from a stem *malio- beside L. malo-; 
herest i volet' from *heriest : U. heriest ; -- petiro-pert'quateT' 
from * petirio-pert, this from *petrid-pert (81, 192, 2); Bansae 
from *Bantiae\ zicolom i diem > from *diekolom: L. diecula ; 
- meddixud 'magistratu' from *meddikiod (250, 2). 

NOTE. In some cases the i itself is the result of a local change of vocalic i. 
So *petria-pert must have had i, not|, and probably *diekolom (134, a). 

Consonantal u (u) x 

101. Initial and intervocalic u remain, as in Latin. 
Examples : 

O. viii, U. via, vea, uia : L. via ; -- O. Fepcro/oet **Versori', 
U. ku-vertu, co-uertu 'convertito': L. verto. 

O. luvei, U. luve : L. lovl ; O. bivus : L. vivus; O. deivi- 
nais: L. divmus ; U. uvem, oui : L.ovis; U. avif, auif: L. avis. 

The glide u, which was regularly sounded between u and 
a following vowel, shows itself in the spelling in the native 
alphabets, but not in the Latin ; e.g. U. tuves, but duir : L. duo. 
See 31, b. 

102. 1. Postconsonantal 'u generally remains unchanged. 
Thus O. svai, swae'si' (L. si is from a form without u) ; 
O. dekkviarim 'decurialem'; --U. arvia ' f rumenta' : L. arvum. 

2. After labials u is lost, as in Latin. Thus O. fufans 


'erant': L. -bant from -bhud-; O. amprufid 'improbe', pnifatted 
4 probavit': L. probus from * pro-bhuo- ; - - U. subocau 'invoco' 
from *sub-uocdio ; 2 O. Piihiui 'Pio\ U. pihatu 'piato': L. plus 
from *pulio- (cf. L. purus). 

3. du, in Latin b (and v), becomes d. Thus U. di-fue 

'bifidum': L. bis etc., from *dui-: U. dia 4 det' from *du-iio 

~ * * /> 

(cf. L. duam) ; U. pur-ditom 'porrectum' from *du-lto- beside 

1 In the citation of Oscan and Umbrian forms it is customary to use the v only 
for forms written in the native alphabets, in which there was a distinct character for 
it, and not for forms written in the Latin alphabet. But for Latin words we continue 
to use the v, in spite of the resulting inconsistency. 

2 L. subvenio etc., under the influence of the simplex (but aperio from *ap- 
uerio, the simplex being lost). See 164, a. 

68 Phonology [102 

pur-douitu (96); O. akkatus 'advocati' from *ad(o)kdto- (89, 3), 
this from *ad-uokdto-. 1 

4. An apparent loss of u after r is seen in U. seritu ' servato', anseriato 
' observatum', and caterahamo '*catervamini', as compared with L. servo, caterva. 
But the precise explanation is not clear. In seritu etc. it may be due to the 
position between r and i, i.e. *serio from *seruio. 

5. For sue, see 37, a. 

103. 1. r usually remains unchanged, as in Latin. Ex- 
amples: O. Regaturei 'Rectori', U. rente 'recte': L. rego\- 
O. teremniss'terminibus', U. termnom-e: L. termen ; U. fertu, 
ferar, etc.: L.fero. 

2. It is also retained in some combinations in which it is 
lost in Latin, as rsk, rsn. But in Umbrian, in these combinations, 
and in general before s, the r was faintly sounded and often 
omitted in the writing. See under rs, 115, 116. 

a. In 0. Falenias, beside Faler. on a companion inscription, the omission 
of r is due to carelessness in spelling, though the sound of r is naturally some- 
what less distinct before consonants than elsewhere. 

3. The combination rl appears unassimilated in O. Aderl. 
' Atella' of an old coin, but has become Z/, as in Latin, in Abella- 
(Abellaniis), probably from *Aberld-, *Apro-ld- (91, 2). 

4. Final r is frequently omitted in Umbrian, mostly in the 
forms of the Passive. So herte, herti, hertei, beside herter ; - 
emantu beside emantur ; pihafi, pihafei : O. sakrafir ; tuta-pe 
beside usual tuta-per 'pro po*pulo'. 


104. Initial I is seen in O. %wd'lege'; likitud, licitud 
'liceto' ; loufir ' vel' : L. libet ; Luvfreis ' Liberi' ; liivkei 'in 
luco', etc. 

In Umbrian there is no example of an initial I on the Igu- 
vinian Tables, and a change of initial I to ?/, though disputed, is 

1 L. advoco, etc., under the influence of the simplex. See 164, . 

106] Consonants 69 

probably to be recognized in vutu 'lavato' : L. lava ; vapef-, uapers- 
'sella': L. lapis (cf. subsellis marmoreis of the Acta Arvalium) ; 

- Vuvcis 'Lucius' (72, a). Other examples are very doubtful. 

NOTE. A change of I to u before consonants is seen in many languages, 
e.g. French autre from L. alter ; Dutch koud : Eng. cold. In such cases, and 
likewise in Umbrian, the change must have been through the medium of a 
strongly guttural I. 

105. 1. Medial I is generally preserved in both Oscan and 
Umbrian. Examples: O. Fluusai 'Florae'; -- O. a^o'alia';- 
O. Alafaternum, U. alfu 4 alba': L. albus ; - - U. plener 'plenis' ; 

- U. saluom 'salvum'. 

a. 0. Fiuusasiais^Floralibus' beside Fluusai, if not simply due to the care- 
lessness of the engraver, would point to the beginning of a change similar to what 
has taken place in Italian fiore, piano, etc. But all other evidence is against this. 

2. In the combination It the I is lost in Umbrian. So muta, 
motar, etc.: O. moltam, L. multa; kumates, comatir ' commoli- 
tis'. But in the Imperatives kumultu, comoltu 'commolito', veltu 
'deligito', etc., in which the I and t were formerly separated by 
a vowel, the I is always "written. 

a. The Oscan atrud beside altrei on the Tabula Bantina is an indication 
that in the dialect of Bantia the I was not fully sounded, though in the numerous 
occurrences of molta it is never omitted. 

3. U. Uoisiener ' Volsieni', on an inscription of Assisi, shows a local pala- 
talization of I before s, or else is due to Etruscan influence. 

106. In a number of Umbrian words an original I is repre- 
sented by f, rs, which commonly stands for an intervocalic d (I3l). 
This points to a change of I to d, with which we may compare 
the opposite change of d to I in L. lingua, lacrima, etc. The 
most certain examples are kafetu, car situ 'calato', ufetu 4 adoleto', 
famefias 'familiae'. 

a. Whether arsir (VI a 6, 7) is 'alms' or Dat.-Abl. PI. ' caerimoniis' 
belonging to Voc. Sg. arsie 'sancte', is uncertain. That Pupfike, Pupfice, epi- 
thet of Puemune, is ' Publico' is extremely probable, in view of L. Publica Fides, 
Publica Fortuna, etc. The old explanation of tribficu'ternio' as = L. *triplicid 
cannot be considered impossible, but Brugmann's derivation from *tri-p(e)d- 
ikion- 'band of three' (L. pedica) offers a plausible substitute for this. 

No satisfactory statement can be made as to the conditions under which 
the change took place. 

70 Phonology [lor 

n and m 

107. 1. Initial and intervocalic n and m remain unchanged, 
as in Latin. Examples : O. ni, nep, neip, U. neip : L. ne, nee, 
etc. ; -- U. name : L. nomen ; O. dunum, U. dunu : L. donum ; 

- O. Maatreis, U. Matrer: L. mater', O. moltam, U. mo tar : 
L. multa ; O. pertemest, U. emantur: L. emo. 

2. Similarly postconsonantal n and m ; e.g. O. egmo 4 res'; - 
O. Patanai ' Pandae' from *Pat-nd- (81) ; -- O. comono 'comitia', 
U. kumne, from *komno- (15, 4, 81). 

a. A change of mn to ra is perhaps to be recognized in the Passive Impera- 
tive ending, O. -raw, U. -rait, though this is by no means certain. See 237. 
This would involve the supposition that in all the numerous examples of mn the 
combination is of secondary origin, as indeed it probably is in many cases, e.g. 
U. nomner ' nominis' etc. (88, 4). 1 

3. Assimilation of nl to U, as in Latin, is seen in O. Vesul- 
liais from * Veson.-lid-: U. Vesune ; U. Padellar from *Paden-ld 
(91, 2, a) ; also in U. apelust etc. with I from nl, earlier ndl (135). 

Omission of nasals before consonants 

108. 1. In Umbrian, nasals were not fully sounded before 
mutes and spirants, as is evident from their frequent omission in 
the writing. The circumstance that in the Latin alphabet this 
omission is to be noted only before s (once before /) is perhaps 
due to the influence of Latin orthography, the omission of n on 
Latin inscriptions being far more common before s than elsewhere. 
Examples: ustetu beside ustentu, osenc?M'ostendito'; iveka beside 
iuenga 4 iuvencas'; -- kupifiatu beside kumpifiatu, combifiatu 'nun- 
tiato' ; azeriatu, aseriatu beside anzeriatu, anseriato ' observatum' ; 

- dirsas beside dirsans 4 dent' ; sis beside sins 4 sint' ; Sa$e 
beside Sarnie ; aferum, afero, beside anferener 'circumferendi'. 

2. In Oscan, n is regularly omitted in the case of final ent. 
Thus set 'sunt', fiiet 'fiunt', staiet 4 stant', censazet 4 censebunt', etc. : 

1 Admitting tin- cliMii.^c, w<- should hold to the derivation of O. comono etc. 
and amnud ' circuitu' from *kom-no-, *am-no- (v. Planta prefers *kom-beno-, *am-beno-) ) 
and assume that the words came into existence at a later period. 

no] Consonants 71 

U. sent, benurent, etc. Note that in this case the n is always 
written in Umbrian, while, vice versa, in the case of final -ns, 
where it is frequently omitted in Umbrian (above), it is always 
written in Oscan (deicans, uupsens, etc.). 

The same omission is frequent, though not universal, in 
the case of medial ent, e.g. aragetud 'argento', Aretpkai] beside 
Arentikai, deketasiui (degetasis etc.) 4 *decentario'. 

a. Isolated examples of omission elsewhere are mistreis beside minstrels 
'minoris' and AaTrom 'Lamponius'(P). 

In ekak'hanc' and iak'eam' beside ionc 'eum', eisunk 'eorum', etc., the 
omission is probably due to the influence of Accusatives with final m omitted. 
All the certain occurrences of ekak are on Pompeian inscriptions, which have 
via'viam' etc. (109, 2). 

3. A special case in which n is lost in both Oscan and Umbrian is in the 
combination nkt. See 73. 

final n and m 

109. 1. In Umbrian, final n and m were so faintly sounded 
that they are far oftener omitted than written. Thus Ace. Sg. 

puplu, poplo, beside puplum, poplom ; name: L. nomen; e 

beside -en 'in'. For final n we also find m written. This is not 
merely the result of confusion caused by the reduction of both 
nasals, since we never find n for m, but is due to the influence 
of a preceding M, as in numem beside nome, and in Akeruniam-em 
etc. beside esunum-en, esunum-e, etc. From its use with the Ace. 
Sg. the -em came to be used elsewhere too, as in Loc. Sg. Acer- 
soniem etc. 

2. In Oscan, final n is never omitted. Final m is nearly 
always written except on inscriptions of Pompeii, where it is 
oftener omitted than written, e.g. via 'viam', tiurri 'turrim'. But 
it is possible that even where m was regularly written it was 
reduced in pronunciation. See 84, a. 


110. The history of the combination ns is somewhat com- 
plicated. It is necessary to separate the cases of original ns 

72 Phonology [no 

from those in which it is of later origin, and again to distinguish 
these latter according to the period at which the ns arose. 

1. Original medial ns becomes nts, as appears from the 
spelling nz in the native alphabets, though this is not constant. 
In the Latin alphabet ns is written. Cf. z : s for final -ts in 
U. tagez : tases 'tacitus', etc. (137, 2). Thus O. keenzstur (for zs 
see 162, 2), censtur 'censor' from *kens-tor ; U. anzeriatu, anseri- 
ato 'observatum' from *an-serid-', U. menzne 'mense' (from stem 
*mens-en-; cf. Sab. mesene), antermenzaru 'intermenstrium' ; - 
U. uze, onse 'in humero' from *om(e)so-. 

2. Original final ns becomes -ss in Oscan, but -f in Umbrian. 
Thus Ace. PL O. viass, eituas, feihiiss, U. vitlaf, vitluf, etc. 

a. Umbrian final / was so weakly sounded as to be frequently omitted in 
the writing, e.g. uitla, uitlu. In the oldest tables the omission is comparatively 
infrequent, while in those written in the Latin alphabet the / is omitted nearly 
ten times as often as it is written, except in monosyllables, where it is written 
nearly four times as often as omitted. 

3. Secondary medial ns from nss, originating in nt-t or 
nd-t (138), becomes / in Umbrian, there being no examples in 
Oscan. Thus s/?e/<a'sparsam' from *spensso-, * spend-to- 1 (cf. Grk. 
<T7reVS&>) : L. sponsus from *sponsso-, *spond-to- 1 -, similarly 
mefa 'mensam' from *menssd-: L. me ma, me mm ; -- subra spafu 
'superiectum' from *spansso-. 

a. *mensso- is not from * mend-to- (cf. L. metior, Skt. ma-, etc.), but is 
formed after the analogy of Participles of related meaning such as *pensso- 
(L. pensus), *tensso- (L. tensus), from roots in -nd. *spansso- may be of similar 
origin, but it is possible that beside the *spa- of U. spahatu, spahamu (cf. (irk. 
ffirdw) there was another root-form *spand- and that L. pando represents a 
contamination of this with the root seen in L. pateo. In this case U. spafu 
could be compared directly with L. pdnsus. 

4. Secondary final ns from -nss, earlier -nts, becomes / in 
Umbrian, there being no examples in Oscan. See 243. Thus 
zefef, serse 'sedens': L. sedens from *sedent-s\ restef, reste 4 in- 
staurans'; traf, tra 'trans'. For omission of /, see above, 2, a. 

5. Secondary final ns in the Nom. Sg. of w-stems (181) 
appears as /. Thus O. uittiuf, tribarakkiuf, statif, and probably 

1 See p. 8(5, footnote. 

ill] Consonants 73 

O. essuf, ewf'-ipse', U. esuf (197, 5). On the strength of esuf we 
assume that Umbrian had the same formation and that in tribfi$u 
and karu the f is omitted, as often (above, 2, a). 

6. Secondary final ns resulting from syncope of vowels 
(90) remains unchanged. Thus O. Bantins 'Bantinus', U. Ikuvins 
'Iguvinus', O. humuns 4 homines' from *hdmones, etc. See 90, 1. 

7. Final ns appears also in the secondary ending of the 
Third Plural, as in O. deicans, U. dirsans, etc. On its origin 
see 128, l. 

In tabular form the representation is as follows : 

O. U. 

1. Orig. -ns- -nts- -nts- 

2. Orig. -ns -ss -f 

3. -ns- from -nss- (-ntt-) -f- 
II. 4. -ns from -nss (-nts) -f 

5. -ns in Nom. Sg. of w-stems -f -f 

III. 6. -ns by Syncope -ns -ns 

NOTE. Although there are no Oscan examples for 3 and 4, the probability 
is that Oscan agreed with Umbrian and that 3, 4, and 5 belong together. This 
change of secondary ns must have antedated the appearance of what might be 
called the tertiary ns of 6, which doubtless belongs to the close of the Oscan- 
Umbrian period. Again, the change of original ns must have antedated the 
appearance of the secondary ns, else they would have had the same develop- 
ment. Here arises a complication in the case of original final ns. The diver- 
gence between Oscan and Umbrian shows that the development could not have 
been completed in the Oscan-Umbrian period. The only solution is to assume 
that final ns, either in Italic or in the earliest Oscan-Umbrian period, was so 
changed as to remain distinct from both secondary and tertiary ns throughout 
the Oscan-Umbrian period, and also in Oscan, though in Umbrian finally yielding 
the same result as secondary ns. 


111. Initial s and s in connection with a surd mute remain, 
as in Latin. Examples : O. sum, set, U. sent, sins : L. sum, sunt, 
etc.; O. sakrim, U. sakre : L. sacer ; O. stait, U. stahu : L. sto ; 
- O. est, U. est, est : L. est ; O. pust, U. post : L. post. 

74 Phonology [112 

Intervocalic s. Rhotacism 

112. Rhotacism of intervocalic s occurs in Umbrian as in 
Latin, but not in Oscan. In the latter the s has become 2, 
written z in the Latin alphabet, but s in the native alphabet, 
in which z had the value of ts. This change of s to its corre- 
sponding sonant z is a necessary stage in the development of 
rhotacism, and was probably reached in the Italic period, Oscan 
then remaining on this stage. Examples : Gen. PL of a-stems, 
O. -asum, -azum, U. -aru, -arum : L. -drum (Skt. -dsam, Horn. -aa>v 
from *-aaci)v; O. ezum, U. em, erom'esse': L. era, etc.; 
O. eiseis, eizeis, U. erer 'eius' from *eiso-; O. kasit 'decet': 
L. caret ; forms of Imperf. Subj., Fut. Indie., and Fut. Perf. 
Indie., in which s is a part of the tense-sign (see under Inflec- 
tion), e.g. O. fusid'esset': L. foret; O. censazet 'censebunt', 
U. furent ' erunt' ; O. tribarakattuset 'aedificaverint', U. benurent 
4 venerint'. Cf. also Pael. coisatens 'curaverunt' (U. kuraia 
'curet'), upsaseter 'operaretur, fieret'. 

a. In most cases where s is found between vowels in Umbrian, this s is 
obviously not original but comes from a group of consonants, such as ss, tt, ts, 
kSj ps. But there are some forms the explanation of which is not so apparent. 
Nothing satisfactory can be said of asa-, asa- : O. aasai, L. ara. For esono- 
'sacer', related to O. aisusis ' sacrifices' etc. (15, 3), it is possible to assume an 
extension of an s-stem, i.e. *ais(e)s-ono-, while erus 'magmentum'(?) and ereclu 
'sacrarium', if cognate, show the regular change of simple s. In plenasier, 
urnasier, etc. , as compared with Latin words in -arms, the s is probably due to 
the fact that the following i was consonantal, that is they contain the suffix 
-asio-, while the by-form -asio- is perhaps to be recognized in ezariaf escas'(?), 
from *ed(e)s-asio-(?). 

Final s 

113. Final s remains in Oscan, and in Umbrian on the older 
Tables I-IV, but on Tables V-VII it appears as r. Thus Nom. 
PI. of o-stems (O. -us, -MS), U. prinuvatus, prinuatur, Atiieriur (V), 
etc. ; Dat.-Abl. PI. of o-stems (O. -uis, -ois), U. veres, uerir, tri- 
pler (V), etc.; 2d Sg. U. air* sis'. These r-forms doubtless 
represent sentence-doublets, arising before words beginning with 

114] Consonants 75 

a vowel, but finally coming into general use without regard to 
the following word. 

a. Before enclitics an 8 is treated in the same way as in the interior 
of a word. So U. funtler-e, fondlir-e i in fontulis', but esunes-ku ' apud sacra', 
ueris-co 'apud portam'. But pis-i kept its s under the influence of pis (svepis 
'si quis'), and retained it even after the latter had become pir (plsi, but sopir). 
Similarly pis-est. 

b. The final s of Tables I-IV is sometimes omitted, e.g. Ikuvinu beside 
Ikuvinus, prinuvatu beside prinuvatus, snate beside snates, antakre beside antakres, 
etc. The later r is also occasionally omitted, as in sei, si, beside sir 'sis', heri 
'vel' beside heris, but scarcely ever in noun-forms. 

c. In Oscan there are two examples of h for final s, where 
the next word begins with s, namely upsatuh sent' opera ti sunt', 
puiieh sum'cuius sum'. The occasional omission of s in the 
Nom. Sg. of proper names in -is, -iis, etc., e.g. Steni, Paapi, Paapii, 
Paapii, is merely graphic, perhaps due to the influence of Latin 
orthography (Claudi = Claudius, etc.). 

sn, sin, si, zd 

114. The combinations sn, sm, si, zd, which in Latin lose 
the sibilant (if medial, with lengthening of the preceding vowel), 
remain unchanged. 

sn. U. snata 'umecta': L. ndre ; O. fiisnii 'fanum', U. fes- 
naf-e (also Pael. fesn.) : L. fdnum from * fas-no- (99, 1) ; - 
U. ahesnes 'aheiiis': L. alienus from *a(i)es-no- (aes, Skt. dyas, 
etc.); O. kersnu ' cena', U. sesna : L. cena ;-- O. casnar 
4 senex' (Festus, Varro; also Pael.): L. cdnus, cascus. 

sm. U. pusme'cui', esmei'hmc' (Skt. dsmdi etc.); so also 
O. posmom 'postremum' with sm from stm (139, 2). Cf. also 
Pael. prismu 'prima'. 

si. O. slaagid'fine' (derivation uncertain); O. Slabiis 
'Labius' ; -- U. dis-leralinsust 'inritum fecerit' (cf. L. dlligo 
from *dis-ligo, etc.) ; so also O. peessl[um with si from stl 
(139, 2). 

zd. U. sistu 'sidito', ander-sistu, is best explained as from 
*sizd(e)tod : L. sldo from *si-zdo (cf . nidus from *nizdos, Eng. nest). 

76 Phonology [114 

a. U. ninctu 'ninguito', the root of which appears in other languages with 
initial s (Eng. snow, Lith. sriegas, etc.), may represent a by-form without s, like 
Grk. Te7os beside o-r^os, etc. 

6. O. maimas 'maximae' is probably from *maisemo- (147, 3, a, 189, 3), 
through the stages *maizemo- (112), *maizmo-, with loss of z, in contrast to the 
preservation of s. 

c. U. sumtu 'sumito', which cannot be explained in the same way as 
L. sumo from *susmo, *sups-(e)mo, is probably from*SMwmd, *sup-(e)mo (125, 1). 

d. That O. imad-en 'ab imo' comes from *ins-wo-, often assumed as the 
derivation of L. Imus, is unlikely. 

Intervocalic rs 

115. 1. Original intervocalic rs, which becomes rr in Latin, 
remains unassimilated in Umbrian, while in Oscan it appears as 
r with lengthening of the preceding vowel. In Umbrian rs the 
r was weakly sounded and often omitted in the spelling. Exam- 
ples : U. tursitu, tusetu 'terreto': L. terreo from *terseo; 
U.farsio,fasio, fasiu 'farrea': L.farreus from *fars-eo- (see 117), 
O. terum, teer[um'territorium': L. terra from *tersd. 

a. U. Gen. Sg. farer instead of *farser (L. /arm) is due to the influence 
of the Nom.-Acc. far (117). 

2. Intervocalic rs arising from syncope, in Latin not dis- 
tinguished from the preceding, appears in Umbrian as rf, in 
Oscan as rr. Examples : U. Cerfe, Serfe : L. Cerus (i.e. Cerrus), 
from *Ker(e)so- ; O. Kerri 'Cereri' from *Ker(e)s-e- ; U. par/a 
'parram' from *paresa-\ O. hjerrins 'caperent' from *her(i)sent 
(216) ; O. sverrunei from *sueres-on-: L. susurrus (96). 

NOTE. For the development of original rs in Oscan, as given above, the 
following stages must be assumed : rs rz rr r with compensative length- 
ening. The later rs of 2 passed through the first two stages, but stopped at rr 
(the still later rs of 3 remained unchanged, though in Umbrian the rs of 2 and 3 
have the same history). But it should be pointed out that the assumption of a 
double development in Oscan, according as the rs was original or arose through 
syncope, rests wholly on the form teer[um, and that for this a different expla- 
nation is at least possible, though somewhat complicated (see 76, 4). Barring 
this word, we should assume that Oscan, like Latin, had rr for the rs of 1 as 
well as for that of 2, and at least one of the examples under 2, namely sverrunei, 
would be more naturally put under 1. Further material, such as a form corre- 
sponding to U. tursitu, is necessary to settle the matter conclusively. (0. teras 
), from the Curse of Vibia, might stand for *terras as well as for *teras.) 

117] Consonants 11 

3. Intervocalic rs from rss, earlier rts or rtt (137, l, 138), 
remains in Oscan as in Latin, but appears as rf in Umbrian. 
Thus O. FepcropeL ' * Versori', U. trahuorfi 'transverse': L. versus. 

rs before consonants 

116. rs before consonants, which in Latin loses r, or in 
some combinations s, is retained, though in Umbrian the r, as 
in the case of intervocalic rs, was weakly sounded and often 
omitted in the spelling. 

1. rsk. U. persklu, persclu, pesclu 'precatione': L. posed 
from * porsco ; here also O. comparascuster 'consulta erit' if 
from parse-, not prase- (see 81, a);--U. Turskum, Tuscom'Tus- 
cum' (cf. Grk. Tvpcrrjvot, Tvppijvot). 

2. rsn. O. kersnu 'ceria', kerssnais, kerssnasias, etc., U. sesna, 
cersnatur : L. cena from *kesnd, *kersnd (earlier *kers-snd-, *kert- 
snd, from root qert- l cuf, Skt. fort-, etc.; for meaning, cf. Grk. 
&u? beside 8ato/>tat) ;-- U. persnihmu, pesnimu, persnihimu, pes- 
nimu 'precator', denominative from *persk-ni- (146). 

NOTE. For original rsn, which gives L. rn (cernuus), there is no example. 

3. rst. *U. perstu, pestu 'ponito' (?) from *persktod (146). 
But O. pestliim, peessl[um, indicates that in Oscan the r was lost 
in the combination rst, or at least in rstl (76, 2). 

Final rs 

117. Final rs becomes -r, as in Latin. Thus O. far, U.far : 
L. far from *fars (cf . Gen. Sg. f arris from *f arsis, Goth, bariz- 
eins 'of barley') ; likewise in the case of rs arising from syn- 
cope, U. ager : L. ager from *agers, *agros (91, 2) ; -- Nom. PI. 
O. censtur 'censores' from *censtor(e)s, U. frater, frateer 'fratres' 
from *f rater (e)s (90, 1). The spelling frateer points to compensa- 
tive lengthening. See 76, 3. 

a. In O. usurs, Ace. PI., -rs is from -r(e)ss. 

b. Before an enclitic beginning with a vowel U. rs is preserved, like 
medial rs. Cf. 113, a. Thus U. pars-est 'par erit'. 

78 Phonology [118 

sr + 

118. A change of sr to fr, whence in Latin initial fr, 
medial br (ftlnebris from *funes-ris), belongs doubtless to the 
Italic period, and in Oscan-Umbrian we should expect fr in all 
positions (as, from bh, O.-U./ = L. /, b). A probable example 
is O. tefunim 4 burnt-offering', U. tefru-to'ex rogo', tefra'carnes 
cremandas', from *tesro-, *teps-ro : L. tepor, Skt. tdpas, etc. 


119. 1. Of original intervocalic Is, which becomes II in 
Latin, and which we should expect to find unchanged in 
Umbrian (like rs), there is no certain example. For the Is is 
probably secondary in U. pelsatu etc. (see 262, 1, a}. 

2. Final Is (from -l(i)s, -l(o)s) becomes -L Thus O. aidil 
'aedilis', O.famel 4 famulus', U. katel 'catulus', O. Mutil 'Mutilus', 
Paakul ' Paculus', etc. O. Upfals and Upils have -Is from -Us (cf. 
Gen. Sg. Upfalleis). 


120. p remains, as in Latin. Examples : O. paterei, U. patre 
'patri' ; O. prai, U. pre 'prae' ; O. supruis 'superis', U. super 
'super' ;-- U. dupla 4 duplas'. For br from pr, see 157, l. 


121. pt becomes ft, just as kt becomes ht (142), and this 
remains in Oscan. In Umbrian this ft, together with the ft in 
which / comes from dh (136, a), becomes lit, and this has the 
same further history as the lit from kt that is, the h was almost 
or wholly lost in pronunciation (75, 142). Examples: O. serif tas 
'scriptae', U. screhto, screihtor: L. scriptus ; O. uf teis c volun- 
tatis', uhftis, from *opti- : L. optio ; so probably, with the same 
change of secondary pt, U. hahtu, hatu, Jiatu 4 capito' (also subahtu 
'deponito', subator 'omissi') from *haftod, *haptod, *hapitod (cf. 
O. hipid ; see 218). 

NOTE. The peculiar spelling of O. uhftis perhaps indicates the beginning 
of a development like that in Umbrian. 

125] Consonants 79 


122. 1. Before consonants ps becomes s, as in Latin. Thus 
U. ostendu 'ostendito': L. ostendo from *ops-tendo. 

2. Original intervocalic ps is assimilated to ss. Thus 
O. osii[ns 'adsint': L. ob-sint-,--so perhaps O. essuf, esuf, 
U. esuf'ipse', as if L. *ipso (197, 5). 

3. Secondary intervocalic ps remains unchanged in Oscan, 
but is assimilated in Umbrian. Thus O. upsed 4 fecit', upsannam, 
etc., but U. osatu, oseto, from *opesd-: L. operor. 


123. b remains, as in Latin. So O. triibum 'domum', tribarak- 
kiuf 'aedificatio', U. trebeit 'versatur' (15, 14); U. kebu: L. cibus. 

bh 1 

124. bh, which appears in Latin initially as /, medially as 5, 
is always/. Examples: O. fust, U. fust'erit', O. fusid 'esset', 
U.futu 'esto', etc.: L.fui,forem, Grk. e<i, Skt. bhu-; U.fertu, 
ferest, ferar, etc.: L. fero, Grk. <e/o&>, Skt. bhar-', O. fratnim, 
U. fratrum 'fratrum': L. J rater, Skt. bhratar- ; - - U . alfu'alba', 
O. Alafaternum : L. albus, Grk. aX^>o? ; O. loufir'veY: L. libet, 
Skt. lubh- ; O. tfei, U. tefe : L. tibi, Skt. tubJiyam ; - - Dat.-Abl. 
PL ending -fs seen in O. luisarifs 'lusoriis' (?): L. -bus (cf. also 
Skt. -bhyas). 

a. This final -/s, except in the example cited, which is from one of the 
earliest Oscan inscriptions, is assimilated to -ss, -s ; e.g. O. teremniss ' termini- 
bus', ligis ' legibus' , U. avis ' avibus' . 

6. For Umbrian mb from m/, see 161. 

Labials and Nasals 

125. 1. As in Latin, p or b followed by a nasal becomes m. 
So U. somo 'summum' from *sup-mo-; U. pelmner 'pulmenti': 
L. pulmentum from *pulpmentum (pulpd)',--\3. tremnu 'taber- 
naculo' from *treb-no- (cf. L. somnus from *sop-no-, *suep-no-). 

a. But/n remains. Thus O. Safinim from *Safniom (81): L. Samnium. 

1 For the development of sonant aspirates in general, see 160-161. 

80 Phonology [125 

2. mb becomes mm (cf. nn from nd ; 135). Thus U. umen 
'unguen' from *omben, with b from gu (151). Cf. L. commurat 
= comburat (Orelli-Henzen 6404), eommuratur = comburatur 
(OIL. VI 19267). 

a. U. menes ' venies' might have arisen in a compound *kommenes from 
*kom-benes (0. kumbened with recomposition), but as all other forms show b 
(benust^ benurent) the m may be merely a graver's error. 


126. In general, t remains unchanged, as in Latin. Thus 
O. tris, U. trif : L. tres ; O. estud 'esto', U. etu 'ito'; O. scrif- 
tas 'scrip tae', U. screihtor 'scrip ti', etc. 

a. At Bantia ti becomes s, as in Bansae ' Bantiae'. See 100, 3, c. 

b. For change of nt to nd and tr to dr in Umbrian, see 156, 157, 2. 

Final t 

127. 1. Original final , as in the secondary ending of the 
Third Singular, became d in the Italic period (early L. feced, 
sied, etc.); and this d, like original d, remains in Oscan but is 
regularly dropped in Umbrian. Thus O. deded, U. dede'dedit'; 

- O. fakiiad, U. facia 'facia t', etc. See also 133. 

a. In 0. tadait ' censeat' the t is due to an error, as in pocapit beside 
p]ocapid, pukkapid (201, 4). 

2. But final t from earlier -ti (92), as in the corresponding 
primary ending, remains t in both Oscan and Umbrian, though 
in Umbrian it was not fully sounded, and, in a few instances, is 
omitted in the writing. Thus O. faamat c tendit', U. ticit 'decet', 
U. trebeit 4 versatur', U. habe, habe 'habet', heri'vult'. 

3. The t of final -st and -rt is also frequently omitted in 
Umbrian. Thus /ws, heries, etc. for usual fust, fieriest-, tri<>- 
per 'ter' (cf. also L. sem-per) : O. petiro-pert 'quater'; U. pis-hcr 
'quilibet' from *-hert, this probably from *-herit (216). 

final nt 

128. 1. The history of original final nt is a matter of 
dispute. The secondary ending of the Third Plural in 

128] Consonants 81 

Oscan-Umbrian is -ws, e.g. O. deicans ' dicant', U. dirsans, dirsas 
'dent' (for omission of n see 108, 1), O. fufens 'fuerunt', U. eitipes 
'decreverunt', etc. (also Pael. coisatens 'curaverunt'). It has been 
held that this comes by regular phonetic change from the original 
ending -nt, and that the same change is seen in Latin in the 
numeral adverbs like quotiens etc. coming from -ient, -int (Skt. 
kiyat, etc.). But the Latin forms admit of another explanation, 
and for Oscan-Umbrian the fact that the -ns is retained and does 
not appear as O. -ss, or even as -f, indicates that it is of compara- 
tively late origin and could not have come from -nt in the Italic 
period. See HO with note. 

A more probable view is the following. As original -t 
changed to -d (127, l), so original -nt to -nd, and this became -n. 
In Latin this was mostly replaced by the primary ending, -nt, 
as was -d in the Third Singular by -t ; but a trace of it remains 
in the old forms like danunt, explenunt, etc., in which -unt is 
added after the analogy of legunt etc. In the Oscan-Umbrian 
period the forms in -n were remodeled in another way, namely 
by the addition of s, under the influence of the plural endings 
of nouns, or perhaps more specifically of the Nom. PI. of %-stems 
like O. humuns 'homines' etc. 1 

2. Final nt from earlier -nti (92), as in the corresponding 
primary ending, remains unchanged. Thus O. stahint 'stant', 
O. set (for omission of n see 108, 2), U. sent 'sunt', U. furent 
'erunt', etc. 

a. In Uinbrian there are three examples of omission of final nt, namely 
surur-o ' item' (VI b 48) beside the usual surur-ont, eru-hu ' eodem' (II b 22) 
beside usual -hunt, and fefure 'fuerint' (II a 4) for *fefurent (cf. benurent). The 
latter form is more commonly taken as 3d Sg. Perf. Indie, 'turbavit' from a 
root fur-, but against this view is the obvious parallelism of the passage with 
VI a 26. In staheren ' stabunt' the omission of t is due merely to the fact that 
the following word begins with t. 

1 The above explanation combines a suggestion of Ehrlich, I.F. XI, 299 ff., 
who thinks that the whole ending -ns was adopted from nouns, with Johansson's 
assumption of a secondary ending -nd, -n, preserved in L. danunt etc. 

82 Phonology [129 


129. 1. Initial tl, which, becomes I in Latin, as in Idtus 
from *tldtos, is seen in U. Tlatie, perhaps connected in form 
with L. Latium. 

2. Medial tl becomes kl except after *, as in Latin ; and 
the change may well belong to the Italic period. Thus, with 
the suffix which was once -tlo- (248, 3), O. sakarakliim 'ternplum', 
U. pihaclu 'piaculo', etc.: L. pidculum, poculum, etc.; but 
O. pestliim 'templum' (for peesslfum see 139,2). U. persclo 'pre- 
cationern' is probably persc-lo with suffix -lo-, not -tlo-. 

NOTE. Cf . the Paeligriian change of tr to kr in sacaracirix, pristafalacirix, 
as if L. *sacratrlx, *praestibulatrlx. 

130. d remains in Oscan in all positions, and initially in 
Umbrian. Examples: O. deikum, deicum 'dicere', U. teitu, deitu 
'dicito'; O. destrst 'dextra est', U. destram-e 'in dextram'; - 
U. tuves, duir 'duobus'. - - O. edum 'edere'; -- O. deded, SeSer 
'dedit'; -- O. pid 'quid', pod 'quod', etc. 

Umbrian f , rs, from d 

131. In Umbrian an intervocalic d regularly appears as f, 
rs. For the pronunciation and origin of the character tran- 
scribed f see 25, 27. Examples: tefa, dirsa 'det': O. didest 
'dabit' from a Reduplicated Present as if L. *dido, *didere ;- 
a-tefafust, an-dirsafust ' circumdederit' ; pefi, persi 'pede^petur- 
pursus 'quadrupedibus' ; zefef, serse 'sedens'. 

a. In a few words intervocalic d remains. Except for a single form of 
doubtful meaning and origin (tesedi, tenzitim), these contain an r, so that the 
failure to change to f, rs, seems due to the dissimilatory influence of this r. 
Thus Coredier, Kureties ' Coredii' ; utur ' aquam 1 : Grk. vdwp ; tuder 'finem', 
tuderato 'finitum', etc. This last is from an original s-stem *tudes-, and where 
the 3 is preserved the change of the d takes place, as shown by etufstamu, 
eturstahmu 'exterminate 1 , from *tur(e)sta-, denominative from *tudes-to- (cf. 
L. modes-tus). 

132] Consonants 83 

b. The occasional omission of r from rs, as in Acesoniam beside Acersoniem 
(Akefunie), is parallel to the omission in the case of original rs. See 76, 1. 

c. A few of the minor inscriptions antedate the change of intervocalic d, 
and show the sign S with its original value of d (27), as in dunum dede 'donum 

132. The occasional presence of f, rs, before and after con- 
sonants is due to syncope of an intervening vowel or to transfer 
from the intervocalic position. So afpes beside afepes 'adipibus'; 

- tribficu 'ternio' from *tri-p(e)d-ikion- (? see 106, a); af-fertur, 
ars-fertur, af-peltu, afveitu, etc., with the prefix af-, ars-'ad-', 
which gained this form before words beginning with a vowel ; 

mefs, mers 'ius' from *med(o}s, with f from other forms (not 
extant) in which the vowel was not lost; teftu, dirstu 'dato', 
tefte 'datur', with f from forms like tefa (131). 

NOTE. In the last two examples we cannot explain the f as hav- 
ing arisen in the unsyncopated forms *medos and *didetod, since the 
syncope here took place in all probability in the Oscan-TJmbrian 
period. The normal development of *did(e)tod, namely *dittod, is 
probably to be recognized in titu, ditu, which interchange with teftu 
etc., although these can also be regarded as standing for *dltod and 
connected with dia'faciat'. 

a. We find r, r, in place of f, rs, in mersus, Dat.-Abl. PI. of mefs, and 
mersuva, derivative of the same (*medes-uo-) ; tertu beside teftu; armamu 
beside arsmahamo ' ordinamini' ; tribrisine beside tribficu ; ar-veitu, ar-ueitu 
(once even a-veitu) beside af-veitu, ars-ueitu ; arfertur beside ars-fertur. 

The difference between mersus, mersuva, and mefs is probably only one of 
spelling. In the Latin alphabet we have regularly rs for rss, as in mers = mefs 
(and even mersi 'ius sit' for merss-si). The sound of f was not far from rs, 
and we may assume that when followed by s it was still nearer rs, so that the 
combination might be written either fs (mefs, etuf stamu, in I b) or rss, whence rs 
(mersus, mersuva, in III). Perhaps tertu, armamu, are mere mistakes in spelling 
(Q for S ; cf. fanu corrected by graver to ranu). The r for rs in tribrisine may 
be due to the following s. 

But the resemblance of ar-veitu, ar-fertur, etc. to early Latin ar-vorswm, 
ar-fuerunt, etc. suggests that ar- is the form which the prefix regularly assumed 
before v, /, and does not come from af-, ars-, which in af-veitu etc. is analogical 
(see above), as is the ad- of L. ad-fui. 

b. According to the most probable explanation of dersua, desua'pros- 
peram' (*ded(e)s-uo- 'giving, granting', from *dedos 'gift 1 ), tesvam would stand 
for *tersvam, this to be explained precisely like mersuva (a). 

84 Phonology [133 

Final d 

133. Final d, including the d from earlier t (127, 1), remains 
in Oscan, but is dropped in Umbrian, in both cases without 
regard to the quantity of the preceding vowel. Examples : 
O. jt?0c?'quod', pid'quid', but U. svepu'sive' (= O. suae pod}\- 
O. deded'dedit', but U. dede; Abl. Sg. O. toutad, dolud, slaagid, 
but U. tota, poplu, mani ; -- Imperat. O. estud, actud, but U. futu, 
aitu ; 3d Sg. Subj. O. fakiiad, hipid, but U. fa$ia, combifiansi. 

a. In Oscan there are two examples of h for d, both on the Curse of Vibia, 
indicating a weakening of the final d in the Capuan dialect. These are : svai 
puh 'sive' suae pod of the Tabula Bantina ; suluh 'omnino', an Ablative 
used adverbially. 

6. By combination with an enclitic beginning with a vowel, an original 
final d becomes intervocalic and so is preserved in Umbrian as f , rs. Thus pif-i, 
pirs-i : O. pid, L. quid ; puf-e, pors-i : 0. pod, L. quod ; ef-ek : 0. id-ic. 

Similarly U. -af 'ad' in the only examples (two) where the next word 
begins with a vowel, and twice also even when it begins with a consonant. In 
all other examples the form is -a. 

Initial di 


134. The history of initial di is the same as in Latin. It 
is preserved in a few Oscan inscriptions of early date, as in early 
Latin Diovis, but elsewhere the d is lost. So O. Diiivei, Atou/ret, 
diuvilam, but Iiiveis, luvei, iiivilam, U. luve, loui. 

a. It is doubtful if the *diekolom to which Bantian zicolom 'diem' points 
contains original di. It may be from die-, like L. dies, with dialectic change 
of i to i. See note to 100, 3, c. 

nd, dn 

135. nd becomes nn, usually written n in Umbrian (25, 26). 
So the Gerundives O. upsannam 'operandam,' sakrannas, eehiiana- 
sum, U. pihaner, anferener, etc. ; O. pan, pam 'quam' : L. quam- 
de;--U. ponne, pone, O. pun, pon i c\in\\ from *pomde as if 
L. *quomde like quamde; U. ostendu, ustentu from *ostennetod : 
L. ostendito (see also 156) ; similarly ampentu 'impendito', endendu 
'intendito', etc. 

137] Consonants 85 

In the case of ndl the change to nnl, nl, with the further 
change of nl to II (107, 3), led to such forms as U. apelust 'impen- 
dent', entelust 'intenderit', which are based upon -pend-lo-, 
-tend-lo- (226). 

a. U. une is probably from *udne, Abl. Sg. of utur, i. e. *udor : Grk. vdwp. 
The relation of 0. Perkens to Gen. Perkedne[is is not clear. 

dh 1 

136. dh, which appears in Latin initially as/, but medially 
as d or b according to the surrounding sounds, is f in both 
positions. Examples : O. fakiiad, factud, U. facia, fakust, etc. : 
L.facio, Grk. rtBrjpi, Skt. dhd- (root dhe-}; O. fiisnu 'fanum', 
U. fesnaf-e : L. fdnum, festus, etc. (probably from the same root 
as the preceding); O. feihiiss 'muros': L. fingo, Grk. ret%o?, 
Skt. dili- (root dheigJi-) ; -- U. furu: ~L. forum, Grk., Ovpa, Eng. 
door.- - O. mefiai 'in media': L. medius, Skt. mddhya-\- 
O. Aiifineis : L. Aedinius, aedes, Grk. aZ0o?, Skt. edha- ; U. com- 
bifiatu 'nuntiato' : L. fido, Grk. Tret'00), or: Grk. TrvvBdvofiat 
(86, a ; in either case the / represents dh). - - U. rufru 'rubros': 
L. ruler, Grk. epvdpos, Skt. rudhird--,--Q. Luvfreis ' Liberi' : 
L. liber, Grk. e\ev9epd<; ; -- O. stafktas 'statutae', U. staflarem 
'*stabularem' : L. stabulum, stabilis, with suffix -flo-, Grk. -0Xo-, 
orig. -dhlo- ; - - U. uerfale 'teniplum' : L. verbdlis, verbum, Goth. 
waurds, Eng. word. 

a. Here belong also U. Ace. PI. uef ' portiones' from *ueif-f, and U. vetu 
'dividito' from *ueif(e)tod : L. dl-vido, Skt. vindhdte, etc. In vetu the / has 
passed through the same development as that of ft from p (121). 

Dental + s 

137. 1. A dental is assimilated to a following s, as in 
Latin, and the change to ss doubtless belongs to the Italic 
period. Thus U. revestu'revisito': L. vlso from *ueid-so ; 
U. Fiso 'deo Fidio', O. Fiisiais '*Fisiis': L. fisus from *fid-s-o- 
(cf. fidus-tus). 

1 For the development of sonant aspirates in general, see 160-161. 

86 Phonology [137 

2. But secondary ts, due to the syncope of an intervening 
vowel or to a late combination, remains under the designation z 
in the native alphabets, appearing as s in the Latin alphabet. 
Thus O. hurz'hortus' from *hortos (90, l);--U. tacez, tases'taci- 
tus' from *taketos ; O. az'ad' from *ad-s (cf. L. ab-s etc.);- 
O. puz, jpows'ut', U. puze, puse, from *put-s (202, 6). O. aserum 
'adserere' is ambiguous, since it is not found in the native alpha- 
bet, but probably belongs here rather than under 1 ; here also 
U. ostensendi 'ostendentur' from *ostend(e)senter. 

NOTE. It is uncertain whether the s of the Latin alphabet also denoted 
te, or whether the sound had actually become s. It has been suggested that 
U. zefef ' sedens' with z for s is an indication that even before the native alpha- 
bet was abandoned, a change had taken place so that the sound of z was prac- 
tically s. But there are no examples of s in place of z in the native alphabet, 
and U. zefef has also been explained as arising in a compound like *anzefef (cf. 
anzeriatu, 110, 1). Still, if the analysis of U. pruzufe as *pro-sode (94) were 
more certain, it would add weight to the first suggestion. 

Dental + Dental 

138. The combination of the final dental of a root with 
the t of a suffix shows the same treatment as in Latin, and had 
doubtless become ss, or st before r, in the Italic period. Exam- 
ples : O. Fepo-opei <*Versori' (U. trahuorfi 'transverse' with rf 
from rss ; see 115, 3): L. versus, earlier *verssus, from *vert-to- 1 ; 
U. sesust 'sederit', probably based on a participial stem *sesso-: 
L. sessus (*sed-to- 1 ); O. usurs probably: L. dsor ^od-tor 1 );- 
U.frosetom 'fraudatum': early L.fraussus (*fraud-to- 1 ) . O. luisa- 
rifs probably as if L. *liisaribus from lusus (*loid-to- 1 ); O. cas- 
trous, U. castruo : L. castrum (*cat-tro- 1 ; cf. cassis from *cat-ti-). 

a. In the case of dh + t, the normal phonetic development is different, 
the combination becoming ddh in Indo-European, and resulting in st in Italic, 
e.g. L. custos: Grk. icfoBos, Goth, huzd ' hoard', from *kudh-to- 1 (for root cf. 
/cej50w, Eng. hide). So L. hasta, U. hostatu 'hastatos', from *ghadh-ta l (cf. 
Goth, gazds 'sting'); probably U. ufestne 'operculatis'(?) from *op-fest(i)no-, 
an extension of *festo- from *bhendh-to- 1 (root bhendh-, Eng. bind, seen also in 
L. offendix 'knot'). 

1 So written for convenience in showing the root. 'These combinations were 
partially transformed even in the parent speech. 

140] The Gutturals 87 

But in most cases this development has been interrupted by an analogical 
restoration in prehistoric times of the t of the suffix, so that ddh was replaced 
by dt (tt), which then became ss in Italic, as usual. Thus L. iussus, not*iustus, 
though from a root ending in dh. There is, then, no difficulty in the assump- 
tion (189, 1) that 0. messimass 'medioximas'(?) comes from *medh-tmmo- 
(Skt. mddh-ya-), and O.-U. nessimo- 'proximus' (cf. O.Ir. nessam 'next') from 
*nedh-tmmo- (Skt. nah- 'tie', Partic. naddhd-), though the latter may also come 
from ned-, a by-form of nedh-, seen in Skt. nedistha- ' next', Av. nazdista-. O. nis- 
trus 'propinquos' is also, probably, from *nedh-tero- (*neddhero-) , either through 
*nestero- with the same development as in L. custos, or through *nettro- with 
restored suffix and syncope, and subsequent development as in L. castrum (in 
the latter assumption there is a chronological difficulty, though not an insur- 
mountable one). 

Other Combinations of Dentals 

139. 1. A dental is assimilated to a following k, p, or/, as 
in Latin. Thus O. piikkapid, pocapit 'quandoque', a compound 
of pod, probably *pod-kdd-pid ; - - O. perek., U. percam, from 
*pertkd : L. pertica ; O. akkatus 'advocati' (89, 3, 102, 3);- 
U. appei, ape 'ubi' probably from *ad-pe (202, 8);--U. Ace. 
PI. capif i chides' from *kapid-f (kapif is a mistake due to f in 
other case-forms); O. aflukad from *ad-flok- (? see 97, a). 

a. A remarkable assimilation of d to a preceding k or s must be assumed 
for 0. ekkum'item' and O. iussu 'iidem', if these contain the enclitic dom. 
But see 201, 5. 

2. A loss of t in the combinations stm, stn, and stl, subject 
to special local or chronological conditions, is seen in O. posmom 
'postremum' beside pustm[as ; -- U. pusnaes beside pustnaiaf 'posti- 
cas' ; O. peesslfum (for ss, see 162,2) beside pestliim 'templum'. 
So in Latin, with subsequent loss of s, pomerium from *post- 
moiriom, pone from *post-ne (U. postne), Us from slis, stlis. Cf. 
also U. pusveres beside post uerir 'post portam'. 


140. It is necessary to distinguish between the two series of 
gutturals known as the palatals and the labiovelars. The palatals 
appear as simple ^-sounds in the western languages (Greek, 

88 Phonology [140 

Latin, Celtic, Germanic), conveniently known as the centum- 
languages, while in the eastern group (Indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic, 
Armenian, Albanian), known as the satera-languages (Avestan 
sat9m = L. centum], they develop into sibilants (like L. c, g, before 
e, i, in the Romance languages). The labiovelars, which were 
pronounced well back on the soft palate and with an accom- 
panying rounding of the lips, appear as simple ^-sounds in the 
satem-languages, while in the centum-languages the rounding 
of the lips has resulted in a distinct w-sound closely follow- 
ing the guttural, giving what may be called &#-sounds. This 
It-element may remain distinct, as in Latin qu, or may unite with 
the guttural to form a labial, as in the Oscan-Umbrian p. It 
is one of the chief characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian as compared 
with Latin that the labiovelars appear regularly as labials. 

There is still a third series of gutturals, called the pure 
velars, which remain simple ^-sounds in both groups, showing 
neither the ^-element in the centum-languages nor the develop- 
ment to sibilants in the satem-languages. But since within either 
group this series is identical with one of the other two, it will 
be necessary here, where we are for the most part only comparing 
Oscan-Umbrian with Latin, to distinguish only two series, the 
one which shows the w-element and the one which does not. 

We shall treat, then, the ^-sounds, which include the Indo- 
European palatals (k etc.) and the pure velars (q etc.), and the 
&#-sounds, which represent the labiovelars (qu etc.). 


141. k appears as k, c, as in Latin. Examples : O. cemaum, 
keenzstur : L. censed, censor, etc. ; U. kanetu, procanurent : 
L. cano ; O. deikum, deicum, dicust, U. dersicust (from *dedi- 
cust): L. died ; O. Dekmanniuis <*Decumaniis', U. tekuries, dequ- 
rier 'decuriis': L. decent. 

a. It is uncertain whether ku (i.e. I.E. + u) remained unchanged or 
became p like kV (I.E. qV). Cf. L. equus from ekuo- and sequor from seqV-. 
For the former would speak U. ekvine, if connected with L. equinus, for the 

144] The G-utturals 89 

latter, the gentiles Epidius etc., found in Latin inscriptions from Oscan- 
Umbrian territory, if they belong with L. Equitius etc. and are genuine 
O.-U. forms. 

6. In Umbrian a final k is often omitted in the writing, e.g. ere, ere, beside 
erek, erec: 0. izic. See 201, 1. 


142. But before t a k became a spirant and then simply h, 
so that the combination kt appears as Jit in both Oscan and 
Umbrian. In Umbrian, however, the h was weakly sounded 
or wholly lost, as is evident from its frequent omission in the 
writing, and the preceding vowel was lengthened. See 75. 
Examples : O. ehtrad, U. ap-ehtre, from *ek-tro- : L. extra, etc. ; - 
O. Uhtavis : L. Octdvius ; U. rehte : L. recte; O. saahtum, 
U. sahta, satam, sahatam : L. sanctus ; U. uhtur : L. auctor ; 
U. speture : L. (in-)spector. 

a. It is possible that the same change from k to h should be recognized 
before p, examples of which would be 0. ehpeilatas 'erectae', and ehpreivld, of 
uncertain meaning, on a fragmentary inscription. But the eh may be due to 
extension from compounds of words beginning with t. 

143. Secondary kt, resulting from the syncope of an inter- 
vening vowel, has an entirely different history. It remains 
unchanged in Oscan, while in Umbrian it appears as it, the k 
having passed through the same development as in French fait 
fi'om'L.factum. Examples: Q.factud: L.facito; O. actud : 
L. agito ; O. uincter : L. vincitur ; U. aitu, aitu : O. actud ; 

- U. teitu, deitu 'dicito' from *deik(e)tod (the original diphthong 
is represented by the e only; see 65); U. feitu, feitu, fetu, 
feetu 'facito' from *fek(e)tod (219). Here belongs also U. -veitu 
(afveitu, arsueitu 'advehito', kuveitu 'convehito') from *uektod, this 
from original *ueghetod (160). 

Umbrian palatalization of k 

144. In Umbrian a k before the vowels e and i, and before 
consonantal i, becomes a sibilant, written 5, s, or often simply s. 
This recalls the development of Latin c before palatal vowels 
in the Romance languages, as in French cent etc. The precise 

90 Phonology [144 

pronunciation of the Umbrian sound, the difference between it 
and the ordinary s, is of course uncertain. It may have been s 
(i.e. Eng. sh) or s (palatal s). As regards the use of s for s, it 
is comparatively rare initially, but between vowels vastly more 
common than . Examples: sesna 'cenam', ^ersnatur 4 cenati' : 
L. cena, O. kersnu ; sihitu, sihitu : L. clnctus ; pase (15 times, 
always s) : L. pace ; tacez, tases (14 times, always s): L. tad- 
tus ; desenduf : L. decem ; tiit : L. decet ; ar^if : L. ancus, 
uncus ; skaJ$e-ta, scalse-to : L. calice ; curnase 'cornice' (Ace. 
Sg. curnaco). Observe also pesetom 'peccatum' from *pecceto-: 
L. pecco from *petco. Further, with consonantal i, which is 
frequently omitted in the writing, fa$ia, faiu, fa$u : L. facio ; 
Sansie, Sansie, Sage: L. *Sancius (Sancus); tribfigu 'ternio' beside 
Abl. Sg. tribrisine (-ik-ion-,-ik-in, 181); jowr^wsms^'porrexerit', 
purdinsust, purtincus, etc. (ftyh'-Perfect, 229). 

We find also 9!, s/, in a number of words, but in these the 
palatalization of the k is due to a following e which has been 
lost by syncope after having affected the k. Thus ti^lu 'dedica- 
tionem' from *dik-elo- ; preuislatu (also preuilatu by engraver's 
error) '*praevinculato', denominative from *uink-elo-: L. vincu- 
lum; struhcla, strusla '*struiculam' from *struuikeld-. But 
when k is preceded by s it is not affected, e.g. veskles, uesclir 
'vasculis' from *ues-kelo-. The instrumental suffix -klo- remains 
unchanged, since this does not come from -kelo- like the diminu- 
tive suffix. So pihaklu, pihaclu 'piaculum', etc. 

a. In several words we find k unchanged before e or i. In some this is 
due to the analogical influence of other cases in which the k is followed by 
another vowel, as Gen. Sg. Naharcer after Naharcom. So probably also forms 
of the Dat. Sg. and Dat.-Abl. PI. like fratreci, todceir, etc. though in these e, i, 
comes from earlier oi. Cf . also Pupfike beside Pupfise etc. A few forms occur- 
ring in the oldest tables may be regarded as survivals from a period antedating 
the process of palatalization, e.g. kebu : L. cibus. The origin of Akefunie, Acerso- 
ntew, and its relation to 0. Akudunniad are obscure. For cehefi 'accensum sit'(?), 
ku-kehes, there is no satisfactory etymology (connection with Grk. icalw from 
*Kaf-i<i) impossible). 

6. For original fci, which regularly appears as qi, .si, or 9, d, s (fa$iu, fa$u, 
etc., above), we find simply i in usaie beside usace, and in peiu, peiu, from 

146] The G-utturals 91 

*pik-io- (for e for i see 45) : L. piceus. The reason for this is not apparent, and 
some prefer to assume an error in usaie and to reject the comparison of peiu with 
L. piceus. But peiu denotes some color, contrasted with rufru 'rubros', and the 
meaning 'piceos' is so strikingly suitable that in spite of the difficulty in the 
form, we prefer to accept the connection. Cf. also feia 'faciat' (219). 


145. 1. Before consonants ks becomes s. Thus O. destrst 
'dextra est', U. destram-e 'in dextram'; -- U. sestentasiaru 'sextan- 
tariarum'; *persk-, *porsk-, etc. (97) from *perk-sk- (cf. L. posed, 
*porsco from *pork-sk-, beside precor), in U. persclo 'precati- 
onem', persnihimu ' precator' (see 146), etc., beside pepurkurent 
'poposcerint', and in O. comparascuster ' consul ta erit' beside 

NOTE. The reduction to s in the examples given belongs to different 
periods. In *persk- it is probably Indo-European, in sestentasiaru Italic, in 
destrst Oscan-Umbrian. 

2. Final ks, both original and secondary, becomes ss, s. 
Thus O. meddiss, meddis 'meddix' (Gen. Sg. medikeis); also Nom. 
PL meddiss from *meddik(e)s (90, l);--U. uas 'vitium' from 
*uak(o)s (cf. L. vaco). But sometimes the k is restored under 
the influence of the oblique cases, e.g. O. Nom. PL /^eSSetf = 
meddiss, O. tuvtiks 'publicus', U. fratreks, fratrexs '*fratricus'. 

3. Intervocalic ks is seen in O. eksuk'hoc', exac'h&c', etc., 
to which corresponds U. esu, esu, essu 'hoc', esa 'hac', etc. It is 
uncertain whether this ks is original or secondary. If the latter, 
compare O. upsannam: U. osatu (122, 3). 

Loss of k between consonants 

146. Loss of k (in part from A# by 153) between consonants 
is seen in O. molta, U. muta : L. multa, mulcta (muled] ; - 
O. fortis 'potius': L. fortis, forctis ;--U. Urnasier '*Urnariis': 
L. urna from *urcnd (urceus)-, O. turumiiad 'torqueatur', denom- 
inative from *torkmo-, *torku-mo- : L. tormentum (torqued) ; 
U. persnihimu ' precator', denominative from *persk-ni- (*persk- 
from *perk-sk-, 145); - - U. perstu 'ponito'(?) from *persk(e)tdd 

92 Phonology [146 

(cf. peperscust); O. Puntiis, U. puntes 'pentads', from *ponk-t-, 
*ponkl ( -t- (153), beside O. Ho/iTrrte? and pomtis 'quinquiens' from 
*pomptis, with p after *pompe 'quinque' (cf. L. Qulntus, Qulnc- 
tus); similarly, where the combination is due to syncope, 
U. anstintu 'distinguito' from *-stinktod, *-stink^tod (153), but 
ninctu 'ninguito' with the guttural restored from unsyncopated 
forms prior to the labialization in the latter (or were n and nc 
two spellings for the same sound, namely the guttural nasal?). 

a. In the examples of nt from nkt the k of the latter is 
from ky> (153). In the case of original nkt (i.e. with I.E. k) the 
nasal was lost and the kt became ht, as elsewhere. See 73, 142. 

b. U. kunikaz, conegos ' conixus' shows the same reduction of 
nkn to n as L. conlveo (root kneiguh-, Goth, hneiwan). 


147. 1. Original g is for the most part unchanged. Exam- 
ples : O. Genetai 'Genitae' ; O. aragetud 'argento' ; O. ligud 
'lege'; O. tanginiid'sententia': L. tongitio ;--\J. #</er 'ager'. 

2. Initial gn remains in Oscan, but appears as n in 
Umbrian. Thus O. Gnaivs 'Gnaeus'; U. natine : L. ndtio from 
*gndtio (gens] ; naratu, naraklum : L. ndrro, gndrus. 

3. An Italic change is that of intervocalic gi to M, the first i 
then forming a diphthong with the preceding vowel. For to 
L. maior from *magios (magis, magnus), mains, Mains, etc. belong 
O. Maiiui 'Maio' (see 100, 2), with Nom. Sg. Mais, and mais 1 'magis, 
plus', from *maiios (91, 1). Cf. also U. aiu 4 agitationes, disturb- 
ances^?), probably from agio. 

a. In *maistero- (whence U. mestru ' maior') and *maisemo- (whence 
O. maimas 'maximae', 114, 6), the *mais- may also be from *maiies (cf. 
L. maiestas), but more probably has replaced magis (cf. L. magister) under the 
influence of forms like O. mais. 1 O. Maesius ' mensis Maius' (Festus) seems 
also, in contrast to L. Maius, 0. Maiitif, to be formed directly from mais. 

4. Assimilation of g to a following / is seen in U. Ace. PI. 
/rz/'fruges' from *frug-f (59). 

1 According to another view, once held by the author also, these words are not 
cognate with L. magis, maior, etc. but with Goth, mais (Eng. more etc.). 

149] The G-utturah 93 

Umbrian palatalization of g 

148. Corresponding to the palatalization of k before e and 
i is the Umbrian change of g to a sound which is represented . 
by i. Thus muieto 'muttitum' beside mugatu ' muttito' (cf. pru- 
secetu, proseseto 'prosecta' beside prusekatu 'prosecato'); eveietu 
'voveto' from *e-uegetod, *e-ueigetod (L. victima, Germ, weiheri). 1 

a. An apparent example of palatalization of g by a preceding i is seen in 
liuvina, liouinur, louinur, etc. beside Ikuvins 'Iguvinus'. But the mediaeval and 
modern forms of the name preserve the g, and it has been suggested that the 
spelling cited is due to a "pious fraud" of the priests who wished to connect 
the name of the city with that of the divinity. Cf. luve, louie, liouie, etc. 

149. gh appears as A, as in Latin. Examples: O. hurz, hiir- 
tiim : L. hortus, Grk. %dpTO<; ; O. humuns 'homines', U. homonus 
'hominibus': L. homo ; O. hu[n]truis 'inferis', U. hondra 'infra', 
hondomu 'infimo': L. humus etc. (15, 5); O. herest 'volet', 
U. heriest 'volet', etc.: L. horior etc. (15, 1); O. heriiad 'capiat', 
hjerrins 'caperent': L. heres, Grk. %et/o, Skt. hdrdmi ' hold' ; - 
O. feihiiss 'muros': Grk. ret^o? (L. Jingo with g for gh after n); 
O. kahad 'capiat' : L. incoho ; O. Verehasiui ' Versori'(?), perhaps : 
L. vergo (g for gh after a consonant); O. eehiianasum 'emitten- 
darum', U. ehiato 'emissos' (used of the victims 'let out' for the 
sacrificial hunt) : L. hid (occasionally transitive 'emit'), Lith. 
zioju 'gape'. For U. -veitu 'vehito', see 143. 

a. Umbrian h was so weakly sounded that, as in Latin, the letter is some- 
times omitted, or, vice versa, employed where it has no etymological value. 
Thus eretu beside usual heritu l optato' (: heriest ' volet' etc. , above) ; an-ostatu 
beside an-hostatu, hostatu ' hastatos' : L. hasta ; enclitic -out after consonants 
beside -hont after vowels (er-ont, eri-hont 'idem' etc., 195); eitipes from *eitom 
hipens (84, 264, 2) ; hebetaf-e beside ebetraf-e ' in exitus' from *e-baitra (L. baeto) ; 
habina 'agnas': L. agnus (? or: Skt. chdga 'goat', in which case the h is 
etymological); Hule, holtu 'aboleto'(?), perhaps from a root ol- (Grk. 6\\vfj.i 

In O. Herukinai ' Erycinae' the h is due to the influence of Herentatef, 
of which it is an epithet. 

i Osthoff, I.F. 6, 39 ff. 

94 Phonology [149 

b. The substitution of / for A, in folus for holus and other forms cited by 
Latin writers, and in Faliscan foied 'hodie', seems to have been characteristic 
of rustic Latin and some of the neighboring minor dialects. It is possible that 
U. felsva is a borrowed technical term originating in regions where this change 
.was made. For, certainly, the comparison with L. holus is more attractive 
than any other explanation offered. 

For U. era-font beside era-hunt 'eadem', see 201, 6. 

150. H*, L. qu, appears as p. Examples : O. piid, pod, 
U. puf-e: L. quod; O. pid, U. pif-e: L. quid; U. panta: 
L. quanta; O. petiro-pert 'quater', U. petur^pursus 'quadru- 
pedibus': L. quattuor ; - - *pompe (O. piimperiais, U. pumpefias): 
L. quinque. 

a. Both O.-U. *pompe and L. quinque are from an Italic *k^enkVe 1 
though this comes by consonant-assimilation from an earlier *penktte (cf. 
Grk. TT^J/TC, Skt. pdnca). 

151. cfti, Latin v or (after n) gu, appears as b. Examples : 
O. kiimbened 'convenit,' U. benust 'venerit' : L. venio (Eng. come); 
-O. bivus'vivi': L. vlvus (Eng. quick) ;--U. berus 'veribus': 
L. veru;--U. bum'bovem' (Eng. cow; L. bos is borrowed from 
some O.-U. dialect); U. umen 'unguen' from *omben (125, 2): 
L. unguen ; - - U. habina: L. agnus (? see 149, a). 

152. <^A, Latin / (initially), v (between vowels), or gu 
(after w), appears as/. Thus U. vufru 'votivum', vufetes * voti- 
vis': L. *uoueto- (whence votus, like motus from *moueto-), voveo 
(cf. Skt. vdghdtr 'sacrificer', Grk. eu^o/xat, root ueg u h- and eug u h-). 
Unquestionable examples of initial / from guJi are wanting. 

a. U. uouse is commonly translated *voto' and regarded as corresponding 
in form to a L. *vovicio-. But there is no adequate explanation of the uou- in 
its relation to the vuf- of the other forms. 

1 For the development of sonant aspirates in general, see 160-161. 

154] The Gutturals 95 

Loss of U in kU etc. 

153. The u of kJf etc. is lost before another consonant, as 
in Latin coctus beside coquo, qulntus beside quinque, etc. Thus 
O. Puntiis, U. puntes 'pentads', from *ponk-t- (146), *ponku-t-, 
beside *pompe with the usual development of k% (150), while 
in O. HofjiTTTLes and pomtis the labial is analogical. See also 
146. The same loss occurs in combinations resulting from syn- 
cope, showing that the latter process antedates the change of 
ku etc. to p etc. Thus U. fiktu 'figito' from *flkMt6d, *figUetod l : 
L. flgo, earlier fivo ; O. fruktatiuf 'fructus' from *fruk u t-, fru- 
gUetdtion- 1 : L. *fruitdtw, fruitio;--~U. anstintu 'distinguito' 
from *-stinktod (146), *-stink u tod, *-stingUetod l ; - - U. ninctu 'nin- 
guito' from *ninkt6d, *ning u ,etod (originally g%h; see 161). 

a. U. umtu ' unguito' instead of *untu or *unktu is an analogical form 
like O. pomtis, m in this case coming from forms like *wmmo, *umbo (cf . umen 
from*om&en: L. unguen 151). 

6. U. subocau ' invoco' agrees with L. TJOCO, the k probably originating in 
Nom. Sg. *uoks (L. vox) from *udk^s (Grk. CTTOS, 6^). In U. kunikaz, conegos 
'genu nixus' (as if L. *conigatus for *conivatus) : L. conived, Goth, hneiwan 
'kneel' (root kneig^h-), the simple guttural might be attributed to the influence 
of forms such as L. nixus, nlctd, but in that case it is not clear why we have 
not *conecos. 

154. Loss of the u before a following u, as seen in L. quln- 
cuplex beside qulnque, etc., is perhaps to be recognized for Oscan- 
Umbrian also, and so attributed to the Italic period. But the 
material is meagre and indecisive. Examples would be U. pru- 
sikurent 'pronuntiaverint': L. inseque (but it is fully as likely 
that the k in this, as in the probably related U. sukatu and in 
L. insece beside inseque, is due to the influence of forms like 
L. msectio, in which the u was lost before the following conso- 
nant) ; U. *arkelo-, whence arclataf arc ulatas' (144), instead of 
*arpelo-, perhaps due to the analogy of *arku- as L. arcitenens 
for arquitenens is due to arcu-. 

1 We are justified in assuming that the Oscan-Umbrian forms go with the 
Latin, even though the gVf in these forms is not Indo-European. See Brugmann, 
Grd. 12, p. 603. 

96 Phonology [154 

The p in O. puf, U. pufe'ubi' and O. puz, U. puze'ut' must 
then be attributed to the influence of forms like (.). pud, pid, etc. 

a. L. ubi, ut, etc. are variously explained, but there are no serious 
objections to the view that they represent the regular Latin development of 
initial kttu. 

Change of Surd Mutes to Sonants 

155. The change of nkl to ngl, seen in L. angulus from 
*anklo- (ancus), doubtless belongs to the Italic period. Thus 
O. ungulus 'anulus' (Festus): L. uncus ; U. anglom-e 'ad angu- 
lum' ; U. anglaf ' oscmes' (g 6 times, but twice c) from *an-kld- 
(L. cldmo; cf. oscen from cano). 

156. In Umbrian, nk, nt, except when final, become ng, nd. 
Thus iuengar: L. iuvenca ; -- ander: O. anter, L. inter;-- Pas- 
sives tursiandu, ostensendi, with endings -tor (L. -tur), -ter (U. her- 
ter, O. uincter); ostendu 'ostendito' from *os-tentu, this from 
*os-tennetod (135), similarly andendu, endendu 'intendito' from 
*an-tentu, *en-tentu ; hondra 'infra': O. hu[n]truis 'inferis' ; - 
hondomu 'infimo': L. -tumo-. 

NOTE. This change is later than the palatalization of &, as is shown by 
anfif and preuislatu (144). 

157. 1. A change of medial pr to br is regular in Umbrian. 
Thus subra, subra 'supra', kabru 'caprum', cabriner 'caprini', abrof 
'apros', abrunu 'aprum'. In supru, kaprum etc., apruf, the p prob- 
ably stands for b, as not infrequently elsewhere (30, G). In Oscan 
also we find embratur 'imperator' and Abella- (Abellaniis) probably 
from *Apro-ld- (91, 2), but usually pr remains (supruis etc.). 

2. A similar change of tr to dr is seen in a few words, 
though usually tr remains (U. fratrom, O. fratrum, etc.). Thus 
U. podruh-pei 'utroque': O. puturus-pid from *po-tro- (81);- 
O. Sadiriis 'Satrius' (81) ; U. adro 'atra', O. Aderl. ' Atella' from 
Atro-ld (see 91, 2, and note ; but it is possible that dr in this case 
is original, becoming tr in Latin, as in taeter from *taed-ro-). 

NOTE. The reasons for the variation in the representation of tr and (in 
Oscan) of pr are obscure. 

160] The G-utturals 97 

158. Other, more isolated examples are U. Padellar from 
*Patno-ld- (91, 2, a), with which may be compared L. scabellum 
from *scap-no-lo- (scdpus), dignus from *dec-no-, etc. ; O. dege- 
tasis, degetasiiis, beside deketasiiii, from *dekentdsio-, the explana- 
tion of the g being doubtful (cf. L. vigintl ?) ; U. todcom-e 
'in urbicum', todceir, beside totcor (cf. O. touticom), the d being 
probably a graphic vagary due to the following tuder. 

Change of Sonant Mutes to Surds 

159. The change of sonant to surd before a following surd 
mute is an Indo-European process, but repeats itself in the case 
of combinations arising through syncope in the Oscan-Umbrian 
period. Thus O. actud'&glto' from *ag(e)tod, U. fiktu 'figito' 
from *fyu(e)tod (153), etc. 

a. 0. akenei, U. acnw, peracni-, etc., if the frequently assumed connection 
with L. ago is correct, indicate that ak- in place of ag- was generalized from 
such forms as L. actus, actio (cf. U. ahtim), reinforced in the Oscan-Umbrian 
period by forms like 0. actud. With this view would agree O. acum on the 
Tabula Bantina, though no great weight can be attached to this on account of 
the frequent misspellings (e.g. licud for ligud). 

The words in question have also been connected with L. annus from *atno- 
(Goth. a/n), and on the side of meaning this is most attractive, especially for 
the fairly certain acunum VI nesimum of the Tabula Bantina and the akun. 
CXII of no. 13. Moreover the resemblance of the compounds U. per-acni- and 
seu-acni- (cf. U. seuom 'totum', O. siuom ' omnino') to L. per-ennis and soll-ennis 
(the by-form sollemnis contains a different word, perhaps one related to 0. amniid 
'circuitu') is too striking to be ignored, though peracni- is not 'perennis' in 
meaning, but is used, like seuacni-, in the same sense as L. sollennis. Now an 
Oscan-Umbrian change of medial tn to kn is not sufficiently paralleled by the 
change of tl to kl, which is Italic (129, 2); and it is, moreover, opposed by 
O. Patanai ' Pandae' from *Pat-na- (or earlier *Patena ?). But there may be an 
indirect connection; that is, the O.-U. *akno- may represent a contamination 
of *atno- with some other form, perhaps an *agno- or *akno- coming from ag- 
and meaning 'ceremony' (occurring at fixed periods). 

Changes of the original Sonant Aspirates 

160. In the Italic period the Indo-European sonant aspirates 
became first surd aspirates, as likewise in Greek, and then the 
corresponding spirants. That is, 67t, dh, gh, guh, became first 

98 Phonology [160 

ph, ih, Jch, JcUh, then/, p (= Eng. th in thin), % (= Germ. ch), %*J. 
The further changes of p to/, of ^ to A, and of ^ to/, even 
where common to Oscan-Umbrian and Latin, probably took 
place independently in each branch. The d of L. medius 
(O. mefiai) must come directly from p (cf. also \frpd borrowed 
from *llprd, whence L. libra) ; and since in this position Italic/ 
is impossible, it is improbable in the others. Intervocalic % 
appears as h in all dialects, but U. -veitu 'vehito' makes it 
unlikely that it had reached this stage at the time of the Oscan- 
Umbrian syncope, for this implies *uektod (see 143), which can 
come from *ue%etod, but hardly from *ueh(e)tod. 

161. In Latin we find regularly a sonant mute after a nasal ; 
that is, not only mb and nd (in which the sonant would not neces- 
sarily be due to the nasal), but also ng and ngu, e.g. lingo (Xe</\;&>), 
ninguit (i>ei'$et). The same holds true for Umbrian. Thus : 

mb from mf: ambr- (ambr-etuto ambiunto') beside O. amfr-(am- 
fret 'ambiunt'),from*ara/er, which is formed hom*amf(i)- (L.amb-, 
Grk. afjL(f)i) after the analogy of anter, super, etc. (i.e. *amfer-eo 
after *anter-eo, L. inter-eo ; cf . L. comb-tiro after amb-uro) ; - 
here probably also amb-oltu 'ambulato' (Grk. aXao/^at?); com- 
bifiatu 'nuntiato' from *com-fif-: IL.fldo, Grk. ireiOa), root bheidh- 
(or Grk. TrvvOdvopai, root bheudh- ; see 86, 7). For the operation 
of the process even in composition, see 164, a. 

nghomnx'- cringatro l ciiictum': O. Eng. hring 'ring', O.Bulg. 
krqgu 'circle', root krengh-. 

For nd from rij> and for ngU from nx there are no certain examples. 
It would be attractive to derive -uendu (ahauendu 'avertito', preuendu 
'advertito') from *uenetod (Germ, winden, wenden, root uendh-) 
through the medium of *uendetod (like ostendu irom*ostendelod, 156), 
and ninctu from *ninx~*etdd (Grk. i/e/0ei etc.) through *ningyetud (like 
fiktu from *ftgVetdd, 153). But the vowel-syncope belongs in all prob- 
ability to the Oscan-Umbrian period, whereas the change to sonant 
seems to be Umbrian only, not Oscan (see a with footnote). It is 
better, then, to assume the development *uenj>(e)tod, *uentod, uendu, 
and *ninx(e)tod, *ninkXtod (cf. *uexetod, *uektod, 160), ninctu. 
a. O. ampt ' circum' is obviously connected with *ara/(i)-, L. am&-, etc. , 
being formed by the addition of the same -t(i) seen in pos-t, per-t, etc. But 

162] Doubling of Consonants in Oscan 99 

we cannot well derive it from *amf-t with a change of ft to pt, since Oscan 
shows, rather, the opposite change of pt to ft (121). Nor can we start from 
*amb-t, since amb- from *amf- is confined to Latin and Umbrian (O. amfr- ; see 
above) 1 . The explanation is as follows : In the Italic period *amf- became 
*am- before certain consonants, e.g. before / (cf. U. an-ferener). This *am- was 
extended to other forms, and became a regular by-form of *amf- as in L. am-icio 
etc. Oscan-Umbrian examples are 0. am-viannud ' vico' (cf. Grk. Afj-QoSov); 
O. amniid 'circuitu' (16, 2); probably O. ampu[l]ulum 'ministrum'(?), diminu- 
tive from *am-polo- (p from kU): L. an-culus, Grk. d/j.<f>l-iro\os ; U. an-ferener 
' circumferendi' ; U. an-dirsafust l circumtulerit' ; U. aplenia ' impleta, full 
on both sides' ; possibly U. am-pefia (see Glossary). 

From this by-form am- was formed *am-t, which became ampt with the 
same secondary p which is seen in L. em-p-tus, sum-p-tus, etc. (cf. also ampter- 
mini in Festus). 

Doubling of Consonants in Oscan 

162. 1. Doubling of consonants is to be observed in Oscan 
frequently before consonantal i, and occasionally before r and v. 
Examples : Mamerttiais 'Martiis' ; uittiuf 'usus' from *oition- ; 

- a]ittium 'portionum', Gen. PL beside Gen. Sg. aeteis (i instead 
of i is due to the influence of other case-forms, as -im, -iss, etc.); 

- meddikkiai 'in *meddicia' from *meddik-id- ; tribarakkiuf 'aedi- 
ficatio' from *trebark-ion-; Dekkieis 'Decii' (Nom.Dekis) ; kum- 
bennieis'conventus' from *kom-ben-io- ; teremenniu 'termina' as 
if L. *terminia ; - - Dekmanniiiis '*Decumaniis' ; Vitelliu * Italia', 
etc. - alttram 'alteram', alttrei 'alteri' ; punttram 'pontem'. 
Dekkviarim 'Decurialem'. 

2. Doubling of s before t is seen in kvaisstur 'quaestor' (once 
kvaizstur; influence of keenzstur?); keenzstur' censor' (nz = nts, 
110, 1) ; piisstist 'positum est' (? see 84, a), passtata 'porticum' (21). 
Probably kerssnais 'cenis' and kerssnasias are also examples of simi- 
lar doubling, in spite of the fact that they once had etymological 
88 (lie, 2); also peesslfum (139, 2). 

3. Appelluneis 'Apollinis', ATTTreXXoui/^t, remind us of L. Ap- 
puleius beside Apuleius, etc., and the spelling is perhaps due to 

1 The possibility of separating the / of O. amfret from that of *amf(i)-, as 
advocated by some, and assuming an Italic change of sonant aspirate to sonant after 
a nasal, has been considered, but given up as improbable. Cf. also O. Verehasiiii; 
L. vergo (? 149). 

100 Phonology [162 

the influence of compounds like L. appello etc. Helleviis for 
usual Heleviis is simply a mistake. 

NOTE. Even for words falling under 1 and 2, the doubling is by no 
means universal, the spelling sometimes varying for the same word. It is 
probably an attempt to indicate that the consonant was sounded both at the 
end of one syllable and at the beginning of the next. Cf. L. quattuor, and the 
occasional iuscriptional spellings such as frattre, aggro, mattrona, asstante, 
iussta, Vessta, etc. In Greek, aar for <TT is especially common, and doubling 
before t and p is found in dialectic inscriptions. 

Simplification of Double Consonants 

163. In Oscan, which in general, apart from the oldest 
inscriptions and the Tabula Bantina, faithfully represents double 
consonants in the writing, there are some examples of single in 
place of double consonants. But even in these cases it is not 
clear how far we have to do with anything more than irregular- 
ity in spelling. Examples: dadikatted 'dedicavit' from *dad-dik- 
(cf. dat <de') ; eehiianasum 'emittendarum' beside upsannam etc.; 
amvianud 'vico' beside amviannud; - - medikeis, medikei, beside 
meddiss 'meddix' ; medikkiai beside meddikiai; further, on the 
Tabula Bantina, medicim, medicatinom, medicatud, beside meddis, 

Changes in Sentence-Combination. Sandhi. 

164. The history of initial and final sounds has been included 
in the general treatment. For crasis etc., see 84. Following is 
a resume of the changes of finals. 

1. Final short vowels are sometimes lost (92). 

2. Final a is changed in the direction of d (34). 

3. Final rs, Is, become r, I (117, 119, 2). 

4. Final /8, ks, become ss, s (124, a ; 145, 2). 

5. Final ns in certain cases becomes/ (no, 2, 4, 5). 

6. Final t becomes d (127, 1). 

7. Final d, including preceding, is lost in Umbrian (133). 

8. Final s becomes r in later Umbrian (113). 

165] Accent 101 

9. Final consonants were weakly sounded in Umbrian, and, 
with more or less frequency, omitted in the spelling. This is 
true of all except r from rs, I from Zs, and s from/s, ks. Thus 
m, n (109, 1), r (103, 4; 113, ), / (110, 2, a), t (127, 2), k (141, 6), 
s (113, 5). Omission of final nb is rare (128, 2, a). 

a. CHANGES IN COMPOUNDS. Noteworthy is the extent to which phonetic 
changes affecting the initial of the second member of a compound take place in 
Oscan-Umbrian without interference from the analogical influence of the sim- 
plex, if such still existed. Cf. U. subocau from *sub-uok- (102, 2), O. akkatus 
from *ad-yok- (102, 3), U. endendu from *en-tend- (156), U. combifiatu from 
*com-fif- (161), U. anzeriatu from *an-ser- (110, 1). A possible, but uncertain, 
example of such a change even reacting on the simplex is U. menes (125, 2,- a). 

But the influence of the simplex is sometimes seen, e.g. U. an-ferener (not 
mb by 161), U. an-dirsafust (not nn by 135), O. kiim-bened (not mm by 125, 2). 


165. 1. WORD-ACCENT. The Latin accentual system, based 
on the quantity of the penult, is comparatively late, having been 
preceded by a system, dating from the Italic period, according to 
which the accent stood always on the first syllable. Whether 
this initial accent was preserved in Oscan-Umbrian or replaced 
by some such system as arose in Latin, cannot be determined. 

a. There are certain phonetic changes, such as the simplification of double 
consonants (163), which with added material may prove to be connected with 
an accentual system like the Latin, but at present the evidence is far from 

2. SENTENCE-ACCENT. There is substantial agreement 
with the Latin. For pronominal enclitics, see 201 ; for enclisis 
of personal pronouns, see 86, 3 ; for that of the indefinite pronouns 
cf. O. suaepis (usually so written), U. svepis, etc. ; for that of 
the verb 'to be ', cf. O. teremnatust, destrst (84), piisstist (84, a), and 
also O. pniftuset, staflatasset, ehpeilatasset, U. peretomest, ortoest, 
parsest (117, 6), mersest, mersi (132, a), etc. (the writing as two 
words is also found, but less frequently). With L. qullibet com- 
pare U. pisher (90, 2). The enclitic use of prepositions is far 
more common than in Latin (299 ff.). 

102 Phonology [166 

166. OSCAN 


a, written a, a, 

= orig. a, e.g. ant 'ante'. 32. 

= anaptyctic a, e.g. aragetud 'argento'. 80, 81. 

a, written a, aa, a, 

= orig. a, e.g. aasas 'arae' (Gen. Sg.). 33. 
= orig. a with secondary lengthening, e.g. saahtiim 'sanc- 
tum'. 73. 


, written e, e, 

= orig. e, e.g. estud, estud l esto\ 36. 

= anaptyctic e, e.g. Herekleis 'Herculis'. 80, 81. 

in er = ro or n, e.g. Aderl. 'Atella'. 91, 2. 


e, written e, ee, e, 

= orig. e with secondary lengthening, e.g. keenzstur, censtur 
'censor'. 41, 6, 73, 76, 77, l. 

|, written i, z, 

= orig. i, e.g. pis, JMS 'qnis'. 44. 
= orig. e in hiatus, e.g. iiik, ioc 'ea'. 38, 1. 
= anaptyctic i, e.g. amiricatud '*imrnercato'. 80, 81. 
= orig. e in medial syllables before labials, e.g. nesimois 
'proximis'. 86. 

1 A survey of the Oscan and Umbrian sounds, with their normal spellings, and 
their various regular sources. No account is taken here of the spelling of Old Oscan, 
or of that in the Greek alphabet, for which see 24 ; and no attempt is made to cover 
all the details of the preceding sections. Attention is called by means of asterisks to 
some of the most important differences between Oscan and Latin. Open and close 
vowels are distinguished by a hook or a dot placed beneath the letter, e.g. e = open e, 
e = close e. 

166] System of Sounds 103 


j, written i, ii, i, 

= orig. e, e.g. ligatuis 'legatis', ligud 'lege', fiisnu 'tern- 
plum'. 41. 
= e from contraction, e.g. tris 'ires'. 41, #, 82. 


i, written i, i, 

= orig. i by samprasarana, e.g. pustiris 'posterius'. 44, 0, 91, i. 
= orig. i before |, e.g. fakiiad 'faciat'. 44, a. 
NOTE. Or is the difference from i only graphic ? 


1, written i, ii, z, 

= orig. i, e.g. Abl. Sg. slaagid, liimitiifm 'limitum', scriftas 

'scriptae'. 47. 
? = orig. u in final syllables, e.g. castrid. 59. 


Q, written ii, 0, 

= orig. o, e.g. pud, ^?0<# 'quod'. 49. 

= orig. e, in *pompe 'quinque'. 37. 

= anaptyctic 0, e.g. tefuriim 'burnt-offering'. 80, 81. 

<J, written ii, 0, 

= orig. final a, e.g. viu 'via', aW0 'alia'. 34. 


u, written u, w, 

= orig. u, e.g. puf ' ubi'. 55. 
= anaptyctic u, e.g. Mulukiis 'Mulcius'. 80, 81. 
= orig. before final m, e.g. ezum 'esse'. 50. 
= orig. a, e, or in medial syllables before (or after) labials, 
e.g. praefucus 'praefectus', pertumum 'perimere'. 86. 
= orig. u by samprasarana, e.g.facus 'factus'. 91, 1. 

104 Phonology [166 

JU (precise sound uncertain} 
iu, written iu, u, 

= u after dentals, e.g. eitiuvam, eituam 'pecuniam'. 56. 


U, written u, uu, (u), u, 

= orig. u, e.g. Fuutrei 'Genetrici'. 58. 

= orig. o, e.g. estud, estud'esto', Fluusai 'Florae'. 53. 


ai, written ai, ae (ai), 

= orig. ai (or ), e.g. svai, suae 'si'. 62 (60), (61, 3). 


ei, written ei, ei, 

= orig. ei (or ei), e.g. deikum, deicum 'dicere'. 64 (60), (61, 3). 

oi, written iii, oi, 

= orig. oi (or oi), e.g. ligatuis 'legatis', nesimois 'proximis'. 
66 (60), (61, 3). 


au, written av, au, au, 

= orig. au, e.g. avt, auti 'aut'. 68, 61, 2. 


eu occurs only in the borrowed Evklui. 70. 


ou, written uv, ou, 

= orig. ou or eu, e.g. tuvtiks 'publicus', touto *ci vitas'. 71, 
61, 2. 

166] System of Sounds 105 

i (consonantal i) 
i, written i, i, 

= orig. ?', e.g. kiimbennieis 'conventus'. 100. 
= initial di, e.g. Iiivei 'Iovi\ 134. 

u (consonantal M) 
U, written v, u, 

= orig. u, e.g. svai, suae 'si'. 101, 102. 

NOTE. But when i and u are merely glides following a vowel i or it they 
are written in the native alphabet, but not in the Latin. 31. 


r = orig. r, e.g. Regaturei 'Rectori'. 103. 

= intervocalic rs, e.g. tenim 'territorium'. 115, 1. 
= final rs, e.g. censtur 'censores'. 117. 
rr = intervocalic rs, e.g. hjerrins 'caperent'. 115, 2. 
= ri at Bantia, e.g. herest 1 - volet'. 100, 3, c. 


1 = orig. , e.g. %wc?'lege'. 104, 105. 
= final ?s, e.g. aidil'aedilis'. 119, 2. 
11 = orig. H, e.g. Abellanam 'Abellanam'. 103, 3. 

= orig. I by secondary doubling, e.g. Vitelliu' Italia'. 162, 1. 

= orig. nl, e.g. Vesulliais ' Vesulliais'. 107, 3. 

n = orig. w, e.g. ni 'ne'. 107. 

nn = orig. nd, e.g. upsannam 'operandam'. 135. 

= orig. n by secondary doubling, e.g. kiimbennieis 'con- 
ventus'. 162, 1. 

For omission of n before consonants, see 108, 2, 3. 


m = orig. m, e.g. Maatreis'Matris'. 107. 
For rare omission of final m, see 109, 2. 

106 Phonology [166 

s = orig. s, e.g. estud'esto'. ill, 114. 

= ks before consonants, e.g. destrst 'dextra'st'. 145, 1. 
= ti at Bantia, e.g. Bansae 'Bantiae'. 100, 3, c. 
B(B)= final ks, e.g. meddiss, meddis 'meddix'. 145, 2. 

= final fs from -bh(o)s, e.g. teremniss ' terminibus', ligis 
'legibus'. 124, a. 

= final ns, e.g. Ace. PL viass, eituas. no, 2. 

= ps, e.g. osii[ns 'adsint'. 122, 2. 

= dental + s, e.g. Fiisiais'*Fisiis'. 137, l. 

= dental + dental, e.g. Fe/oo-o/oet '*Versori'. 138. 

= s by secondary doubling, e.g.kvaisstur' quaestor'. 162,2. 
ks, written ks, x, 

= intervocalic ks, e.g. eksuk'boc', ezac'hac'. 145, 3. 

= ki at Bantia, e.g. meddixud i m&gisteYio\ 100, 3, <?. 
ts, written z, s, 

= secondary te, e.g. puz, joows 'ut'. 137, 2. 

nts = orig. ns, e.g. keenzstur, censtur * censor', no, 1. 
ns = secondary ws, e.g. Bantins 'Bantinus'. 110, 6, 128, 1. 

z (as in Eng. zero) 
z, written s, z, 

= intervocalic s, e.g. Gen. PI. -asiim, -azum. 112. 
= di at Bantia, e.g. zicolom 'diem'. 100, 3, c. 


p = orig. p, e.g. post 'post'. 120. 
= orig. A#, e.g. jt>oc? 'quod'. 150. 


b = orig. ft, e.g. triibiim 'domum'. 123. 
= orig. ^, e.g. kumbened'convenit'. 151. 
br = orig. pr, e.g. embratur 'imperator'. 157, 1. 


t = orig. t, e.g. tris'tres'. 126. 

167] System of Sounds 107 


d = orig. d, e.g. deicum 'dicere'. 130, 133. 
= final t, e.g. deded 'dedit'. 127, 1. 
dr = orig. tr, e.g. Sadiriis 'Satrius'. 157, 2. 


k, written k, <?, 

= orig. k, e.g. deikum, deicum 'dicere'. 141. 

- orig. kU (gU), e.g. fruktatiuf 'fructus'. 153, 154. 

kl = orig. tl, e.g. sakarakliim 'sacellum'. 129, 2. 


g = orig. #, e.g. aragetud'argento'. 147, 1. 
ngl = orig. nkl, e.g. ungulus'&nulus'. 155. 


f = orig. bh (L./, >), e.g. fratrum 'fratrum', sifei'sibi'. 124. 
= orig. dh (L. /, b, d), e.g. fakiiad'faciat', Luvfreis 'Liberi', 

mefiai 'mediae'. 136. 
= orig. glth (L./, v, ^). 152. 

= final fis of secondary origin, e.g. uittiuf 'usus'. 110, 5. 
fr = orig. sr, e.g. tefiirum 'burnt-offering'. 118. 
ft = orig. pt, e.g. serif tas ' scrip tae'. 121. 


h = orig. gh (L. 7i), e.g. humuns' homines'. 149. 
= k before f, e.g. ehtrad' extra'. 142. 



a, written a, a, 

= orig. a, e.g. patre 'patri'. 32. 


a, written a, ah, a, ah, aha, 

= orig. a, e.g. fratrum 'fratrum'. 33. 

= orig. a with secondary lengthening, e.g. sahta, sahatam 
'sanctam'. 73. 

108 Phonology [167 


a (long rounded a), written a, u, o, 

= orig. final #, e.g. vatuva, vatuvu, uatuo. 34. 


e, written e, e (rarely i, '), 

= orig. e, e.g. fertu 'ferto'. 36. 
= final i, e.g. ote 'aut'. 43. 


, written e, eh, e, ee, eh, ehe (very rarely i, t), 
= orig. ai (or di), e.g. pre, jore 'prae'. 63 (60). 
= orig. ei (or ei), e.g. etu, eew 'ito'. 65 (60). 
= orig. e with secondary lengthening, e.g. e-, eh-, e-, ehe- 
4 ex'. 75-77. 


e, written e, e, i, z, ei (rare), ei, 

= orig. ej e.g. habetu, habitu 'habeto'. 42. 
= orig. oi (or 01) in final syllables, e.g. Dat.-Abl. PL -es, -ir, 
-eir. 67, 2 (60). 


i, written i, i, and, in the case of orig. i, frequently e, e, 
= orig. i, e.g. pife, pefe, pirsi, etc. 4 quid'. 45. 
= orig. e in medial syllables before labials, e.g. nesimei 
4 proxime'. 86. 


I, written i, ih, i, ihi, ei (rarely e, e), 

= orig. i, e.g. persnimu, persnihimu, etc. 'precator'. 48. 
? = orig. u in monosyllables etc., e.g. pir' ignis'. 59. 

NOTE. For the five preceding sounds both the letters e and i are employed, 
but with different relative frequency, as indicated. 

167] System of Sounds 109 

o, written u, o, 

= orig. 0, e.g. post 'post'. 49. 

= orig. u before w, e.g. somo 'summum'. 57. 

= secondary u before m, from e, e.g. hondomu 'infimo'. 86. 

6, written u, 0, 

= orig. aw, e.g. ute, ote <aut'. 69. 

= orig. ou (eu), e.g. tuta, totam : O. touto. 72. 

= orig. 01, e.g. joora 4 qua': O. poizad. 67, 1. 


0, written u, o, w, 

- orig. o, e.g. w0we 'nomen', Abl. Sg. -w. 54. 

u, written u, w, 

= orig. M, e.g. pufe'ubi'. 55. 

= orig. a or e in medial syllables before labials, e.g. prehubia 

'praehibeat'. 86. 
= orig. o before r, e.g. curnaco 'cornicem'. 51. 

u, written u, uh, u, 

= orig. u, e.g. mugatu'muttito'. 58. 

ai, written ai, ai, 

= orig. ok before ^, e.g. aitu, aitu 'agito'. 143. 
= orig. ai before z, e.g. pernaiaf anticas'. 61, 3. 


ei, written ei, ei, 

= orig. ek, or ek with from gi or az, e.g. teitu, deitu 

'dicito'. 143. 
= orig. ei before i, e.g. Teteies(?). 61, 3. 

For the spelling ei, see 29 with a. 

110 Phonology [167 


i, written i, e, 

= orig. 2, e.g. iouies 'iuvenibus'. 100. 
= initial di, e.g. luve, loui. 134. 



u, written v, u, 

= orig. ?/, e.g. via, ma 'via'. 101, 102. 
= initial Z, e.g. vutu 'lavato\ 104. 

But when i and u are merely glides following a vowel i or w, they are 
written in the native alphabet, but not in the Latin. 31. 

r = orig. r, e.g. rehte 'recte'. 103. 

= intervocalic (and sometimes final) s, e.g. Gen. PI. -arum. 

112, 113. 

= final rs, e.g. oj/er'ager'. 117. 
For omission of r, see 115, 116. 


1 = orig. Z, e.g. plener 'plenis'. 105, 1. 

For omission of I, see 105, 2. 
11 = orig. nl, e.g. Padellar^ Patellae'. 107, 3. 


n = orig. n, e.g. nome 'nomen'. 107. 
For omission of n, see 108, 1, 109, 1. 
= initial gn, e.g. natine 'natione'. 147, 2. 
nn, written n, w, rarely nn, 

= orig. ndj dn, e.g. pihaner 'piandi'. 135. 


m = orig. ?w, e.g. Matrer 'Matris'. 107. 
For omission of final m, see 109, 1. 

167] System of Sounds 111 

s = orig. s, e.g. es'est'. ill, 113 ff. 

= ks before consonants, e.g. destram-e 'in dextram'. 145, 1. 

= ps before consonants, e.g. ostendu 'ostendito'. 122, 1. 

= final ks, e.g. uas 'vitium'. 145, 2. 

= final fs from -bh(o)s, e.g. avis 'avibus'. 124, a. 

s(s) = intervocalic ks, e.g. essu, esu 'hoc'. 145, 3. 

= intervocalic ps, e.g. 08aw*facito'. 122, 2, 3. 

= dental + s, e.g. Fiso 'deo Fidio'. 137, 1. 

= dental + dental, e.g. ses^sZ'sederit'. 138. 
ts, written z, s, 

= secondary ts, e.g. tacez, fases'tacitus'. 137, 2. 

nts = orig. ns, e.g. antermenzaru 'intermenstrium'. no, 1. 
ns = secondary ns, e.g. Ikuvins 'Iguvinus'. 110, 6, 128, 1. 

C, s (precise sound uncertain) 
The sibilant written 9, s, s, 
= -orig. k before e, i, etc., e.g. tacez, tases 'tacitus'. 144. 

f, rs (precise sound uncertain) 
The sound written f, rs (sometimes r, r, s), 
= intervocalic d, e.g. pefi, jpem'pede*. 131, 132. 
= (rarely) intervocalic I, e.g. kafetu, cars^w'calato'. 106. 


p = orig. p, e.g. pre 'prae'. 120. 

= orig. &M, e.g. pif- 'quidquid'. 150. 


b, written b (sometimes p), b, 

= orig. 6, e.g. kebu 'cibo'. 123. 
= orig. gu, e.g. benust 'venerit'. 151. 
mb = orig. mbh, e.g. aw5r-'amb-'. 161. 
br = orig. pr, e.g. subra 'supra'. 157> 1. 


t = orig. t, e.g. etu 'ito'. 126. 

For omission of final t, see 127, 2. 

112 Phonology [167 


d, written t, c?, 

= orig. c?, e.g. tuves, duir 'duobus'. 130. 
= orig. du, e.g. di-fue 'bifidum'. 102, 3. 
dr = orig. r, e.g. podruhpei 'utroque'. 157, 2. 
nd = orig. nt, e.g. ander 'inter'. 156. 

= orig. ndhj e.g. ahauendu 'avertito'. 161. 


k, written k, c (rarely 9-), 

= orig. k, e.g. kanetu ' canito', procanurent ' *procinuermt'. 141 . 
= orig. kg (gu,gyli\ e.g. fiktu 'figito'. 153, 154. 
kl = orig. tl, e.g. pihaclu 'piaclo'. 129, 2. 

g, written k, g, 

- orig. g, e.g. ager 'ager'. 147, 1. 

ng = orig. nk, e.g. iuengar 4 iuvencae'. 156. 

= orig. ngh, ngUh, e.g. cringatro 'cinctum'. iei. 


f = orig. Hi (L./, 5), e.g. fratrum 'fratrum', alfu 'alba'. 124. 
= orig. dh (L. /, 6, c?), e.g. faciu 'facere', rufru 'rubros'. 136. 
= orig. ffuh (L./, v, </w), e.g. vufetes 'votis'. 152. 
= w, e.g. vitluf vitulos'. 110, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

For omission of final /, see 110, 2, a. 
fr = orig. sr, e.g. tefrurto'enL rogo'. us. 
rf = rs (from r(e)a, r), e.g. trahuorji 'transverse'. 115, 2, 3. 


h = orig. gJi (L. A), e.g. homonus 'hominibus'. 149. 
(h)t = orig. kt, e.g. rehte 'recte'. 142. 

=ft from pt, e.g. screhto 'scriptum'. 121. 
ft from 6?^^, e.g. vetu 'dividito'. 136, a. 

As the h in M was almost or wholly lost in pronunciation (75, 121, etc.), 
it does not properly belong under the sound h, but is placed here for convenience. 
For the use of the letter h as a sign of hiatus, see 83. 
For the omission of initial ft, see 149, a. 



On the general system of declension, see 12. 


168. Examples of Declension. 



NOM. viii, touto, rcopro muta, mutu 

GEN. vereias, eituas tutas, totar 

DAT. deivai tute, tote 

Acc. viam, toutam tuta, totam 

Voc. Tursa 

ABL. eitiuvad, toutad tuta, tot a 

Loc. viai, Bansae tafle, tote 

NOM. aasas, scriftas urtas, iuengar 

GEN. eehiianasiim, egmazum urnasiaru, pracatarum 
D.-A. kerssnais tekuries, dequrier 

Acc. viass, eituas vitlaf, uitla 

Remarks on the Case-Forms 

169. 1. NOM. SG. The original ending -a is not shortened 
as in Latin, but is changed in quality. See 34. 

2. GEN. SG. The original ending -as, preserved in Latin 
only in the phrases pater familids etc., remains unchanged, 
except for the rhotacism in the later Umbrian. See 113. 

1 As the declension of adjectives is like that of nouns (see 187), some adjective 
forms are included in the paradigms. 

In the Plural, the case which is called simply the Dative- Ablative is of course in 
reality the Dative-Ablative-Locative. 


114 Inflection [169 

3. DAT. SG. The original ending -di was shortened to -ai, 
which remained in Oscan, but became -e in Umbrian. See 60, 
62, 63. 

4. Ace. SG. The original ending -dm retains the long 
vowel. See 78, 1. For the omission of final ra, see 109. 

5. Voc. SG. This is found only in the Umbrian proper 
names Tursa, louia, Prestota, Serfia. These forms certainly 
represent the old Voc. in -a, not the Nom. in -, since in all the 
occurrences, nearly fifty in number, the spelling is uniformly a, 
never o. 

6. ABL. SG. The ending is -dd, which arose in the Italic 
period after the analogy of -od. In Oscan the d is retained, 
as in early Latin sententidd etc., but is lost in Umbrian. See 


7. LOG. SG. The ending is identical with that of the 
Dative. But in Umbrian, in this and other declensions, the 
postpositive en 'in' is frequently employed, either separately as 
in tafle e, or with contraction, yielding a form in -en, as arven, or 
oftener in -em, as Acersoniem (see 109, 1). And since a final 
nasal is oftener omitted than written, many, perhaps all, of the 
noun-forms in -e are to be regarded as compounded with -en, 
rather than as simple Locatives. 

a. Noteworthy are the phrases ocrem Fisiem beside ocre Fisie, and toteme 
louinem, toteme louine, beside tote louine. The extension of ra to the adjective 
forms, as if it were a part of the real case-ending (cf. 0. hiirtin Kerriiin,, 171, 7), 
was probably favored by the parallelism between Locatives with and without 
ra and Accusatives with and without m, where the ra of course appears in the 
adjective also. That is, the Loc. ocre(ra) Fisie became ocre(m) Fisie(m) after 
Ace. ocre(ra) Fisi(m). In toteme with e(ri) added again to the already com- 
pounded totem the influence of Ace. forms like totam-e (cf. destram-e etc.) is 
also probable. 

8. NOM. PL. The ending is the original -as, which is seen 
in Sanskrit and Gothic, but which in Latin and Greek has been 
supplanted by -ai modeled after the -oi of the Second Declen- 
sion. The only change is the rhotacism in the later Umbrian 

169] First Declension 115 

9. GEN. PL. The ending is -dsom, seen in Homeric -ao>i> 
and belonging originally to the Pronouns (Skt. tasdm). The 
Umbrian shows rhotacism like the Lat. -drum, while in Oscan 
only the intermediate stage z has been reached. See 112. The 
o of the last syllable was probably still long (78, 4, note). 

10. DAT.-ABL. PL. The ending is -ais like the Greek -at?, 
both modeled after the -ois of the Second Declension. The 
ai remains in Oscan, but changes to e in Umbrian, as in Latin 
to i. See 62, 63. Rhotacism occurs in later Umbrian, 1 and also 
in Old Umbrian before the postpositive en, e.g. fesner-e'in fano'. 
See 113 with a. 

11. Acc. PL. All forms of Italic (as well as of Greek) go 
back to an ending -ans, which, modeled after the -ons of the 
Second Declension, has replaced an older -as. The ns, which 
in Latin loses the n with lengthening of the preceding vowel, 
becomes O. -ss, -s, U. -f, the latter being very frequently omitted. 
See no, 2. 

12. MASCULINE a-STEMS. There are several examples of 
the Nom. Sg. of Masculine proper names belonging to this 
declension. Some are borrowed from the Greek, but are with- 
out the final s ; e.g. Santia, Arkiia Ea^as/A/^ta?. But there 
are also some which seem to represent a genuine Italic forma- 
tion in -as ; e.g. Tanas, Markas, Maras, Ma/aa?. For the oblique 
cases there is little material. An Acc. form is seen in Velliam. 
The Gen. Sg. Maraheis, if not simply a mistake for *Marahieis from 
Nom. Marahis (176, 4), stands for *Mard-eis, with the same adop- 
tion of the o-stem ending that is seen in Grk. -do, and also in 
L. -dl, except that in the latter it is not restricted to Masculines. 

1 The term later Umbrian is used instead of the specific New Umhrian, so as to 
include Va-Vb 7, which is Old Umbrian, but later than I-IV, and in the rhotacism 
of final s goes with the New Umbrian (see 113), e.g. plenasier urnasier (Va 2). Simi- 
larly in 2 and 8, above, though there happen to be no examples of the Gen. Sg. or 
Nom. PL of this declension in Va-Vb 7. The -r forms of 171, 2, 8, 10, are all from 
this passage. 

116 Inflection [170 


170. Examples of Declension. 



NOM. hiirz, Bantim Ikuvins, ager 

GEN. sakarakleis katles, popler 

DAT. hurtiii kumnakle, pople 

Acc. hurtiim, dolom puplu(m), poplo(m) 

Voc. Serfe, Tefre 

ABL. sakaraklud, dolud puplu, poplu 

LOG. terei, contend kumne, onse 


NOM. Niivlanus Ikuvinus, louinur 

GEN. Nuvlaniim, zicolom pihaklu, pihaclo 

D.-A. Nuvlanuis, zicolois veskles, uesclir 

Acc. feihuss vitluf, uitlu 

Norn.- Acc. Neuter 

SG. sakaraklum, touticom persklum, persclo 

PL. pruftii, comono iuku, iuka, uatuo 

Remarks on the Case-Forms 

171. 1. NOM. SG. The o of the original -os (so in the earliest 
Latin inscriptions) is everywhere dropped (90, 91). For forms 
like O. mirz, U. ta$ez, tases, see 137, 2; U. ager from *agros, 
91, 2, 117 ; O.famel, U. katel (Acc. katlu), ti$el (Acc. ti9lu), from 
-Bios, 36, 2, 88, 4, 119, 2; similarly O. Aukil, Mutil, from -ilos, 
Paakul from -ulos (cf. gentiles Muttillieis, Pakulliis, with doubling of 
Z), 119, 2 ; O. MM, Fiml, probably for *Mitel, *Fimel (like famel), 
91, 2, a ; ( ). Upfals, Upils, from -Ilos (cf. Gen. Sg. Upfalleis), 119, 2 ; 

- O.facus, praefucm, from -uos, 91, l. For fo-stems, see 173, l. 

2. GEN. SG. The ending is -eis, borrowed from the Third 

Declension, where it represents the original ending of z-stems, 

as vice versa the Acc. Sg. of consonant- stems follows that of 

171] Second Declension 117 

the 0-stems. In Umbrian the -eis appears as -es, -er, -er (65, 113), 
rarely -e, -e (113, b). For O. Ila/t/r^t? etc., see 24. 

3. DAT. SG. The original ending -oi has been shortened 
to -oi, which remains unchanged in Oscan and becomes a monoph- 
thong in Umbrian. The only corresponding form in Latin is 
Numasioi, the usual ending -o corning from -oi by a different 
process. See 60, 66, 67, 2. The Umbrian forms usually show 
e, e, but occasionally i, i or ei, e.g. Tefri, fratreci, Tefrei. 

a. U. Trebo, Fiso, for earlier Trebe, Fise, show a transfer to the Fourth 
Declension. In 0. Pakiu and Verehasiii the omission of i is simply a mistake. 

4. Acc. SG. The original ending was -om, as in the earliest 
Latin inscriptions. In Oscan it is usually written -um, -om, 
occasionally -um, -um (50). In Umbrian the vowel is always o 
in the Latin alphabet. For omission of the final m, see 109. 

5. Voc. SG. The original ending -e is preserved as in 
Latin. The only examples are from the Umbrian. With 
Tefre compare puere in Plautus. 

6. ABL. SG. The d of the original -od is retained in Oscan, 
as in early Latin preivdtod etc., but dropped in Umbrian. See 
133. The vowel is written u or u in the Oscan native alphabet, 
but always u in the Latin, and in Umbrian also nearly always u. 
See 53, 54. 

a. On the Iguvinian Tables, among over 100 occurrences, there is only one 
certain instance of an Ablative in -o (so?no, VI a 10), apart from adverbs like eso 
(see 54, note, 190, 2, note). But as there seems to be something artificial in 
this uniformity of spelling (see 1. c.), there is no objection on this score to taking 
maronato (no. 83) as Abl. Sg. of an o-stem (cf. Loc. Sg. maronatei, no. 84), 
though some assume that it is Loc. Sg. of a w-stem. See 302. 

7. Loc. SG. The original -ei from which comes the Lat. -i 
is retained in Oscan, becoming an -e in Umbrian. See 64, 65. 
A fusion of this Locative with the postpositive -en is to be seen 
in O. mil-tin Kerriiin, where the apparent ending -in (from -en, 
-ei-en ; 41, a, 82, l) is extended to the adjective. Otherwise Oscan 
has the simple Locative. In Umbrian the combination with -en 
is frequent, perhaps even universal. See 169, 7. 

118 Inflection [171 

8. NOM. PL. In Latin, as in Greek, the pronominal ending 
-oi has completely displaced the old noun-ending -os, but in 
Oscan-Umbrian the leveling has been in the opposite direction, 
and both nouns and pronouns show -os. This appears in Oscan 
as -us, -us (ius-c 'ii'), in Umbrian as -us, -u, -ur, -ur. See 53, 54, 113. 

9. GEN. PL. The ending is -ow, which in Latin becomes 
-om, -wm (deum etc.), so far as it is not replaced by the second- 
ary -drum. It appears in Oscan as -um, -um, once -om, -OU/A, or 
-O/JL, in Umbrian as -u, -o(m). See 53, 54, 78, 4, 109, l. 

10. DAT.-ABL. PL. The ending is -ois (Grk. -ot?, -oto-t; 
see 60, a), which becomes L. -is. It appears in Oscan as -uis, 
-ois, in Umbrian as -es (-er-e), -e, -er (once -is), -ir (-is-co), -er, -eir, 
the usual forms being -es and -ir (over 100 examples of -ir includ- 
ing -isco, 7 of -eir, 6 of -er). See 66, 67, 2, 113 with a, b. 

11. Ace. PL. The ending is -ons (or -ons ; see 74, note), 
whence L. -os by loss of n and vowel-lengthening. For the 
change of -ns to O. -ss, U. -f, and the frequent omission of the 
latter, see no, 2. For the long vowel in Umbrian, usually 
written u, rarely 0, see 74, 54. 

a. Several Umbrian forms with o which were once taken as Masc. are 
more probably Neuter (see below, 13), and the existence of any Masc. forms 
with o is denied by some. But there is nothing incredible in the appearance of 
U. o for o (see 54), and any other explanation than as Ace. PI. Masc. is too 
forced in the case of wiro, ueiro 'viros', and pesondro 'figmenta'(?) in VI b 37 
(Masc. , as shown by pesondro sorsalem VI b 39 ; PI. , as shown by suf uf in the 
parallel passage la 33). Probable examples also are ehiato 'emissos' VII b 2, 
agreeing with p\ft, 'quos' (other explanations less likely), and a&ro/, apruf 'apros' 
(regarded by some as for *abronf; cf. abrunu, abrons, 181, 6). 

12. NoM.-Acc. So. NEUTER. This has exactly the same 
history as the Ace. Sg. Masc. 

13. NoM.-Acc. PL. NEUTER. The ending is -a, and in the 
Italic period this was extended to the Neuters of the Third and 
Fourth Declensions. This -a, which thus became the ending 
of all Neuters, has the same history as that of the Nom. Sg. of 
the First Declension, being shortened in Latin, and appearing 
in Oscan as -ii, -o, in Umbrian as -a, -u, -o. See 34. 

172] Second Declension 119 

But in Umbrian there are also some Nom. PL forms in -or 
and some Ace. PL forms in -u(f), -o(/), which seem to be Neuters 
(of various declensions) with r and / added after the analogy 
of the corresponding cases of Masc. 0-stems. This extension 
probably started with the Ace., where it was favored by the 
existence of Masc. forms with and without/, and spread to the 
Nom. Examples are : Nom. uasor (stem uds-, Abl. PL vasus) ; 
tuderor (stem tuder-, Ace. Sg. tuder, Abl. PL tuderus), with 
the adjectives in agreement totcor and screihtor: so probably 
arsmor with dersecor subator in agreement ; Ace. krematruf 
beside krematru, krematra : - - kastruvuf beside kastruvu, castruo 
(w-stem, O. Gen. Sg. castrous) ; uerof-e, veruf-e (O. veru Ace. 
PL Neut., rather than Ace. Sg. Masc.; cf. veruis). 1 

14. GENDER. An example of a Fern. 0-stem is O. Eidiiis 
'Idibus' (Eiduis Mamerttiais), the Latin cognate being a Fern, 
w-stem. O. triibum is also Fern, (triibum ekak), but as only 
the Ace. Sg. and Abl. Sg. (tribud) occur, it may be taken as a 

172. Examples of Declension. 




Pakis, degetasis 



Dekkieis, kumbennieis 

Marties, Fisier 



luvie, Fisi 











1 1 have adopted Thurneysen's view (K.Z. 32, 554 ff. ; cf. also I.F. Anz. 9, 185), 
but am more thoroughly convinced of its truth for the Ace. forms cited than for the 
Nom. forms, for which the older explanation is by no means impossible (-or graphic 
variant of -ur ; for vasor, tuderor, metaplasm as in L. vds, vdsa, vdsorum, and in 
terminus, terminos, termina, which occur side by side in the Sententia Minuciorum) . 
I do not follow Thurneysen in assuming that all Ace. forms in -o(/) must be Neuter. 
See above, 11, a. 

120 Junction [172 


NOM. degetasius Atiiefiur, Atiersiur 

GEN. Tirentium Atiiefiu, Atiersio 

D.-A. Dekmanniuis Atiiefies, Atiersier, Atiersir 

Acc. feliuf, filiu 

Norn. -Ace. Neuter 

SG. medicim, memnim, Safinim afkani, tertim 
PL. arvia, arviu 

Remarks on the Case-Forms 

173. 1. NOM. and Acc. SG. M. and NoM.-Acc. SG. N. 
The forms come from -ios, -iom by samprasarana (91, 1). For 
the quality of the resulting i (O. i, not i, U. ~i(m), not e(m)), 
see 44, 45, a. U. Fisei, which occurs once, is one of the few 
examples of ei for short i (29). Like O. Mais from *Maiios (Dat. 
Sg. Maiiiii) are U. pefaem (Acc. Sg. M.), pefae, persae (Nom.-Acc. 
Sg. N.), from *pedaiiom (Acc. PI. F. pefaia, persaea), but with 
-e(m) for -i(m) after the preceding vowel ; here perhaps U. difue 
'bifidum' (Acc. Sg. N.) from *dui-fuiom (or Astern?). 

2. DAT. SG. In Umbrian, uncontraoted and contracted 
forms are found side by side (82, 2), about evenly divided in Old 
Umbrian, but with a great preponderance of contracted forms in 
New Umbrian. Thus Fisie (1), Fisi (12), Fisei (1). Once Sansii 
beside Sansie, Sansi. 

3. DAT.-ABL. PL. Contracted forms (82, 2) are found only 
in New Umbrian, as Atiersir, Clauerni. Variations of the final 
are the same as in other o-stems (171, 10, 113 with a, ), e.g. 
Atiiefies, Atiiefier (V), Atiiefie, Klaverniie, etc. But Clauerni is the 
only case of omitted -r in a noun-form (see 113, b). 

4. The other case-forms are like those of the ordinary 
o-stems, with the usual Umbrian variations in spelling, for which 
see 171. For the absence of contracted forms of the Gen., Voc., 
and Loc. Sg., see 82, 2, a. For O. inciJt/f.rm/ from 

sec 100, :, c. 

174] Second Declension 121 

5. But there are some examples of transfer to the z'-stem 
forms. Thus in the Abl. Sg., beside the forms given in the 
paradigms, we find O. serevkid, prupukid, medikid (probable reading), 
probably from *seruikio-, *pro-pak-io-, *meddik-io-, rather than 
from original ^-sterns. A similar transfer is probable in U. arvis, 
arves, Dat.-Abl. PI. to arvia <*arvia, frumenta', since a contracted 
form, even if such were otherwise known in Old Umbrian (see 3), 
would not have -es. As an z-stem form the -es would not be 
without parallel (aves, punes), though its relative frequency 
(arves 11, arvis 2) is surprising. 

Oscan Gentiles in -iis etc. 

174. Many of the examples of w-stems are to be found 
among the proper names, for which Oscan furnishes copious 
material. Of forms like O. Pakis, Dekis, etc., some are gentiles 
and some praenomina. But there is also in Oscan, with some 
few examples in Umbrian, a distinct class of names in -iis (-iis, 
-ies, -te?), Gen. -iieis (-iieis). With the exception of a few forms 
on carelessly written inscriptions, these are all gentiles. The 
combination of praenomen in -is with gentile in -iis is frequent. 


Pakis Kluvatiis Vibis Smintiis 

Pakim Kluvatiium Vibis Urufiis 

Dekis Rahiis Stenis Kalaviis 

Dekkieis Rahiieis Dekis Seppiis 

Sepis Helevi(is) 27re&? Ma//,e/oe/ae<? 

Sepieis l Heleviieis Tpeftis Secrrte? 

Note also praen. Sepis : gent. Seppiis ; praen. T/ae/3t9 : gent. 

Further examples from the oblique cases of -iis are Gen. Sg. 
Aadiieis, Saidiieis, Virriieis (also U. Kluviier, Kastruciie, the only 
Umbrian examples of the type) : Gen. PI. Kluvatiium, Magiium, 
Viriium. The only Ace. Sg. form is Kluvatiium. 

1 The first i is simply a mistake. The word occurs on one of the 'tor line inscrip- 
tions, which are notoriously inexact in the use of i. 

122 Inflection [174 

Examples of forms in -iis are Aadiriis (also Aadiriis, probably 
a mistake), Atiniis, Kiipiis, Sjpuriis, Viinikiis ; Gen. Sg. Spuriieis, 
Kastrikiieis ; - - Dat. Sg. luvkiiui, Vestirikiiui. 

In the Greek alphabet we find -te?, as IIo/zTme? Piintiis, 
Ma/jiepeKies, etc. ; also A/rSete? = Avdiis. The few examples in 
the Latin alphabet have -ies, as Afaries, and such forms are 
common also in Paelignian, as Ponties, Loucies, etc. The spell- 
ing -ies in the native alphabet is very rare. 

175. As is well known, the Latin gentiles are in origin 
patronymic adjectives formed with the io- suffix from indi- 
vidual names (that is, in terms of the fully developed system 
the praenomina), just as in certain Greek dialects patronymics 
in -to? are regularly used in place of the usual Genitives of the 
father's name. So Mdrcius from Marcus, Tullius from Tullus, 
etc. To such forms correspond the Oscan gentiles in -is. But 
there are also in Latin praenomina in -ius, as Lucius, Servius, 
etc., and in Oscan the praenomina in -is are very numerous. 
From such praenomina, it is clear, are formed the Oscan gentiles 
in -iis etc. That is, the gentile Trebiis stands in the same rela- 
tion to the praenomen T/ae/Si?, as gent. Heirennis to praen. Heirens, 
or as Latin gent. Mdrcius to praen. Marcus. The only uncer- 
tainty is as to the precise form of the suffix and the actual 

There are three possibilities for the suffix, namely 1) -MO-, 2) -MO-, 3) both 
-iio- and -MO-, the latter in the case of forms in -ifs. The probability is in favor 
of the first. Not only is -iio- the suffix most natural to assume, whether as the 
inherited by-form of -io- thus turned to special account, or as actually formed 
from -io- in the Italic x or Oscan-Umbrian period, but it is also the one which 
best harmonizes with the usual spelling of the oblique cases. That is, in Dekkieis 
Rahiieis we have the same relation between i = j and ii ii that is elsewhere 
observed (31). 

1 Any such differentiation between -jo- and -wo-stems would necessarily be 
lost in Latin in most cases, since postconsonantal i becomes vocalic (e.g. medius from 
*medhio-). A possible trace is the difference between praen. Gains (from *Gduios 
before the change of j to i) and gent. Gdvius, but even this is uncertain, as Gavins 
might be regarded simply as the older form retained in use in the gentile. 

176] Second Declension 123 

The Nominative in -iis from -iios is best explained by the assumption of 
samprasaraua in the last syllable. That is, as *Pak-ios became Pakis (173, 1), 
so *Kluvati-ios became Kluvatiis. Against this it may be urged that we should 
then expect also Ace. *Kluvatiim like Pakim, but it is possible that Kluvatiium, if 
this single occurrence is representative of the usual form, involves a restoration 
under the influence of hurtum etc. 

But in the Nom. forms, owing probably to dissimilation, the second vowel 
differed somewhat in quality from the first, and this is brought out in the spelling 
-ies, -ies. The same thing is indicated by the spelling -ifs, and wherever this 
was in vogue the ii in place of ii was extended to the oblique cases. The forms 
in -ils, -iieis, then, which are preferred in the Cippus Abellanus and many of 
the Pompeian inscriptions, but are not found elsewhere, represent simply a 
graphic variation of the usual type and not an independent formation. 

176. 1. Although the interchange of -iis with -is reflects in general an 
earlier interchange of -iios with ios, yet in many instances the Nom. in -iis may 
be formed, at a comparatively late date, directly from the Nom. in -is, after the 
analogy of the usual relation between the two. Thus Mahii[s is formed from 
Mais, Mais, or rather from *Mahis with the spelling implied by the abbreviation 
Mh. For Mais comes through *Maiios (Dat. Sg. Maiitii), from *Mag-ios (147, 3), 
and an inherited by-form *Mag-iios would yield 0. *Magiis, which is actually 
represented by Gen. PI. Magiium. So probably leiis from praen. *Ieis (like 
Mais) from *Ieiios, *Iegios, the original by-form *Ieg-iios surviving in L. legius. 

2. Similar examples are Rahiis 'Rams' (Gen. Rahiieis) from praen. *Rahis, 
*Raiios, and Staiis ' Staius' from praen. *Stais, *Staiios, except that in these ii 
does not come from gi. 

3. The spelling i instead of i (44, 6) in *Stais, Staiis, *Iefs, leiis, as in Mais 
beside Mais, and in Vesulliais, is due to the influence of the many words con- 
taining the diphthongs ai, ei. 

4. The relation of gent. Mamies, Gen. Sg. Maraiieis to praen. Marahis, 
Gen. Sg. Marahieis is probably the same as that of Mahii[s to Mais, *Mahis (Mh.), 
except in the matter of spelling, the examples being from different localities 
and showing an extension of the ft, which belongs to the Nom. Sg. as a mark of 
hiatus, to the oblique cases of the praenomen rather than to those of the gentile. 
The forms then go back to *Maraiios, related to Fal. Mareio and L. Marius. 
For the praen. Maras, Ma/oas (with Gen. Maraheis ?), from the simpler stem Mara-, 
see 169, 12. 

5. In Dekis Hereiis, Gen. Dekkieis Heriieis (no. 40), either Hereiis is a mis- 
take for *Heriis, or Heriieis for *Hereiieis (with suffix -eiio-, 253, 2). The former 
is more probable. Virriiis (no. 20) beside Virriis, Virriieis, etc., is simply a care- 
less spelling, rather than a different form with suffix -eiio- (253, 3). For 
U. Teteies (II a 44), probably 'Tetteius', see 61, 3, 253, 2. 

1:24 Inflection [177 


177. The Latin Third Declension represents a partial fusion 
of consonant-stems and i-stems. In Oscan-Umbrian too there 
is a fusion in certain cases, but the distinction between the two 
classes is more faithfully preserved than in Latin. In the Ace. 
and Abl. Sg. there is no encroachment of the consonantal forms 
upon the z-stems, as in L. -em, -e, beside -im, -i ; and in the Norn. 
PI. the forms are as distinct as in the Gen. PL In the Dat.-Abl. 
PL the fusion exists in Oscan as in Latin, while in Umbrian 
consonant stems follow the w-stems. The relation of the two 
types may be seen from the following : 



NOM. O. meddiss O. aidil, U. fans 

GEN. O. medikeis (U. -es, -er) O. aeteis (U. -es, -erj 
DAT. O. medikei (U. -e, -e) O. Fuutrei (U. -e, -e) 

Acc. O. tanginom (U. -u, -o) O. slagim (U. -e(m), e(m)) 
ABL. O. ligud (but U. kapife) O. slaagid (U. -i, -i) 
Loc. U. ferine, ferine (?) \J.ocre 


NOM. O. meddiss, humuns O. tris, aidilis (U. -es, -er) 

GEN. O. fratnim (U. -u(m), -o(m)) O. ajittium, U. peracnio 
D.-A. O. ligis (but U. fratrus) O. luisarifs, Anafriss (U. -is, -is) 
Acc. O. malaks, usurs, U. nerf U. trif, trif, auif 

Nom.-iAcc. Neuter 

SG. U. tuplak, pir, nome U. uerfale, sehemeniar 

PL. (see 178, 12) U. triia, triiu-per, trio-per 

Remarks on the Case-Forms 

178. 1. NOM. SG. Owing to the syncope of i in the -is of 
i-stems, the ending becomes identical with that of most consonant- 
stems. For the loss of s in aidil, see 119, 2. For peculiarities in 
the different classes of consonant-stems, see 179-182. 

178] Third Declension 125 

2. GEN. SG. The -eis, representing the normal formation 
for fe-stenis as seen in various languages, has been extended to 
consonant-stems. In Latin, vice versa, the -is from -es, which 
belongs properly to the consonant-stems, has been extended to 
z-stems. For U. -es, -er, see 65. 

3. DAT. SG. The -ei belongs properly to the z-sterns, of 
which it is an old Loc. The Latin -I, early -ei, may be the same, 
or may stand for -ai, the old Dat. of consonant-stems, or may 
represent both. For U. -e, -e, see 65. 

4. Acc. SG. The -im of ^-sterns, only partially preserved 
in Latin, remains undisturbed. In Umbrian the spelling -im 
occurs in a few instances, but nearly always we find -e(m), -e(m), 
indicating the open quality of the i before final m (45, a). Thus 
spantim, ahtim-em, but uve(m), perakne(m), Tafinate, ocre(m), stafla- 
re(m), Tarsinatem, etc. This -em has of course no connection 
with the Latin -em, which is not from -im but represents the 
ending of consonant-stems. 

In consonant-stems the original -em (from -m) has wholly 
disappeared in favor of -om, which is borrowed from the -0-stems. 

5. ABL. SG. The ending of 2- stems is -id, identical with 
L. -i, early -id. In Umbrian the spelling is usually -i, -i (-ei), 
rarely -e (cf. 48); e.g. puni (22 times), poni (12), pone (1), ukri- 
pe(r) (9), ocri-per (16), ocre-per (3). 

In consonant-stems there is a difference between Oscan and 
Umbrian. In Oscan we find the ending of o-stems, as in the 
Acc. ; e.g. tanginud, tanginud, tanginud. But in Umbrian it is -e 
as in Latin, e.g. kapife, karne, curnase, frite (from *fret- : L.fretu- ; 
Abl. more likely than Loc., see 294), etc. This is probably a Loc. 
in origin, with -e for original -i. 

a. 0. praesentid shows the form of an i-stem, just as in Latin the Present 
Participles show -ia, -ium, regularly, and often -I beside -e in the Abl. U. peri, 
pern, persei-co (aes persti-co), is also an example of the encroachment of the 
i-stein ending, as in early Latin airld etc. 

6. Loc. SG. The proper endings are -ei (from -ei or -eii) 
for z-stems, and -i for consonant-stems. Owing to the absence 

126 Inflection [178 

of Oscan examples and the ambiguity of the Umbrian -e, which 
may come from -ei (65) or -i (43), the history of the case is not 
altogether certain, but there is no objection to supposing that 
ocre contains the ending -ei (for ocrem see 169, 7), and that in 
ferine the -e comes from -i. This last is favored by scalsie, 
apparently for scalsi-e(n) (cf. scalse-to l ex patera') with the origi- 
nal i retained before the enclitic. 

NOTE. U. ferine is obviously a consonant-stem as if L. *ferione (see 181), 
but the phrase in which it occurs is so obscure that it is uncertain whether it is a Loc. 
* in feretro' (L. fero) or Abl. ' cultro' (L. /eno), though the former is more probable. 

7. NOM. PL. The ending of consonant-stems is -es (Grk. -e?, 
Skt. -as, etc.), which in Latin is completely displaced by the -es 
of i-stems. With syncope of the e it appears in O. humuns etc. 
See 90, 1. For /-stems the ending is -eies (Skt. -ayas), whence -es 
which appears in Latin and in O. tris and in U.puntes, pacrer,foner. 
See 82, 1, 41, a. But O. aidilis (also fertalis, if Nona. PL), with i 
instead of i, points to a different formation, probably -is, following 
the analogy of -as, -Js, in the First and Second Declensions. 

8. GEN. PL. The endings are -dm and -(i)iom. For 
O. ajittium, see 162, 1. 

9. DAT.-ABL. PL. The ending of /-stems is -ifos, from -Mos, 
whence comes the Latin -ibus. This becomes by syncope -z/s, 
which is found in a single Oscan form of very early date, luisarifs. 
All other examples show assimilation of the fs (124, a). Thus 
O. Anafriss, sakriss, U. avis, puntis, sacris, etc., also aves, punes, with 
e for i (45), and once sevakne with omission of the s such as 
occurs elsewhere only in the case of original final s (113, b). The 
single occurrence of ei in aueis is not sufficient ground for sup- 
posing that the simplification of fs was accompanied by vowel- 
lengthening. See 29. 

Consonant-stems show the z-stem form in Oscan as in Latin, 
but in Umbrian follow the it-stems. Thus O. ligis, but U. fra- 
trus, homonus, karaus, etc. 

10. Ace. PL. The ending of /-stems is -ins (or -Ins ; see 
74, note), whence L. -is by loss of n and vowel-lengthening. 

178] Third Declension 127 

This would give O. -iss, like -ass, -uss, of the First and Second 
Declensions, but examples are wanting. Umbrian examples are 
trif, tref, tre, trif, treif, avif, auif, aueif, auuei, etc. For the change 
of final ns to/ and the frequent omission of the latter, see 110, 2. 
For the long vowel indicated by the spelling ei, see 74. 

For consonant-stems the ending is -ens (from -ns), whence 
L. -es by the same process as -Is from -ins. This would give 
O. -ess, U. -ef, for which, however, we find O. -s, U. -f. The 
Oscan form might be the result of syncope, but this could not 
be assumed for Umbrian, if the vowel in -ef was long (74). The 
change may be due to the analogy of the Nom. PL in -s (from 
-es), since in the other declensions the -f stands in the same rela- 
tion to the stem as the -s of the Nom. PI. But see 74, note. 

The probable Oscan examples are usurs 'osores'(?) and malaks 
'malevolos'(?). In Umbrian we have nerf (ner-, 180, 2), manf 
(man-, otherwise manu-), capif, kapi (also kapif by mistake) from 
*kapid-f (139, 1), uapef-e from *uaped-f, uef from *ueif-f (136, a), 
frif from *frug-f (147, 4). For U. abrons, see 181, b. 

11. NoM.-Acc. So. NEUTER. The -i of z-stems may remain 
as U. -e (43), or be dropped (92), just as in Latin we have sedlle, 
but animal etc. Thus U. sacre, uerfale, etc., but sehemeniar. 
Examples of consonant-stems are U. tuplak (192, 1), pir (180, d), 
name (181), etc. 

12. NoM.-Acc. PL. NEUTER. The ending -d, belonging 
properly to o-stems, has been generalized, giving -(i)id for z-stems 
and -d for consonant-stems, which then undergo the usual change 
of final d. See 34, 171, 13. Examples from z-stems are U. triia, 
triiu-per, trio-per (192, 2), sakreu, perakneu (e for i, 45). From 
consonant-stems the only Umbrian examples are of the secondary 
type in -or, as tuderor from tuder- etc. See 171, 13. O. teremenniu 
beside teremniss 'terminibus' is either an example of the encroach- 
ment of the z-stem ending, or else comes from a stem termenio-, an 
extension of termen-. An original e'-stem termeni- is less probable. 
For O. petora 'quattuor' (Festus), which may possibly contain 
the old ending of consonant-stems, -a, I.E. -d, see 191, 4. 

Inflection [179 


179. Mute-Stems 



NOM. meddiss, meddis zefef, serse 

GEN. medikeis 

DAT. medikei kapife, capirse 

Acc. capirso, erietu, curnaco 

ABL. ligud kapife, curnase 

NoM.-Acc. NEUT. tuplak, huntak 


NOM. meddiss, 
GEN. liimitu[m 

D.-A. ligis kapirus, uapersus 

Acc. malaks capif, uapef-e, uef, frif 

a. For the consonant-changes in Nom. Sg. meddiss and Nom. PI. meddiss, 
see 145, 2; for U. zefef, 110, 4; for U. Acc. PI. capif etc., 178, 10. 

Liquid Stems 
180. 1. Agent>nouns in -tor-, like Latin victor, victoris. 



NOM. censtnr, keenzstur, kvais- arfertur, arsfertur, kvestur, uhtur 

stur, embratur 

DAT. kvaisturei, Regaturei afferture, speture 

Acc. arsferturo, uhturu 



NOM. kenzsur, cemtur, kvaizstur 
Acc. usurs 

180] Third Declension 129 

2. Nouns of Relationship, like Latin pater, patris 



NOM. patir, niir 

GEN. Maatreis 

DAT. Paterei 


Voc. lupater 


NOM. frater, frateer, f rater 

GEN. fratriim, nerum fratru(m), fratrom 

D.-A. fratrus, fratrus, nerus 

Acc. nerf 

a. The Nominative Singular preserves the original long vowel (Grk. -77/3, 
-up, Skt. -a, etc.), which is shortened in Latin. See 78, 2. In the other cases 
we have, as in Latin, -tor- in agent-nouns, but -tr- in nouns of relationship, 
except in the Vocative Singular. See 97. 

O. Fuutrel, Futrei 'Genetrici', Gen. Futre[ls, apparently follows the declen- 
sion of nouns of relationship, but the existing case-forms may belong equally 
well to an i-stem, and the word is perhaps a relic of the old Feminine formation 
of agent-nouns (Skt. -tr-i), which in Latin nearly always appears in an extended 
form (gene-tr-l-x etc.). 1 

b. For the Nom. PI. in -r from -r(e)s, see 117; for U. frateer, see 76, 3; 
for O. -rs in the Acc. PI., see 117, a. 

c. O. niir, nerum, U. nerf, nerus, etc., correspond to Grk. avfip, Skt. nar-, 
Nom. Sg. nti 'man', Gen. PI. nardm (Vedic). 

d. Neuter r-stems are : U. utur 'aquam' (Grk. vdap), with Abl. Sg. une 
(*udne; see 135, a) from an n-stem (cf. L. femur, feminis); U. Nom. -Acc. 
pir, pir 'ignis' from*pw- (Grk. irvp ; see 59), with Abl. Sg. pure, pure-to, from a 
stem pur-. From pure-to arose, after the analogy of the Masculines, Acc. Sg. 
purom-e beside the regular pir. 

1 The history of the word would be simplified, could we accept the suggestion 
of De Saussure and Thurneysen (I.F. Anz. 9, 184) that it is not, as commonly supposed, 
a derivative of fu- with causative meaning 'cause to be, create', but the equivalent of 
Grk. QvydTyp, Skt. duhita, etc. But, without attempting to discuss here the compli- 
cated phonetics of this group of words, it is safe to say that we should expect in 
Oscan either *Fuktrei or *Fuhtrei. That the latter should appear three times without 
h would do for Umbrian, but not for Oscan (142). 





Nasal Stems 








O. fruktatiuf, liittiuf, tribarak- 

kiuf, U. tribfi9u, karu 
O. tangineis, kujmparakineis, 


O. leginei, sverrunei, U. karne 
O. leginum, tanginom, medica- 

tinom, U. abrunu 
O. tanginud, tanginud, tangi- 

nud,U. natine, tribrisine, 

U. ferine, ferine (?) 


U. numem, nome, umen 
U. nomner, pelmner 

U. nomne 

U. numem, name 

U. nomne, umne, tikamne 


O. humuns 

[O. teremenniii] 

U. homonus, karnus 
U. manf 

O. teremniss 

a. Most of the Masc. and Fern, forms belong to the type of L. legio, -ioms, 
but in the oblique cases show the suffix in the reduced grade -In- (95 ; the vowel- 
length is shown by the Oscan spelling i, "not i; see 47). In O. statif 'statua' 
(in form L. statio) the reduced grade appears also in the Nom., but the 1 is 
strange (hardly -in- beside -in-). 

b. The type of L. sermo, -onis is represented by 0. sverrunei, humuns (cf. 
early Latin hemonem), U. homonus, abrunu (as if L. *aprdnem). U. abrons, Vila 
43, used as Ace. PL, is probably the Nom. form written by mistake for *abronf. 

c. U. karu, Gen. Sg. O. carneis, etc., agree with L. caro, carnis in showing 
the reduced grade of the suffix in the oblique cases. 

d. The Oscan Nom. Sg. in -f represents -ns, with n introduced from the 
oblique cases, and s added after the analogy of other Nominatives. The Umbrian 
forms probably represent the same type with the final / omitted, rather than 
the formation in -6 like the Latin. See 110, 5. 


182. Examples of s-stems are: U. mefs, mers l ius\ Dat.- 
Abl. PL mersus (132, a) ; O. Dat.-Abl. PL aisusis 'sacrificiis';- 

184] Third Declension 131 

U. Dat.-Abl. Pl.vasus'vasibus' (cf. L. vds), Nom. PI. uasor (171,13); 
- O. far, U./ar 'far' (from *fars ; see 117), Gen. Sg.farer (instead 
of *farser, under the influence of the Nom.) ; - - U. Ace. Sg. tuder 
'finem' (see 131, a), Dat.-Abl. PI. tuderus, Nom. PI. tuderor (171, 
13), Ace. PL tuder o ; U. ose 'opere'(?). U. pars in pars-est 'par 
est' seems to be like *fars, far, with rs preserved before the 
enclitic (117, b), but the relation to L. par, paris is not wholly 


183. The nouns corresponding to L. luppiter, bos, and sus 
show the following forms : 

1. Gen. Sg. O. Iiiveis ; Dat. Sg. O. Diiivei, Atou/rei, luvei, 
U. luve, luue ; Ace. Sg. U. Dei ; Voc. Sg. U. lupater, Di, Dei. 

2. Ace. Sg. U. bum ; Abl. Sg. U. bue ; Gen. PL U. buo ; 
Ace. PL U. buf, buf. 

3. Ace. Sg. U. sim, si; Ace. PL U. sif, sif, si. 

a. The relation between 0. Iiiveis and Diiivei is the same as between 
L. lovis and early Diovis (see 134). For O. Auw/rei see 24, a. U. luue for 
*Ioue is due to the influence of the Old Umbrian spelling. U. lupater, like 
L. lupiter (luppiter), is from *Dieu-pater (Grk. ZeO irdrep). U. Di, Dei, are prob- 
ably from the stem seen in L. dies, Dies-ptter, with contraction (82, 2). 

6. U. bum, &M/, are from bo- (cf. Grk. Dor. j3w^, /3<Ss), and this form of the 
stem has spread to the other cases, replacing bou- of L. bove etc. 

c. For U. sim, sif, etc., see 59. 


184. Examples of Declension. 




GEN. castrous trifor 

DAT. trifo, Ahtu 

Ace. [maniiri] trifu, trifo 

ABL. [castrid] [mani, mani, trefi, afputrati] 

LOG. manuv-e 

132 Inflection [184 



N.-A. NEUT. berva, castruo, kastruvuf 

GEN. pequo(?) 

D.-A. berus 

Remarks on the Case-Forms 

185. 1. GEN. SG. Oscan shows the original ending -ous 
(Skt. -o, Goth, -aus, etc.), whence U. -or (72, 113), and L. -us. 

2. DAT. SG. U. trifo (also Fiso, Trebo, with transfer from 
the 0-stems; see 171, 3, a) may be combined with the Latin 
Dative in -u on the basis of a form in -ou. This is probably an 
old Locative, seen in U. manuv-e with the diphthong preserved 
before the enclitic, the -ou coming from -eu (70), this from -eu 
(60 ; cf. Skt. -du). 

3. Ace. SG. For U. -o from -um, see 57. O. manim cannot 
be reasonably explained from *manum and must be an z-stem 
form, due perhaps to the Ablatives in -id. 

4. ABL. SG. See 59 with note. 

5. LOG. SG. For U. manuv-e, see above, 2. 

6. NoM.-Acc. PL. NEUTER. The ending is -ud with -d from 
o-stems (171, 13), showing the usual change of final -a (34). For 
U. kastruvuf beside castruo, see 171, 13. 

7. DAT.-ABL. PL. The ending -us is from -ufs, -ufos, -ubhos 
(L. -ubus), and this has been extended to consonant-stems (178, 9). 

8. GENDER. As in Latin, w-stems are regularly Fern. (cf. 
U. trefiper liuvina) or Neuter. But U. mani, in contrast to 
L. manus, is Masc. (maninertru). 


186. The Fifth Declension is represented by only a few 
scattering forms, namely: 

DAT. SG. O. Kerri 'Cereri' ; -- U. ri 'rei' ; U. auie 4 augu- 
rio' (stem auie- more probable than mtid- or auio-, on account of 
aviekate, auiecla). 

187] Adjectives 133 

ABL. SG. U. ri^re'. 
Ace. PL. U. iouie. 
DAT.-ABL. PL. U. iouies. 

a. The ending of the Dat. Sg. is -e, from -ei, like L. -o from -6i in the 
Second Declension (60). Cf. L. facie etc. quoted by grammarians. 

b. 0. Kerri represents a transfer from an original s-stem. Nom. Sg. 
*Keres (L. Ceres) became *Kerres under the influence of Gen. Sg. *Kerreis from 
*Ker(e)seis etc., and this was drawn into the analogy of forms of the Fifth 
Declension, just as was in part L. plebes. 

187. As in Latin, adjectives are declined according to the 
First and Second Declensions or according to the Third. 

1. A large proportion of the existing forms follow the First 
and Second Declensions. Examples : 

O. tiivtiks 'publicus', Nom. Sg. F. toutico, Ace. Sg. N. 
touticom ; U. todcom (Ace. Sg. M.), Nom. PL N. totcor (171, 13), 
Dat.-Abl. PL todceir. 

O. muiniku 'communis' (Nom. Sg. F.), Ace. Sg. F. muinikam, 
Abl. Sg. F. muinikad, Loc. Sg. N. muinikei. 

U. Ikuvins 'Iguvinus', Gen. Sg. F. liuvinas, Dat. Sg. F. 
Ikuvine, Ace. Sg. F. liouinam, Abl. Sg. F. Ikuvina, Loc. Sg. F. 
Mouine, louinem (169, 7, a), Nom. PL M. Ikuvinus. 

a. Just as the pronominal adjectives in Latin show pronominal forms in 
the Gen. Sg. and Dat. Sg., so in Oscan we find Dat. Sg. altrei 'alteri', not 
*altroi. See 195, c. 

But in the Gen. Sg. there is no special pronominal ending, and Masc. and 
Fern, forms are kept distinct (195, b). Hence it is useless to assume pronominal 
declension for O. minstrels to account for its use with aeteis (minstrels aeteis 
' minoris partis'), a word which is elsewhere Fern. (cf. ajittiiim alttram 'portionum 
alteram'). We must rather assume local variation in the gender of the noun. 

2. Adjectives of the Third Declension are mostly i-stems. 
Thus O.-U. sakri- beside saJcro- (cf. early L. sacres porti etc. ; 
the Oscan and some of the Umbrian examples are used substan- 
tively, while the forms of sakro- are all adjectives), e.g. O. sakrim 

134 .Inflection [187 

(Ace. Sg. M.F.), U. sakre, sacre (Ace. Sg. N.), O. sakrid (Abl. Sg.), 
U. sakreu (Ace. PL N.), O. sakriss, U. sacris (Abl. PL). Cf. also 
the forms of U . pacri-, peracni-, seuacni-, peracri-, etc. Consonant 
stems are seen in U. tuplak (192, 1) and O. malaks 'malevolos'(?). 

a. Observe that U. pacer (Nom. Sg.) is both Masc. and Fern., like many 
early Latin forms in -er. 

The Comparative 

188. 1. Corresponding to the Latin Comparative in -ior 
(suffix -ies) are found only a few adverbial forms in -is from -ios 
(L. -ius) ; e.g. O. piistiris : L. posterius ; O. fortis : L.fortius ; - 
O. mais 'magis': L. mains. See 91, 1. 

2. The suffixes -ero- and -tero-, regular Comparative suffixes 
in Greek and Sanskrit, are used, as in Latin, in adjectives of 
time and place, but without the force of Comparatives in the 
grammatical sense ; and, as O. piistiris shows, a regular Compara- 
tive could be formed from such adjectives, as in Latin. Exam- 
ples, including some adverbial forms, are : O. supruis 'superis', 
U. subra ' supra' ; O. pustrei 'in postero', U. postra 'posteras, 
posteriores' ; O. ehtrad 'extra', U. ap-ehtre 'ab extra' ; O. con- 
trud 'contra' ; O. Entrai '*Interae'; -- U. pretra 'priores' from 
*prai-tero- (for the form cf. L. praeter); O. pruter (pan) 
'prius(quam)' from *pro-ter formed from pro like Grk. Trpore- 
/3o? from Trpo (cf. also Skt. prdtdr) ; -- O. destrst 'dextra est', 
U. destram-e etc. ; -- O. hu[n]truis 'inferis', U. hondra 'infra', 
from *hom-tero- or *homi-tero- (cf. L. humus, humilis) ; -- U. nertru 
'sinistro' : Grk. eveprepos, veprepos (cf. evepoi) ; O. nistrus 'pro- 
pinquos' from *nedh-tero- 1 (138, a; cf. nessimo-, 189). 

1 Others derive O. nistrus from *nedh-is-tero- (cf. 188, 3) and O.-CJ. nessimo- 
from *nedh-is-mmo- (cf . 189, 3) ; also O. messimass from *medh-is-mmo-. But it is 
better not to separate these from the other adjectives of similar use. It 'is true of 
course that -tero- and -tmmo- are not suffixes of primary derivation; hut by the 
assumed *ned(h)-tero-, *ned(h)-tmmo-, we do not imply derivatives from the verbal 
root but from an adverbial form, similar to Grk. u0--Te/3os, Skt. ut-tara-, ut-tamd-, 
from *ud-tero-, *ud-tmmo-. With the assumed *medh-tmmo- compare Goth, miduma, 
Av. maSsma-, from *medh-mmo-. 

189] Comparison 135 

a. The suffix -tero- is also frequent, as in Latin and elsewhere, in pronom- 
inal adjectives. Thus O.-U. *potro- (O. puttirus-pid etc.): L. uterque, Grk. 7r6re- 
pos, etc. (200, 2); 0. alttram 'alteram', aittrei, altrei, etc. : L. alter; U. etru 
'altero', etre, etram-a, etc. from *e-tero-: O.Bulg. jeteru ' some one' (contained 
also in L. cetera- from *cei-etero-). 

3. A suffix -is-tero-, a combination of -is-, the reduced form 
of the suffix -ies-, and the -tero- just mentioned, is seen in 
O. minstreis 'minoris' from *min-is-tero-, and U. mestru 'maior' 
from *maistero- (with regular monophthongization of the diph- 
thong) for *mag-is-tero- (see 147, 3, a). Cf. L. minister, magister, 
used substantively. 

The Superlative 

189. 1. Nearly all the forms occurring are from adjectives of 
time and place, corresponding to L. sum-mus, prox-imus, ul-timus, 
etc. with the suffixes -mo-, -emo- (I.E. -mmo-), and -temo- (I.E. 
-tmmo-). Thus U. some ' summum' (57, 125, 1); O. imad-en'ab 
imo' (derivation uncertain; see 114, d)-, O. pustm[as 'postremae', 
posmom (139, 2); O. ultiumam 'ultimam'; U. Tiondomu 'infimo' 
(cf. U. hondra, 188, 2; for d, see 156);-- O.-U. nessimo- 'proxi- 
mus' (O. nessimas etc., 15, 8), cognate with O.Ir. nessam 'next', 
from *nedh-tmmo- 1 (138, a); O. messimass 'medioximas'(?) from 
*medh-tmmo-. 1 For the vowel-changes in the suffix, see 86, 1. 

a. The same suffix -mo- appears in ordinals, as U. promom ' primum' etc. 
(191, 1, 9, 10); also in U. gimu, simo 1 retro' from a stem *ki-mo- : L. ci-tra 
(cf. also U. ive 'citra', from a stem *ki-uo-). Under the influence of the adjec- 
tives in -mo- was formed *semo- (U. seraw, sehemu ' medio' ; see 305) from an 
adverb *semi (Skt. samf, adv., L. semi-, Grk. fyxi-, in cpds.). 

2. O. ualaemom 'optimum' (also Valaimas) differs from the 
preceding in meaning and formation. It seems to contain -mo- 
added to a case-form (Dat.-Loc. Sg.), as perhaps also L. postre- 
mus. But neither this nor any other explanation is certain. 

3. O. maimas 'maximae' from *maisemo- (114, b} for *magis- 
mmo- (147, 3, a) is parallel to O. minstreis, L. minister (188, 3). 

1 See footnote, p. 134. 

136 Inflection [190 


190. The most common adverbial endings represent stereo- 
typed case-forms. Formations of more obscure origin are seen 
in many of the Pronominal Adverbs and Conjunctions (see under 
Pronouns, 195 ff. passim, 202), and in Prepositions (299 ff.), which 
are, in origin, Adverbs of Place. 

1. Ablatives in -ed (L. -e, early -ed). Thus (). amprufid 
'improbe'; U. prufe 'probe', rehte'recte', nuvime 'nonum', nesi- 
mei 'proxime', preve 'singillatim', trahuorfi 1 - transverse', cive'citra' 
(189, 1, a], etc. 

2. Ablatives in -od (L. -<7, early -od in pordd). Thus 
O. contrud 'contra' (cf. L. contro-versus), amiricatud ^immeTC&to' 
(see 294, a), suluh 'omnino' (133, a); U. Jieritu 'consulto' (294, a, 
307), eso(c) 'ita', tertio (postertio) 'tertium', ulo 'illuc', cimu, simo 
'retro' (189, 1, a), supru sese 'sursum', testru sese 'dextrorsum' 
(cf. dextro-vorsum etc.; for use of sese see 307), podruh-pei 
'utroque', etc. 

NOTE. Since the Instrumental was merged with the Ablative in prehistoric 
times, it is quite possible that this formation is of Instrumental origin. But 
that the old Instrumental /orm, without the d, is to be recognized in the Umbrian 
adverbs, is unlikely, in view of the d in Oscan and Latin. We assume, e.g., that 
U. supru comes from *suprod, like 0. contrud, L. pordd. See also 54, note. 

3. Ablatives in -dd (L. -<7, early -ad). Thus O. ehtrad 
'extra', sjiillad 'ubique'; U. subra 'supra', Jiondra 'infra'. 

a. Here belongs also 0. dot 'de', da(d)-, U. da- (300, 3), while L. de is from 
an o-stem (cf. 0. contrud: L. contra), either Ablative (above, 1) or Instrumental. 1 
The final t in 0. dot arose before words beginning with a surd and was general- 
ized (cf. the opposite process in L. 06), a contributory factor being the influence 
of ant, ampt, pert, post. A simple error, as in pocapit (127, 1, a), is unlikely, 
as the form occurs four times. 

4. Ablatives in -~ul (L. -7, mostly replaced by -iter). A 
probable example is O. akrid 'acriter'(?). 

1 In favor of tnkin.^ L. df- as :ui Instrniiiontal form may be urged its appearance 
as <Ji~. not *<lf-tl, in the S. < '. dr Karrlianalilnis, in which the retention of final (1, although 
archaistic, is absolutely consistent in the body <>1 the inscription. 

191] Numerals 137 

5. Neuter Accusatives in -om (L. -um, e.g. multum), espe- 
cially frequent in adverbs of time. Thus O. siuom 'omnino', 
posmom 'postremum', U. promom 'primum'; similarly U. duti 
'iterum', tertim 'tertium', from *dutiom, *tertiom (172, 173, 1). 
Here belong also the pronominal adverbs such as U. enom 
'turn' and O. pon 'cum', U. ponne, from *pom-de. Cf. L. turn, 
quom, cum. 

6. Neuter Accusatives are also the adverbs of the Compara- 
tives like O. pustiris 'posterius' etc. (188, 1), and the conjunctions 
O. pod, U. puf-e, pirs-e, etc. (202, 1, 2), U. efek, erse 'turn'. The 
Ace. Sg. F. in -am is seen only in pronominal forms, like O. pan 
'quam', U. pane, from *pam-de. Cf. L. tarn, quam. 

a. A probable example of the Ace. PI. N. is U. postro, pustru 'retro' 
(Vila 43, 44, Ib 34, 36), since this is hardly to be separated from postro, pustru, 
pustra, appearing elsewhere (VIb 5, Vila 8, II a 32, lib 19) as an adjective used 
predicatively in the sense of 'retro'. See 306. 


191. 1. Cardinal, U. unu 'unum'. Ordinal, U. prumum, pro- 
mom 'primum' (adv.) from *pro-mo- (cf. Grk. TT/JO-^O? 'foremost'). 
The stem *prlsmo-, whence L. primus, is seen_in Pael. prismu 
4 prima'. 

2. The cardinal is declined like the Plural of an o-stem, the 
old Dual inflection being given up even in the Nom., where it 
is retained in Latin. The following forms occur in Umbrian : 
Nom. M.F. dur, Dat.-Abl. tuves, tuver-e, duir, Ace. M.F. tuf (cf. 
also desen-duf 'duodecim'), Ace. N. tuva. For the contraction 
in dur, tuf, see 54, 82, 2. 

For the ordinal the pronominal etram-a, etru, etc. (188, 2, a) 
is used in Umbrian, like' alter in Latin. The adverb *du-tiom, 
U. c?wi 'iterum' is formed after *ter-tiom, U. tertim (3). 

a. The stem du- is also seen in U. du-pla, tu-plak (192, 1), and U. du-pursus 
'bipedibus'; and *dui- (L. 6i-, Skt. dm-; see 102, 3) in U. di-fue 'bifidum': Grk. 

138 Inflection [191 

3. The cardinal has the regular declension of an z-stem, as 
in Latin. Thus in Oscan Nom. M.F. tris (41, a, 82, 1), in Umbrian 
Dat.-Abl. tris, Ace. M.F. trif etc. (178, 10), Ace. N. triia (also 
trio-per, 192, 2). 

The ordinal appears in U. tertiam-a, tertiu, etc., and in the 
adverb tertim from *tertiom. 

4. O. petora (Festus) is a Nom.-Acc. PI. N. from a stem 
*ql*etuor-. Cf. L. quattuor, with a of doubtful explanation, and 
Dor. reropa. If exactly quoted, it retains the old ending of 
consonantrstems, -a (I.E. -9), escaping the usual substitution of 
-a (171, 13) from the fact that it was no longer felt as an inflected 
form (cf. L. quattuor). But it is also possible that it stands for 
*petoro with the usual -a, being quoted with Latinized ending. 
For O. petiro-pert, see 192, 2. 

The ordinal is probably to be recognized in O. trutum, 
though the translation 'quartum' is disputed. As such it can 
readily be explained as from *ktru-to- with a reduced form of 
I.E. *<fl*>etrur (cf. L. quadru-, Av. ca6ru-), just as Skt. turlya- 
' fourth' is from *kturlya- (cf. Av. a-ytuirya- beside tuirya-). 

a. U. petur-pursus ' quadrupedibus' shows another form of the stein, 
namely *q!*etur- (Skt. catur- in cpds. ; cf. also *qVetru- above). 

5. The cardinal *pompe and the ordinal *ponto- are to be 
assumed from O. pumperiais 'quincuriis', U. pumpefias, O. Piintiis, 
HofjLTTTies 'Quintius', O. pomtis 'quinquiens', and U. puntes 'pen- 
tads.' See 37, 146, 150, 153. 

6. The ordinal *sesto- (L. sextus ; cf . O.-U. destro- : L. dextro-) 
is to be assumed from U. sestentasiaru ' sextan tariarum'. 

8. The ordinal stem is seen in O. Uhtavis 'Octavius'. 

9. An ordinal *nouemo-, like Skt. navamd- but in contrast 
to L. nono- from *noueno-, is seen in U. nuvime'nonum'. 

10. The cardinal is seen in U. desen-duf'duodecim' (144). 
An ordinal corresponding to L. decimus is implied by 

O. Dekmanniuis '*Decumaniis' ; also a *dekento- (Grk. Se/caro?) by 
O. deketasiiii 4 *decentarius' according to one interpretation. 

193] Pronouns 139 

a. U. tekvias ' decuriales' and O. Dekkviarim 'Decurialem' are formed with 
the suffix -to- from a stem *deku- (cf. L. decussis and late decu-plex), which, like 
centu- in L. centu-plex etc., is due to the analogy of *ql l etru (4). Cf. also 
U. dequrier, tekuries 'decuriis'. 

12. U. desenduf'duodecim'. See 10. 


192. 1. Distributives are U. prever 'singulis' (17, 10), tupler 
'birds', dupla 'binas', tripler 'trims'. The last two agree with 
L. duplus, triplus, in form but not in meaning. The only mul- 
tiplicative is U. tuplak, Ace. Sg. N. used substantively ('furcam'?): 
L. du-plex, Grk. St-TrXaf. 

2. Numeral Adverbs are U. triiu-per, trio-per 'ter', O. petiro- 
pert, petiru-pert 'quater'; O. pomtis 'quinquiens', U. nuvis 
'noviens'. With -pert, -per (127, 3) compare L. sem-per etc. 
It is added to the Neuter Plural in U. triiu-per from *trid-pert, 
and after the analogy of this form arose *petria-pert, whence 
O. petiro-pert (81, 100, 3, c). O. pomtis and U. nuvis cannot be 
connected with the Latin formation in -iens and are probably 
formed after the analogy of *duis (L. bis) and *tris (L. ter). 
For the m of O. pomtis, see 146. 


193. The few occurring forms of the Personal Pronouns are : 
FIRST PERSON. U. mehe 'mini'. 

SECOND PERSON. O. tiium, titi'tu'; O. tfei, U. tefe, tefe 
4 tibi';--U. tiu, tiom, tio, teio, 'te'. 

REFLEXIVE. O. sifei ' sibi' ; - - U. seso 'sibi' ; O. siom 'se'. 

a. The Dative forms mehe, tefe, sifei, correspond to L. mihi etc. and repre- 
sent *meghei, *tebhei, *sebhei. The enclitic use of the forms explains the weak- 
ening of the vowel in the first syllable in Latin and in 0. tfei, sifei. See 86, 3. 

b. U. seso is perhaps se-so, se being from *s(u)oi (Grk. ol) ancfr*so a particle 
of unknown connection. 

140 Inflection [193 

c. The Ace. forms U. Horn, O. stow, perhaps contain te and se with the 
addition of the particle -oin seen in O. pid-um etc. (201, 5).. O. tiium would 
then be the same form, used as a Nom., just as, vice versa, in some Doric 
dialects rti is used as an Ace. Another possibility is that the Nom. -Ace. Sg. 
Neuter of the Possessive *me(i)o-(L. meus) came to be used substantively for 
both 'ego' and 'me' and that after *meom arose Nom. -Ace. *teom, *seom. For i 
from e, see 38, 1, 39, 1. 


194. The following forms are found : 

SECOND PERSON. O. tuvai 'tuae'; -- U. touer, tuer 'tui'; - 
tuua, tua 'tua'; -- U. uestra 'vestra'. 

THIRD PERSON. O. suveis k sui' ; -- suvam 'suam' ; siivad 
'sua';--U. sueso 'suo' (Loc.). 

a. The contrast in spelling between U. touer and tuer and between 
O. siivad and suveis (suvam and tuvai. no. 19, are ambiguous) seems to point 
to the existence of both the stems which are found in other languages, namely 
*teuo-, *seuo- (early Latin tovos, sovos), and *t(u)uo-, *s(u)yo- (Skt. tvd-, svd-). 
Of. Grk. re6s, e6j, beside o-6s, 6s. 1 

6. U. sueso is probably a Locative *suei + so (cf. seso, 193, b). 


195. The pronoun corresponding in use to the Latin is 
agrees with the latter in the Nominative and Accusative forms 
(stems i- and e(i)o-, e(i)d-; for the i in O. iiik, ioc, etc., see 38, 1), 
but the other cases show a stem *eiso-, O. eizo-, U. ero-. This 
perhaps has its origin in a Gen. PL *eisom~ (O. eisun-k), properly 
*ei-som, with the regular pronominal ending -som (Skt. -sdm ; 
also Italic in -a-som), but felt as *eis-om on account of the usual 
noun-ending. The enclitic -k is attached to many of the forms, 
as in L. hie. See 201, 1. 

For the sake of a more complete representation of the cases, the forms 
corresponding in use to L. Idem are included in the paradigm, but inclosed in 
brackets. On the enclitics used, see 201, 5, 6. 

1 The author is imnblr to accept the view of v. Planta and of Solmsen, Studien 
z. lat. Sprachgeschiehte, 1">1 IT., that oy, becomes uu in unaccented syllables. See 

Verb-System, 17."i. 


Demonstrative Pronouns 141 




NOM. izic idik iiuk, iiik, 

[isidum, ioc 

(esidum, 44, tf)] 

GEN. eiseis, eizeis 








Ace. ionc idik, iak 

idic (108,2, a} 

ABL. eisud, eizuc eisak, 



LOG. eisei, eizeic ejisai 

NOM. ms<? [iwssu, 

iwsu] 1 

GEN. eisunk 








eiza(i)sc 2 


eru, ero(m) 
[erer-unt 3 , erir-ont] - 

eu, eo eaf, eaf 

a. U. erec and erse are certainly equivalent to O. izic and idic, but, although 
e for i is common enough in Umbrian (45), the consistency of the spelling e is 
probably due to the influence of the other case-forms, erer etc. 

6. The Gen. Sg. U. erar, together with O. ulas 'illius' (197, 3), shows 
that, in contrast to Latin, the Feminine was kept distinct from the Masculine. 

c. The Dat. Sg. M. and N. of pronominal o-stems had the Locative ending 
-ei, as is shown by the pronominal adjective 0. altrei 'alteri', thus agreeing 
with the Latin (illl etc.). Cf. also U. esmei'huic' (197; 1). The Feminine 
form was doubtless kept distinct, as in the Genitive. Cf. Loc. Sg. 0. ejisai. 

d. U. iepi and iepru have been thought to contain case-forms of erec, but 
this is very uncertain. 

e. U. efek, erse, Ace. Sg. N., is sometimes used as an adverb 'turn', 
e.g. Via 6, where it is correlative with pirsi 'cum'. 

/. The stem i- is seen also in the following adverbs : U. ife ' ibi' with the 
same ending as pufe (202, 5), to which belongs perhaps ef Via 4, with loss of 

See 53, a. 

2 Aes eizasc. 

3 Aes erererunt. 

142 Inflection [195 

the final vowel (cf. also i/oni' ibidem', 201, 6); 0. ip'ibi' (Pael. ip) probably 
from *i-pe with the same enclitic as neip, L. neque; U. itek 'item' from 
*i-te-k or *i-V-ik (cf. L. ita, item, Skt. iti, etc., which however differ in the final 

196. The pronoun corresponding in use to the Latin hie is in 
Oscan formed in part from a stem elco-, in part from ekso-, in 
Umbrian wholly from the latter in the form es(s)o- (145, 3). 
In most of the Oscan forms the enclitic -k (201, l) is used. 

M. N. F. 

NOM. - O. ek., U. eso 



Ace. O. ekik O. ekak (108, 2, a) 

ABL. O. eksuk, O. exac, U. esa 

U. essu, esu, esu-ku 
LOG. O. exeic 


NOM. O. ekas, ekask 

GEN. U. esom-e, esum-ek(?) 

D.-A. U. esis-co, O. exaisc-en 

esir, isir 
Ace. O. ekass 

a. The Oscan Ace. Sg. N. ekik (Pael. ecic) is from *ekid-k formed after 
the analogy of id-Ik. Cf. also U. este (197, 4). 

6. The stem eko- or ekso- is seen also in O. ekss, ex ( ita', but the precise 
formation is uncertain (*efc(e)s or *eks(e)s with the same -s as in puz, or *eks(e)?). 
For O. ekkum 'item', see 201, 5. 

c. The Umbrian stem es(s)o- is also seen in eso, esoc, iso, issoc 'ita' (adv. 
in -o; see 190, 2), isec, isek 'item' (cf. itek, 195, /), and isunt 'item' (201, 6). 
For the i in these forms and in Dat.-Abl. isir, see 39, 4. 

197. There are some scattering forms from other stems. 

1. U. esmei 4 huic', esmik *ei'; Loc. Sg. esme. These, together 
with U. pusme 'cui', are the sole relics in Italic of a type of pro- 
nominal case-forms found in various languages, most clearly in 

198] Interrogative, Relative, and Indefinite Pronouns 143 

Sanskrit, e.g. Dat. Sg. dsmdi, tdsmdi, kdsmdi, Loc. Sg. dsmin, 
etc. The stem of esmei is e, the same as in Skt. d-smdi, the 
two forms being identical except that in esmei the Locative 
ending is used for the Dative, as usual (195, c). 

2. U. uru, uru 4 illo'; Abl. Sg. F. ura-ku ; Dat.-Abl. PL ures ; 
here also probably, as Gen. Sg. M., orer Via 26, etc., though 
there are various interpretations of the phrase. For u in uru 
see 51. The stem may be *oro-, *oso-, or even *oiso-, cognate 
forms being unknown. 

3. U. ulu, ulo c illo, illuc', adv.; here also probably, as Gen. 
Sg. F., O. ulas (no. 19). Stem olo- as in L. olim, to which early 
L. olle is also related. 

4. U. estu 'istum'; Ace. Sg. N. este, este; Ace. PL N. esto, 
estu. Stem esto-, whence L. iste with i under the influence of is. 
The neuter este is from *estid formed after the analogy of id, pid. 

5. O. essuf, esuf 4 ipse', U. esuf. The meaning c ipse' is 
reasonably certain (cf. T. B. 19, 21), so that it is difficult not 
to assume connection with L. ipse, though inconsistent with the 
usual derivation of the latter from *is-pse. The stem would 
then be *epso- (for ss see 122, 2), and the -uf perhaps represent 
a transfer to the inflection of 7i-stems (O. uittiuf etc., 181) as if 
we had in Latin *ipso formed after agent-nouns in -6, -onis. 
But the whole matter is problematical. 

6. U. surur 'item' (whence sururont, suront, 201, 6) is of uncertain origin, 
but perhaps represents a reduplicated formation *so-so-s or *s6-so-r, so being 
from the stem so- seen in L. sic, earlier sei-ce. 



198. The use of the I.E. Interrogative-Indefinite Pronoun, 
stems *q u o- (*qUd-), *q u i-, and, in adverbs, *q%u-, for the Relative 
is characteristic of Italic. The Latin distinction between qui, 
quod, and quis, quid, is also common to the dialects. The o-stem 
forms are used for the ordinary Relative (with definite ante- 
cedent), the i-stem forms for the Interrogative (only one example), 



Indefinite, and Indefinite Relative. For the distinction between 
the Definite and Indefinite Relative, "cf. O. thesavrum pud esei 
terei 1st ... inim pid epsei] thesavrei piikkapid eefstit 'thesaurum 
qui in eo territorio est . . . et quidquid in eo thesauro quan- 
doque exstat'. In Latin, too, quis was originally used for the 
Indefinite Relative (Neue, Formenlehre II 3 , p. 430), and Cato's 
quesquomque is evidence for * quisquomque (U. pisi-pumpe). Cf. 
also quisquis, and quisque in its Relative use. 

How far there was any corresponding differentiation in the 
other case-forms cannot be determined from the limited number 
of occurrences. 

199. Examples of Declension. Some of the compound 
forms (200, 1) and conjunctions (202) are included. 

STEM po-, pa- (L. quo-, qua-) 


NOM. O. pui, 
U. poi, 

GEN. O. puiieh 
DAT. U. pusme 

O. pud 


O. pai, pai, 

pae, paei 


O. pod, O. paam, 
(U. sue-po, pam 





O. poizad, 

U. pora 

STEM pi- (L. qui-) 

M. F. N. 

O. pis, pis, O. pid, 

pis, U. pif-e 

U. pis-i, pis-i, 





O. pieis-um 
O. piei 
O. phim 1 

O. pid, pid, 

(U. pif-e, 

pirs-e, etc., 

1 Misspelling for pirn, probably due to the influence of Latin orthography with 
its not infrequent confusion of p and ph, t and th, etc. Cf . also O. Aphinis, Perkhen. 
(beside Perkens) . 

200] Interrogative, Relative, and Indefinite Pronouns 145 

M. N. F. M. F. N. 

NOM. O. piis, O. pai O. pas, pas 
U. pur-e, 
Acc. O. pai U. paf-e \ 

a. 0. pui is from *quoi, whence L. qui, while U. poi is to be explained as 
the same form (*po from *poi) with the addition of the particle -I, seen in pur-i, 
paf-e, etc. 0. paei beside pal is probably only a careless spelling for pae, since 
the particle -I is not found in the other Oscan forms. 

6. O. piiiieh, for *piiiieis (see 64, 6, 113, c), is in origin the Gen. Sg. of 
the Possessive Adjective, like L. nostrl, vestrl, etc. 1 The adjective is seen in 
O. puiiu 'cuia': L. quoins, Grk. TTCHOS, all from a stem *q%oi-io- (253, note). 

c. U. pusme is a form like esmei and so almost identical with Skt. kdsmai. 
See 197, 1. 

d. 0. poizad, U. pora, are from a stem *poiso-, standing in the same rela- 
tion to po- as *eiso- to i-, e(|)o-, and probably of similar origin. See 195. 
Nothing is gained by assuming a compound *po-eiso-. 

e. 0. pieis, piei, instead of which we should expect *peis, *pei, are due to the 
influence of pis, which as a monosyllable retained the i in contrast to other i-stem 
Nominatives. That is, we have *slag-s, Gen. *slag-eis, butpi-s and so Gen. pi-eis. 

The analogy of io-stems (Nom. -is, Gen. -ieis) may also have been a factor. 

/. A form pom, porse, porsei, which occurs in place of certain case-forms, 
e.g. Nom. Sg. M. (Via 6, 9, etc.), Nom. PI. N. (Via 15, 19), Acc. PI. N. (VI b 40), 
although usually explained in various other ways, is best taken as the conjunc- 
tion (cf. puf-e II a 26), used loosely as a sort of indeclinable Relative. 

200. 1. Indefinite and Indefinite Relative Pronouns com- 
pounded of pis are : 

U. pis-i (pif-e etc.). Indefinite and Indefinite Relative. But 
pif-i VII b 2 has a definite antecedent. 

O. *pis-um (pid-um, pid-um, pieis-um). Indefinite. 

O. pis-pis (pit-pit Festus). Indefinite Relative. Cf. 
L. quis-quis. 

U. pis-Tier. Indefinite. Formed like L. qui-libet, her being 
3d Sg. Pres. Indie, from Aer-'velle' (216). 

1 The suggestion of Sommer, Lat. Laut- und Formenlehre, 472, that pfiiieh is 
Nom. Sg. M. of the adjective, would be attractive if it could be shown that the order 
of the inscription (no. 39) might be puiieh sum | perkium, in which case we could 
translate 'cuiussum? Perkiornm' (cf. no. 55). Yet on the analogy of Mais beside 
Maiiui (173, 1) one would expect Nom. Sg. M. *puis. 

146 Inflection [200 


2. The pronoun corresponding to L. uterque is seen in 
O. Nom. PL putunis-pid, Loc. Sg. piiterei-pid, etc., U. Gen. Sg. 
putres-pe, adv. podruh-pei; also in U. sei-podruhpei 'seorsum 
utroque', with which compare L. sed-utraque (Plautus, Stich. 
106). All these forms come through *potro- (81, 88, 4) from 
*(^otero- (Grk. Trorepo?, Skt. katcird-), that is, *qUo- with the 
suffix -tero- (188, 2). L. uterque owes its u to the influence of 
adverbial forms containing the stem *q u u- (see 3). 

a. O. alttrei piiterelpid akenei, if akenel is 'year' (159, a), must mean 'in 
every other year', where the Romans said ' in anno altero quoque' (Col. R.R. 5, 8). 

3. Besides the stems *qUo- and *q u i-, a stem *q u u-, frequent 
in the adverbial forms of various languages (e.g. Skt. ku-tas 
'whence?', ku-tra 'where?', etc., Cretan oirvt etc.), is to be recog- 
nized in O. puf ubi', U. pufe; O. puz'ut', U. puze, puse, etc. 
See 154 with a, 202, 5, 6. 


201. The enclitic particles used with pronominal forms are 
as follows : 

1. -fc, like L. -ce, -c, in hie, hunc, etc. In contrast to Latin, this is very 
common in forms of the pronoun corresponding to L. is (see 195); it occurs 
also in most of the Oscan forms of efco-, ekso- (see 196); further in U. esmik 
(197, 1), and various adverbs, as esoc, isec, itek, inum-k, etc. In general it is 
more frequent in Oscan than in Umbrian. It has become an integral part of 
some of the forms, just as in L. hie, hunc, e.g. 0. iiik, toe (but U. eu, eo), while 
in others its use is optional, e.g. O. eisud and eizuc. In Umbrian, however, the 
absence of -fc, -c, is not always proof that the formation without the enclitic is 
intended. It is altogether unlikely that ere, ere, is to be separated from erek, erec 
(0. izic), or ersefroin efek (O. idic), or eso from esoc. Probably the final fc, like 
other final consonants in Umbrian, was weakly sounded and so, frequently, 
omitted in the writing. 

2. -ik, a combination of the preceding. This is seen in the forms just 
mentioned, O. iz-ic, fd-ik, id-ic, U. er-ec, etc., also in esum-ek, esom-e, and in the 
adverbs enum-ek etc. The particle to which the k is added probably stands for 
id (like pid). For the change of *id-k to -ik, cf. Abl. Sg. eisak, eizac. 

3. -i, as in Grk. ovroy-t. This is found in Umbrian in nearly all forms 
of the Relative-Indefinite Pronoun (199), including the adverbs puz-e, pus-ei, 
pu-e, etc. 

201] Pronominal Enclitics 147 

4. -pid, used like the Latin generalizing -que in quisque etc. This is seen in 
the forms corresponding to L. uterque (200, 2), and in the adverbs 0. pukkapid, 
poca-pit 'quandoque', U. panu-pei 'quandoque', U. pum-pe in pisi pumpe'qui- 
cumque'. It corresponds in form to L. quid and stands in the same relation to 
L. -que as Skt. -cid to -ca, both of these being used as generalizing particles 
though in different combinations. The three occurrences of U. -pei (panupei, 
podruhpei, seipodruhpei) make it probable that in Umbrian, in the adverbs at 
least, the particle -I (above, 3) was added to -pi from -pid. 

5. -om (oT-dom ?). This is found in Oscan, 1) as a particle of Identity, in 
isidum 'idem' etc. (195), where Umbrian has -hont (6), and in the adverb ekkum 
'item'; 2) as an Indefinite particle, in pid-um ' quidquam' etc. (200, 1), where 
Umbrian has -I (3), and in the conjunction pun-urn 'quandoque'. It is probably 
the same element in 0. per-um 'sine', and perhaps in O. tiium, U. tiom, etc. 
(193, c). For 0. -urn from -om, see 50. 

There is a difference of opinion as to whether the particle is properly -om 
or -dom, as it is also a matter of dispute whether in L. Idem etc. the -dem is 
original or due to a wrong division of id-em, Abl. edd-em, etc. On general 
grounds there is no objection either to -dem, -dom, from the same stem do- that 
is seen in various enclitics, e.g. -de in L. quamde, U. pane, or to -em, -om, to be 
compared with Skt. -am inid-dm. The question is which suits better the actual 
forms. In the Indefinite forms there is no evidence for -dom, in fact it is very 
unlikely that pid-um comes from *pid-dom. In isidum we may divide is-id-um 
(as we have assumed *is-id-k for izic) as well as is-i-dum. The chief support for 
-dom is found in ekkum and iussu, but the changes involved (kd to kk and sd to 
ss) are otherwise unknown (139, a), and it is quite possible that ekkum is for 
*ekk'-om with ekk' for *ekke (L. ecce), and that of the two spellings iussu and 
iusu the latter is the more correct, the former being a slip due to the existence 
of an Ace. PL form *iuss-u or else to an uncertainty as to the syllabic division 
(ius-u with etymological, iu-su with phonetic syllabification). At any rate the 
derivation from *ek-dom and *eos-dom is not so obvious as to constitute proof of 
the particle -dom in Oscan. 

6. -(h)ont. This is found in Umbrian only, namely in eront, erihont 'idem' 
etc. (195), and in the adverbs ifont 'ibidem', isunt 'item', sururont 'item' (whence 
also suront by haplology). It probably contains *hom, from the same stem as 
L. hie, with the -t of pos-t, per-t, etc. We find -hont after vowels, but -ont after 
consonants (149, a). For sururo and eruhu, occurring once each, see 128, 2, a. 
The Abl. Sg. F. erafont which occurs twice beside erahunt owes its -font to a 
wrong division of other forms, e.g. if-ont (ife 'ibi') taken as i-font. 

7. Here may be mentioned the pronominal prefix e in O. e-tanto 'tanta': 
L. tantus. Cf. L. e-quidem. 

8. For enclitics found only in adverbs, see the following. 

148 Inflection [202 


202. Many of the pronominal adverbs have been cited among the forms 
of the various pronominal stems (195-200), but it is desirable to treat separately 
the forms of the Relative (and Indefinite) Adverbs, most of which serve as Con- 
junctions ; and for the sake of convenience the Conjunctions not formed from 
the stems of Relative Pronouns are included. 

1. O. pod in suae pod 'sive', svai puh (133, a), with which is 
identical U. suepo, svepu; also in O. pod min[s 'quo minus'. 
This is Ace. Sg. N. like L. quod, not Abl. Sg. as in L. quo minus. 
The same form with the enclitic -I is seen in U. puf-e 'quod, 
cum, quomodo' (II a 26, III 5, Va 7), with which is identical 
pors-i etc. used in place of certain case-forms (199, /). Of. also 
O. adpiid, U. arnipo (below, 9, 10). 

2. U. pif-e, pirs-i, etc. 'quod, si, cum', e.g. sersi pirsi sesust 
'sede cum sederit' (Via 5), persei pir orto est 'si ignis ortus est, 
in case fire has broken out' (Via 26 etc.; similarly pefe II a 3), 
persei mersei 'si ius sit, in so far as is right' (Via 28 etc.), 
with which compare L. quod opus siet (Cato). In form this is 
the Ace. Sg. N. of pis-i. It is not always to be distinguished 
with certainty from pif-e 'quidquid' (V a 5). 

3. O. pon, pun, U. ponne, pone, pune 'cum'; also O. pun-um 
'quandoque'. From *pom-de : L. *quom-de (cf. quam-de). See 
92, 135. Another combination of pom (L. quom, cum) is to be 
recognized in U. (pisi)pumpe : L. (qul)quomque, (qui)cumque. See 
also 201, 4. 

4. O. pan 'quam', pruter pan 'priusquam' (cf. Grk. irpo- 
repov ^), U. pane in postertio pane 'postquam tertium'. From 
*pam-de : L. quam-de. See 92, 135. The simple *pam (L. quam) 
appears in U. pre-pa 'priusquam'. (In O. pruter pam beside 
pruter pan the pam probably stands for pan, the next word 
beginning with m.) 

5. O. puf, U. pufe 'ubi'. From stem *qUu- (200, 3) and an 
adverbial ending -dhe (cf. Skt. ku-Jia 'where?', O.Bulg. ku-de 
'where'), or -dhi (Grk. -8t). U. ife 'ibi' has the same ending, 
the b in L. ibi being- due to the analogy of ubi (b = dh after ?/). 

202] Relative Adverbs and Conjunctions 149 

In L. w6i, ibi, the final t is not the original short vowel, but is shortened 
from -I, this from -ei (cf. early L. ubei), which arose under the influence of the 
adverbs in -ei representing Locatives of o-stems. U. pufe might also represent 
such a form, but it is far more likely that it preserves the original -dhe, only 
without syncope as in Oscan (cf. 0. pon : U. ponne). 

6. O. puz, pous (mistake for pus ; see footnote, p. 40), 
U. puz-e, pus-e, pus-ei, etc. 'ut' (in Umbrian also 'quasi'). This 
stands for *pu-t-s (137, 2), in Umbrian with added -i, containing 
the stem *qttu- (200, 3) and an adverbial ending -the (cf. Av. 
ku-da 'how') or -ti (as in au-ti etc.), with loss of the final vowel 
and addition of -s (as in L. ab-s, O. az, i.e. ad-s, etc.). 

L. ut is the same form without the added s, the latter appearing in usquam 
etc. L. utei, utl, is like ubei etc. 

7. U. pue, pue 'ubi, where'. From *po (L. quo) with 
enclitic -i. 

8. U. ape, appei, ape, api, ap'ubi, cum' (always temporal). 
From *ad-pe, in form like L. atque, but with a different force of 
the particle (cf. Grk. dial. eV-re, eV-re 'until'). In U. ap the 
final vowel is lost as in L. ac, while the other forms probably 
contain the enclitic -i, like pusei, puz-e, etc. 

9. O. adpud 'quoad'. Formed like L. quo-ad (rarely ad-quo], 
except that pud is probably the same as pod (above, 1), and so 
cognate with L. quod rather than with quo. 

10. U. arnipo 'donee, until'. From ar 'ad' (132, a) and -we 
(as in per-ne etc., or negative ?) + *pom or *pod. Cf. L. donicum, 

11. U. nersa 'donee, until', used after a negative clause. 
From *ne-ddm ; cf . L. -dam in quon-dam etc., and dum. 

12. U. panupei 'quandoque'. From *pan-do-pid : L. quan- 
do-que. For -pei see 201, 4. 

13. O. piikkapid, pocapit, p~\ocapid 'quandoque'. From 
*pod-kdd(?)-pid, the second element being perhaps Abl. Sg. F. of 
the stem seen in L. -ce, like O. efotf'de' from do- (190, 3, a). 

14. O. svai, suae, U. sve, sue 'si', no-sue 'nisi'. From *suai, 
Loc. Sg. F. of 8uo-, while L. si is from *sei, LOG. Sg. N. of so-. 
Cf. Grk. al and et from stem so- or o-. 

150 Inflection [202 

a. The relation of U. sopir, VI b 54, to svepis 'siquis' of the parallel pas- 
sage I b 18, is puzzling. That it cannot be regarded as a later form of the same 
word is obvious from sue beside sve. The first syllable may be so from *soi, and 
it is conceivable that this *soi is from an earlier *swei, though such a change is 
only imperfectly paralleled by that seen in sonitu (37, a). Another view is that 
sopir is not 'siquis', but an Indefinite Relative 'quisquis', and contains a gen- 
eralizing particle *sod or *suod, related to the so in Eng. whoso, whosoever. 
But the chief support for this, the derivation of Grk. 8ns from *<r/ro5-Tu, is not 
beyond question. 1 

15. U. et'et': L. et, Grk. ert, etc. 

16. O. inim, inim, ewei/A (44), abbr. in. 'et'; U. enem, eine, 
ene, inen-ek (for *inem-ek), and ennom, eno(m), enum-ek, inum-ek, 
etc. 'turn, deinde'. These forms, together with Pael. inom 'et', 
are obviously connected with L. enim (einom of the Duenos 
inscription is best left out of account) in some way, exactly 
how is not so clear. 

The ending -im of L. enim is seen in the Oscan forms and in U. enem etc., 
while U. enom etc. with Pael. inom show -om. The difficulty is with the initial 
vowel. The Oscan forms point to i or e, not e. Pael. inom also points to i or 
(possibly) e. The various Umbrian spellings are most easily combined on the 
basis of e, but i is also possible. On the whole, in view of L. enim, the prob- 
ability is perhaps in favor of *enim and *eno/n, but the matter is quite uncertain. 
The nn in ennom is very likely due to the influence of the correlative ponne. 

17. O. auti, aut, avt 'aut, at', U. ote, ute 'aut': L. aut, autem. 
From *au (Grk. av, av-re), with the same -ti as in *eti (et), *toti 
(L. tot), etc. The Oscan forms with and without apocope (92) 
were differentiated in meaning at Bantia, where auti is 'aut', 
aut 'at'. Elsewhere we find only avt, usually 'at', once 'aut'. 

i 18. O. loufir 'vel'. In form this is a 3d Sg. Pass, of the 
1 root seen in L. libet (96, 238, 2), in the impersonal use (239). For 

the development of meaning, cf. L. vel, Imperat. of void, and 

the following. 

19. U. heris . . . heris, Tieri . . . heri, herie . . . herie, etc. 

'vel . . . vel'. These are from *herio 'volo', partly 2d Sg. 

Pres. Indie, (heris, heri), partly 3d Sg. Perf. Subj. (herie, heriei). 

1 See Delbruck, Vergl. Syntax, III, pp. 339 ff. 

203] Verbs 151 

20. The negatives. Oscan has (1) ne (L. ne-fas, ni-si from 
*ne-sei, etc.), (2) ni (L. ne), (3) nei (L. m); and for each of these 
a corresponding form with the enclitic -p, corresponding to -c, 
-gw, in L. we<?, neque, namely 1) nep, nep, 2) nip, 3) neip, neip. 
As regards use, ne occurs in ne pon 'nisi cum' and as a prohibi- 
tive with a pronoun in ne phim pruhipid 'ne quern prohibuerit', 
while ni is always prohibitive, and nei occurs in conditional 
clauses, suaepis nei, nei suae. But all three compounded forms 
have the prohibitive force, 'neve', though neip is also used like 
nei, e.g. svai neip. 

Umbrian has nei in neifhabas 'ne adhibeant' (84), otherwise 
neip, neip (once nep), both prohibitive and simple negative. 
Whether this corresponds to O. neip or nip or both is not clear, 
the spelling ei being remarkable in any case. See 29, b. 
U. no-sue 'nisi' probably contains *noi, a by-form of nei. 


On the general system of conjugation, see 13. 


203. The personal endings of the Indicative and Subjunc- 
tive Active are : 


Singular Plural 

1. -d -m 1. 

2. -s -s 2. 

3. -t -d (lost in U.) 3. -nt -ns 

For the endings of the Imperative, see 235-237; for those 
of the Passive, see 238-239. 

Primary and secondary endings, which, in contrast to Latin, 
are clearly distinguished in the Third Singular and Third Plural, 
are used as follows : primary in the Present, Future, and Future 
Perfect Indicative, secondary in the Imperfect and Perfect 
Indicative and in all tenses of the Subjunctive. 

152 Inflection [204 

Remarks on the Endings 

204. 1. The original endings of the Third Singular and 
Third Plural were primary -fa', -nti, secondary -t, -nt. By the 
loss of the final i (92) the former became -t, -nt, but in the 
meantime the original -t, -nt, had undergone a change, as 
follows : 

The -t became -d, which is preserved in Oscan, and existed in 
early Latin (feced etc.) until the primary ending was generalized. 
In Umbrian this, like every final d, was lost ; but since even 
final t is sometimes omitted in the writing, the distinction is 
less clear in Umbrian than in Oscan. See 127, 1, 2, 133. 

The -nt probably became first -nd, then -n (cf . L. dan-unt etc.), 
and to this an s was added under the influence of the plural 
ending of nouns. See 128, l. 

2. In -tit the n is regularly written in Umbrian (the only 
exception is furfaB (25, a) beside furfant), while in Oscan it is 
omitted in the case of -ent (the only exception being one occur- 
rence of sent beside set), but written in stahint and eestint, the 
only forms occurring which do not end in -ent. In -ns the n is 
always written in Oscan but frequently omitted in Umbrian. 
See 108, 1, 2. For U. fefure and staheren, see 128, 2, a. 

3. The plural forms in -ent, -ens, represent the full endings, 
original -enti, -ent, which belong properly to unthematic forma- 
tions like U. sent, O. set (cf. Dor. eWt for *evri, Skt. sdnti, Goth. 
sind, I.E. *senti). But they have been extended at the expense 
of thematic forms, just as in Latin, vice versa, -ont (-unt) has 
completely driven out -ent. Thus we have -ent in the Future 
and Future Perfect, which are thematic formations ; and -ens in 
the Perfect, which, while containing types of various origin, is 
always thematic in the Third Singular. 

a. It is probable that the same encroachment of -ent upon -ont is to be 
recognized in 0. fiiet as compared with L. flunt, and likewise in 0. staiet. But 
some believe that the original ending of verbs of this class was -ienti or -inti. 
For the double formation in the Fourth Conjugation, represented by 0. fiiet, 
staiet, and O. stahint, eestint, see also 215, 2. 

204] Examples of Conjugation 153 

4. In the Second Singular in Umbrian the -s is some- 
times omitted or changed to -r. Thus seste 'sistis', heri, 
heri'vel' beside heris (see 202, 19), sir, sei, si 'sis'. See 113 
with b. 

5. The secondary ending of the First Singular occurs only 
in O. manafum 'mandavi', and in O. sum 'sum' (217, 1). 

6. The primary ending of the First Singular, -<J, seen 
in U. sistu 'sisto', is not contracted with the preceding a of 
the First Conjugation as in Latin. Thus U. subocami, sub- 
ocau 'invoco' from -did. Cf. also U. stahu 'sto' from *staio. 
See 83. 

7. The Latin shortening of vowels before final t is unknown. 
See 78, 3. So O. faamat is to be understood as fdmdt, O. kasit 
'decet' as kasit (with I from <f), etc. For the vowel-quantity 
before -nt, -ns, see 78, a. 

8. The short e of the Second and Third Singular Pres- 
ent Indicative of the Third Conjugation, and of the Third 
Singular Perfect Indicative, does not suffer syncope. See 


The following paradigms include all the verb-forms occurring in Oscan 
or Umbrian (barring some variations in spelling), except where an "etc." 
is added, that is in the 2d and 3d Sg. Imperat. Act., the 3d Sg. Fut. Perf., 
and the Perf. Pass. Partic. (including the periphrastic Perf. Indie. Pass.). 
A few Paelignian (P.), Marrucinian (M.), and Vestinian (V.) forms are 

In the Perfect System there are given under the First and Fourth 
Conjugations only those types which are characteristic of these conjuga- 
tions, namely, in the following order, the /-, tt-, and nfcj-Perfects (and, 
in the Fourth, U. purtiius etc.). The other types, which are found with 
verbs of all conjugations, but mostly with those of the Third, are given 
under the Third only, namely, in the following order, the reduplicated Per- 
fect, the simple Perfect without vowel-change, the Perfect with lengthened 
vowel, and the Z-Perfect. 

Under the Fourth Conjugation are included the forms corresponding to 
the Latin type capio. See 216. 








1. SG. U. subocauu U. aseriaia 

2. SG. U. kupifiaia (or 3. Sg.?) 

3. SG. O. faamat O. deiuaid, O. sakarater O. sakahiter, 

tadait, sakra**ir(?) 

U. portaia, 


3. PL. U. furfant, U. etaians, O. karanter 
furfaS etaias 

3. SG. 

3. SG. O. deiuast, 
U. prupehast 
3. PL. O. censazet 

3. SG. O. aikdafed 

O. pnifatted, 




U. combifiaribi 

P. upsaseter 

O. sakrafir, 
U. pihafi, 

O. lamatir 

O. teremnatu-st, U. kuratu si 
U. stakazestetc. 

3. PL. O. pnifattens, O. tribarakattins 

P. coisatem 

O. staflatas-set etc. 

205] First Conjugation 


3. SG. U. andirsafust 

U. combifiansiust 

U. pihos fust 
3. PL. O. tribarakattuset 

U. cersnatur furent 


PRES. 2. SG. U. stiplo, aserio 

FUT. 2. 3. SG. O. deiuatud, O. censamur, 

U. pihatu, U. eturstahmu, spahamu 

portatu, etc. 

2. (3.) PL. U. etafo U. arsmahamo, caterahamo 


PRES. O. censaum, moltaum, PERF. U. erow ehiato, kuratu eru 


PERF. O. staflatas etc., 

U. anzeriates, 
pihos, etc. 

GERUNDIVE O. sakrannas, 
U. pihaner, 

U. anseriato 









3. SG. O. kasit, O. putiad, 

U. ticit, turumiiad, 

^#5e,habe, U. habia 


3. PL. O. piitians 


O. loufir 

3. SG. U. habiest 



FUT. 2. 3. SG. O. licitud, likitud, 
U. habitu, habetu, 
tursitu, tusetu, 
carsitu, kafetu, karitu, 
sersitu, tenitu, 
ufetu, upetu, eveietu 
2. 3. PL. U. habituto, habetutu, 
tursituto, tusetutu, 


PBES. O. fatium 

U. tursiandu 


PRES. U. serse, zefef, kutef PERF. U. tases, tacez, uirseto, etc. 

207] Third Conjugation 157 





1. SG. U. sestu 

2. SG. U. seste 

3. SG. M.feretj O. kahad, aflukad, O. uincter U.ferar 

V. didet da[da]d, P. dida, 

U. dirsa, tefa U. teite O. krustatar(?), 


3. PL. O. deicans, M.ferenter U. emantur, 

U. dirsans,dirsas, terkantur 


3. PL. O. patensins 


2. SG. U. menes, anpenes 

3. SG. O. didest, pertemest, 

U. ferest 
3. PL. U. ostensendi 

1. SG. O. manafum 

3. SG. O. deded, O. fefacid, dadid 

U. dede, 

O. priiffed, aamanaffed 
O. kiimbened, 

O. upsed O. hipid 

U. screhto est etc. 
3. PL. U. eitipes, 
O. uupsens, 

O. scriftas set, 

U. screihtor sent etc. 

158 Inflection [207 




2. SG. O. fifikus 

O. aflakus, 

U. benus, kuvurtus 

U. entelus, apelus 

3. SG. O.fefacust, U. dersicust etc. 

O. dicust, cebnust, etc., O. comparascuste'r, 

U. fakust, benust, habus, etc. U. benuso, couortuso 
U. entelust, apelust 
3. PL. U. dersicurent, pepurkurent 
O. angetuzet, 
U.facurent, benurent, 

haburent, procanurent, 

U. prusikurent 


FUT. 2. 3. SG. O. aetud, 

U. fertu, ustentu, 

aitu, deitu, kanetu, etc. 
2. 3. PL. U. fertuta, ustentuta, 
aituta, hatuto 


PRES. O. deikum, deicum, acum, edum, 
menvum, aserum, pertumum, 
U. aferum, qfero 


PRES. U. restef, reste PERF. O. serif tas, pniftii, censtom, 

U. screhto, sihitu, orto, etc. 

GERUNDIVE U. anferener 


Fourth Conjugation 






1. SG. U. stahu 

2. SG. U. heris, heri, 


3. SG. O. sakruvit, O. fakiiad, 

U. heri, heriiad, 

O. stait, U. facia, 

U. pis-Tier feia, fuia 

3. PL. O. fiiet, staiet 
O. stahint, 

U. herter, herte, 
herti, hertei 

3. PL. 

O. hjerrins 

2. SG. U. heries, purtuvies 

3. SG. O. sakrvist 

O. hafiest, herest, 
U. heriest, heries, 

fuiest, kukehes(?) 
3. PL. U. staheren 


3. SG. 

U. heriiei, 
heriei, herie 

2. SG. U. purtiius 

U. purtingus 

3. SG. U. purdin&iust, 



U. herifi, 


U. persnis fust, 
purtitu fust 

160 Inflection [208 


FUT. 2. 3. SG. O.factud, 

U. stahitu, seritu, U. persnimu, persnimu, 

purdouitu, amparitu anouihimu, amparihmu 

2. 3. PL. U. stahituto U. persnimumo 

PRES. U. fasiu, facu 


PERF. U. persnis, purditom, 
heritu, etc. 





1. SG. O. sum 

2. SG. U. sir, si, sei 

3. SG. O. est, ist U. si, si, sei 

U. est, est 

3. PL. O. set, sent, set U. sins, sis O. amfret 
U. sent O. osii[ns 


3. SG. O. fusid 

3. PL. O. fufans 

3. SG. O.fust, fust U. eest, est 

U. fust, j- 'us, fust 
3. PL. U. furent 


3. SG. O.fuid (Passive) U. ier 

3. PL. O. fufens 


2. SG. U. amprefuus 

3. SG. O.fust U. iust 

3. PL. U. fefure U. ambrefurent 

210] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 161 


FUT. 2. 3. SG. O. estud, estud U. eetu, etu, etu 

U./WM, futu 

2. 3. PL. U.fututo U. etuto, etutu, etuta 

O. eituns(?) 


PEES. O. praesentid PERF. U. daetom, peretom 

PRES. O. ezum, U. erom, em 



Conjugation I Present Stem in a 

210. 1. As in Latin, this conjugation is made up mainly of 
Denominatives. Thus O. moltaum 'multare' from molto 'multa', 
U. kuraia ' curet', etc. See 262, l. 

2. The Frequentatives, also of denominative origin, are 
represented; e.g. U. eteum**itenf: L. ito. See 262, 1. 

3. Primary Verbs like L. seed, domo, etc., are : U. prusekatu 
'prosecato', U. mugatu < -imiii\.io\ O. dadikatted 'dedicavit', O. cen- 
sdwm'censere' contrasted with L. censed of the Second Conjuga- 
tion ; here probably O. sakahiter 'sanciatur' from sakd- (cf. sak- in 
L. sacer etc.). 

a. The inflection of the Present is in the main that which belongs properly 
to the primary verbs, in which the endings were added directly to the a. The 
denominatives, which are formed from a-stems with the zo-suffix, furnish the First 
Singular (204, 6). In the other forms they would probably by regular contrac- 
tion show partly a, partly 6, before the endings ; but under the influence of the 
primary verbs the a is generalized. However, whatever contraction took place 
here occurred in the Italic period, and the O.-U. forms throw no new light on the 
question. Note that *sta-io, U. stahu 'sto' follows the Fourth Conjugation (215). 

6. The interchange of conjugation between O. dadikatted ' dedicavit' and 
deicum 'dicere' is the same as between L. died, de-died, etc., and died ; and with 
L. occupo beside capio, compare U. anzeriatu'observatum' beside seritu 'servato'. 
Cf. also U. andirsafust ' circumtulerit' beside dirsans 'det' (O. didest etc., 213, 4). 

162 Inflection [211 

211. As in Latin, the a is not confined to the Present Sys- 
tem, but normally runs through the whole conjugation. So 
U.kuratu, pihaz, pihafi, cersnatur, O. c?ema^ws,teremnatu,teremnattens, 
priifatted, etc. But there are also some forms of the Perf. and 
Perf. Pass. Part, without the a, as is the case with several of 
the Latin primary verbs, such as domo, domul, domitum, seed, 
seem, sectum, etc. Thus U. aseceta 'non secta', prusecetu, proseseto 
'prosecta', beside Imperat. prusekatu (in prusektu which occurs in 
the same line with prusekatu and in the same meaning, the a is 
omitted by mistake); O. ancensto 'incensa' beside Infin. cen- 
saum', U. muieto ' muttitum' beside Imperat. mugatu ; portust 
'portaverit' beside Imperat. portatu; O. upsed 'fecit', 3d PL 
uupsens, Partic. U. oseto (but O. upsatuh), beside Gerundive 
O. upsannam, Imperat. U. osatu. So doubtless O. urust 'oraverit', 
I].frosetom i ha l ud3,t^i^ (262,1), uasetom,uasetom l viti^tum\Ij.vaco; 
$, s, by 144), pesetom 'peccatum' (144), though Present forms are 

Conjugation II Present Stem in e 

212. Verbs of this conjugation comprise the same classes 
as in Latin, namely : 

1. Denominatives like L. albed from albus. So O. turumiiad 
'torqueatur' from *tormo- (cf. L. tormentum), O. fatium 'fari', 
O. putkd'possit'. See 262, 2. 

2. Causatives like L. moneo. So U. fatrmtai 'terreto' with 
the regular o-grade (51, 97) as in L. moneo beside memini etc. 

3. Primary Verbs like L. liceo, sedeo, etc. So O. likitud, 
licitud 'liceto', kasit 'decet'; U. habe 'habet', ti9it 'decet', sersitu 
4 sedeto', tenitu 'teneto', ufetu 'adoleto'. 

a. The relation of the inflection of the Present to that which belonged 
originally to the primary verbs in e on the one hand and the denominatives and 
causatives in -eio- on the other is similar to what is seen in the First Conjugation 
(see 210, a). For the i in O. putiad, U. habia, etc., and in O. licitud, U. tursitu, 
etc., see 38, 1, 39, 1, and 41, 42. 

6. Owing to the ambiguity of the spelling (i = e or , e = e or, rarely, I) 
there are several Umbrian forms, without precise cognates in Latin, of which it 
is impossible to say with certainty whether they belong to the Second or Fourth 

213] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 163 

Conjugation. To the Second belong probably tremitu (L. tremo), sonitu (L. sonu), 
nepitu (cf. L. Neptunus), which are used transitively ("overwhelm with terror, 
noise, and water") and may be modeled after the causative type (tursitu); per- 
haps also sauitu in the same passage, but of uncertain meaning and derivation 
('sauciato'?). That sonitu is of the Third (early L. sonit etc.) is less likely, for, 
though the short vowel is not lost after n (88, 1), we should expect *sonetu. In 
trebeit 'versatur' the ei points to I (48), but may also stand for e (42), and the 
meaning rather favors the Second Conjugation. To the Second belong also, 
without much doubt, eveietu 'voveto' (148); carsitu, kafetu, kaf itu ' calato' con- 
trasted with L. calo of the First ; upetu 'optato, deligito', with Perf. Pass. Partic. 
opeter ' lecti, choice', of which L. opto represents the iterative formation (opto 
from opeto-, 1 the same stem as in U. opeter, whence also L. optimus). 

Conjugation III Present Stem in e / 

213. 1. Most verbs of this conjugation, as in Latin, show 
the simple root with the thematic vowel. Thus O. acum 'agere', 
O. actud, U. aitu, from *agetod (143) ; O. edum 'edere'; U. emantur 
'accipiantur'; O. pertumum 'perimere'; O. deikum 'dicere', dei- 
cans, U. deitu (143), etc. 

a. Here also, in contrast to their Latin cognates, O. kahad 'incohet', 
U. amboltu 'ambulato', and U. vutu 'lavato' (but also L. lavit beside lavat). 

2. Presents in -no like L. cerno are represented by O. paten- 
sins ' aperirent' from *patno or *pateno (as if L. *patino). 

3. Presents with inserted nasals like L. rumpo, vinco, are 
represented by O. uincter 'vincitur', U. ninctu 'ninguito'. 

4. Reduplicated Presents like L. sisto, gigno, are represented 
by U. sestu 'sisto'; and by *dido, seen in O. didest 'dabit', U. tefa, 
c?zrsa'det', dirsans (131), teftu, dirstu, titu, df&w'dato 1 (132 with 
note), tefte'datur' (also Vest, didet'datf, Pael. dida'det'). 

a. Here also, with loss of reduplication in composition, O. da[da]d 'dedat' 
from *dad-dido (cf. L. reddo from *re-dido); and U. restef, reste 'instaurans, 
renewing' from *re-sisto. On account of the meaning this view of U. restef is 
far more probable than connection with U. stahu 'sto' etc. (215, 1). For the 
same reason U. restatu ' instaurato, offer' is also best taken as a reduplicated 
formation (cf. Volsc. sistiatiens, Pael. sestatiens(?) 'statuerunt'), with transfer to 
the First Conjugation (see 210, 6), or, less probably, with retention of original 
*sista- (Grk. 

1 Also recognized by Hempl, with great probability, in the Duenos inscription, 
See Trans. Am. Phil. Ass. 33, 157. 

164 Inflection [213 

5. There are no examples of Presents like L. cresco, in 
which the termination is confined to the Present System. But 
there are some forms parallel to L. posed in which the original 
Present-suffix has become a part of the verb-stem. Thus U. perstu 
*ponito'(?) from *persketdd (146), to which belongs the Fut. Perf. 
peperscust ; O. comparascuster 'consulta erit' (145);--U. eis- 
curent 'arcessierint' (29, a). 

6. For Presents like L. copio, see 216. 

Conjugation IV Present Stem in i 

214. The verbs of this conjugation comprise : 

1. Denominatives like L. finio. So U. persnihimu l preca,- 
tor' from *persni-. See 262, 3. 

2. Primary Verbs like L. venio. So O. heriiad 'capiat', 
fakiiad 'faciat', U. fa$ia etc.;--U. heris'vel' (2d Sg. Pres. Indie, 
used as adverb ; see 202, 19), with Fut. heriest, Perf. Pass. Partic. 
hereitu, Perf. Subj. herifi. As appears from this last example, 
the i is not confined to the Present System as in most of the 
Latin primary verbs. 

3. Denominatives from it-stems, which in Latin follow the 
Third Conjugation. So at least O. sakruvit 'sacrat', Fut. sakrvist, 
from *sakru-id (cf. L. statuo from *statu-io). 

215. 1. The inflection of the Present is that which be- 
longs properly to the primary verbs, and to a type of these, 
to be recognized in other languages also, in which the suffix l 
-(i)io- interchanges with -t-. The length of the i is shown by 
the absence of syncope and in part by direct evidence of the 
spelling. Thus U. an-ouihimu 'induitor' (cf. Lith. aviii 'wear 
(shoes)'; L. indud, exud, from *ind-ouo, *ex-ouo, of Conj. Ill); 
U. pur-douitu'-pOYYicito' (96); --U. am-paritu 4 conlocato', ampa- 
rihmu (L. pario, -perio) ; also, outside the Present System, 
U. hereitu, herifi (214, 2). Likewise in U. stahitu 'stato', beside 
stahu 'sto' from * staid, the i is almost certainly long, and it is 

1 That the i and the i or i of -(i)io- may belong ultimately to the root need not 
concern us here. 

216] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 165 

probably long also in O. stait 'stat' in spite of the i, which may be 
due to the influence of the regular spelling of the diphthong ai. 

2. The Third Plural shows two formations. O. fiiet'fiunt' 
and staiet 'stant' (ai perhaps due to stait, above, 1; from *staient 
would come regularly *staent) are like L. veniunt except for the 
usual substitution of unthematic -ent for -ont (204, 3, a)-, while 
O. stahint, eestint (89, 2) are as if we had in Latin *venint like 
amant, monent, and a trace of such a formation is probably to 
be seen in L. prodlnunt etc. (128, 1). This double formation is 
paralleled by that seen in the Future, where we find U. fieriest 
(like ferest) and O. sakrvist (like deiuast), and also by the Latin 
Imperfects in -iebam and -ibam. 

NOTE. It is uncertain which of the two formations is the earlier. The 
-int may represent original -inti with vowel-shortening before nt, or -inti (see 
216, note), or may be due to the analogy of -ant, -ent (-ant, -ent), of the First 
and Second Conjugations. The corresponding Slavic verbs end in -etu, which 
points to -inti or -inti, but here again it is uncertain whether this is original or 
due to an extension of i from the other forms. 

3. In U. fuia'fiat' (Fut. fuiest) from *fu-io (: L. fid from 
*fuiio] the retention of intervocal i is of course due to the 

r /% A / ^ 

analogy of forms like U. fagia etc. 

Forms of the type of L. capio 

216. In Latin many primary verbs in -id, like capio etc., 
have short i instead of i, and after the thematic vowel e of 
the Third Conjugation had become z', such verbs had so many 
forms in common with those of the Third Conjugation that they 
are commonly and conveniently grouped under it. In Oscan- 
Umbrian the great majority of the primary verbs have i. See 215. 

Nevertheless there are some few forms which point to a 
short i which has been lost by syncope, this bringing about 
identity with the forms of the Third Conjugation. Thus 
O. factud 'facito' from *fakitdd, beside O. fakiiad 'faciat' ; 
O. hjerrins * caperent' beside O. heriiad'capiat'; --U. herter'opor- 
tet', U. pis-her 'quilibet', probably from Am'-, beside U. heris, 

166 Inflection [216 

hereitu, herifi (215, 1) with heri-',--U. hahtu, hatu, probably from 
*hapitod (218). Whether O. stait, stahint, belong here is doubtful 
(see 215, 1, 2). 

NOTE. The short i in Latin has been recently explained as having arisen 
in capis, fugis, etc. by iambic shortening (all the verbs of this type have the 
first syllable short), from which it spread to the other forms. That the iambic 
shortening has been a contributory factor is altogether probable. But there 
was already a nucleus of forms with inherited short i, for which there is evi- 
dence in other languages. Otherwise, since iambic shortening is a purely Latin 
phenomenon, we should have to separate 0. factud from fakiiad and L. /acid 
and assume for it a different Present Stem. 

Irregular Verbs 

217. Irregular verbs, that is such as do not conform to 
any of the four regular types and are mainly characterized 
by the presence of the unthematic forms, are confined to the 
two verbs 'to be' and 'to go' given in the paradigm (209). For 
U. fertu is, in view of the Subj. ferar and Marruc. feret 'fert', 
ferenter 'feruntur', better taken as thematic, from *feretod; 
and U. veltu 'deligito', ehueltu, are from *ueletod (105, 2). The 
Perfect System of U. fertu is supplied, not by a form corre- 
sponding to L. tull, but by a form belonging to *dido 'do', at 
least in andirsafust (210, J), which belongs in use with U. anfe- 
rener 'circumferendi'. 

1. O. sum points to *s0m, whence also L. sum. This is 
apparently a thematic form with secondary ending, which as an 
Injunctive has come to be used in place of the original form 
of the Present Indicative. 

2. O. est, U. est, agree with L. est (Grk. com, etc.). But 
O. 1st, which is the invariable spelling of the Cippus Abellanus 
(7 occurrences) and so cannot possibly be a mere graphic varia- 
tion of est, must be a different form. It can represent *est 
(I = e, 41) with es- standing in the same relation to the usual 
es- as the ed- in L. est to the usual ed- of edo etc. 

3. As regards the distribution of the roots es- (Grk. e<r-, 
Skt. as-, etc.) and fa- (Grk. </>o-, Skt. bhu-, etc., 124), observe 

218] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 167 

O. fusid agreeing with L. foret rather than with esset, O.-U. fust 
contrasted with L. erit, and U. futu contrasted with O. estud, 
L. esto. 

4. O. amfret 'ambiunt', for which one would expect *amfriiet 
or *amfrint, is probably a form of the Second Conjugation, into 
the analogy of which the Present had been drawn by the First 
Singular *amfreo, just as in Latin, vice versa, ambio follows the 
Fourth Conjugation, starting from ambls, ambit, etc. In both 
cases the isolation from the simplex is due to the fact that the 
prefixes were unusual, making the composition less obvious. 

U. ambretuto 'ambiunto' etc. may also belong to the Second 
Conjugation, but here there is no difficulty in assuming the 
original unthematic inflection, the e corresponding to I in L. ltd 
and both representing original ei. 

Remarks on the Forms Connected with L. habeo 

218. U. habe 'habet', Pres. Subj. habia, Imperat. habitu, 
habetu, belong with L. habeo to the Second Conjugation. But 
the Future U. habiest shows a formation which belongs properly 
to the Fourth Conjugation. This might have arisen by analogy, 
owing to the resemblance between forms like habia (with i for e, 
39, 1) and those of the Fourth Conjugation. However, the inti- 
mate relation between io- and ^"-formations is well known, and 
habiest may belong to a lost present *habio. 

U. neifhabas 'ne adhibeant' may be compared with early 
Latin advenat, tagam, etc., in which the usual Present Stem 
does not appear. 

The hep- of O. hipid 'habuerit', pruhipid 'prohibuerit', Fut. 
Perf. hipust, pruhipust (cf. also U. eitipes, 264, 2) is best explained 
as a contamination of the roots seen in L. habeo and capio, cepl. 

A Present *hapio is also to be assumed with great proba- 
bility for U. hahtu, hatu 'capito', from *hapitod (216) through 
*haptod, *haftod (121); to which belong further IT. subahtu 
'deponito', subotu (?see 35, a), and subator 'omissi' (for the lack 
of the initial h, cf . an-ostatu beside an-hostatu etc., 149, a). 

168 Inflection [218 

O. hafiest 'habebit' is very likely a mistake for *hapiest, 
formed from *hapio, like U. heriest from *herio. In this case 
all the Oscan forms would belong to *hapio. 

NOTE. L. habeo has often been connected with Gothic haban, Eng. have, 
etc. , on the basis of a root khabh-. But the Umbrian forms point unmistakably 
to a root ending in 6, not bh, and the Germanic words are probably from the 
same root as Goth, hafjan, L. capio. 0. hafiest with / stands absolutely alone, 
and is irreconcilable with U. habe etc., except on the assumption of a by-form of 
the root. Without further evidence for / it seems more likely that it is a mis- 
take for *hapiest (cf . fepacid for fefacid ; even as it stands hafiest contains one 
obvious correction, the reading being hafiert). 

Remarks on the Forms Connected with L. faci6 

219. The Pres. Subj. O. fakiiad, U. fagia, Infin. facju, fasu, 
Imperat. O. factud, agree entirely with the Latin inflection. 
But the Umbrian Imperat. fetu, feitu, cannot correspond to 
O.factud, for we should have *faitu like aitu to O. actud (143). 
It must rather come from *fek(e)tod or fek(i)tod with the form 
of the root seen in L. feel. 

The participles U. aanfehtaf and feta, if belonging here, are 
also from fek-. 

U. feia ; faciat', beside fa$ia, is also, probably, from /<?&-. We 
should expect *fecia, but see 144, b, on U. peiu. 

NOTE. It is noteworthy that in the Imperative form the spelling with e is 
far more common than that with ei (fetu 48 times, fetu 52 times, feetu once : feitu 
20 times, feitu 5 times), while hi all other examples the diphthong resulting from 
the change of k to i remains unchanged, not only in aitu, but also in -veitu and 
deitu (143). The reason for the difference lies in the quality of the first vowel. 
The e was an open e in both. -veitu (orig. e) and deitu (open e from ei; see 65), 
and did not contract with the following i, while in feitu the e was a close e 
(orig. e; see 42) and did suffer contraction. In the same way ie was contracted 
only when the e was close (82, 2, with a). Thus the spelling fetu, fetu, repre- 
sents the contracted form, while feitu, which is nearly as common as fetu in Old 
Umbrian, is a retention of the old spelling prior to the contraction. 

In all the examples where we have assumed fek-, some prefer fe-. This 
is somewhat easier for feia, but less satisfactory for fetu, feitu. Moreover it is 
probable that in the meaning ' do, make' the Italic root is always/efc-, fak-, though 
this, of course, is an extension of an earlier fe-, fa- (Grk. By-, Skt. dha-, etc.), which 
is preserved in L. condo etc. and in O. priiffed, pruftti (see 223 with footnote). 

222] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 169 

The Imperfect Indicative 

220. The only extant form is O. fufans ' erant', showing the 
same formation as in Latin. A form serving as the past tense 
of the verb 'to be', namely *bhud-, whence O. /-, L. -bd (124), 
was added to case-forms in -a, -e, giving a periphrastic forma- 
tion, and this was then extended to root-forms, as in L. dabam, 
ibam, with which O. fufans is most closely connected. 

The Future Indicative 

221. This is in origin a short-vowel Subjunctive of an 
s-Aorist, identical with the Homeric short-vowel forms of the 
Aorist Subjunctives. In the Second and Third Singular the e 
suffers syncope (90, 2), and in the Third Plural the -out is sup- 
planted by -ent, as regularly (204, 3). Thus O. deiuast 'iurabit', 
censazet < cQusebnut\ U. prupehast ' piabit', from -dset, -dsent; 
U. ferest 'feret' from *fereset-,- - U. ostensendi 'ostendentur' from 
*ostendesenter (137,2,156); O. fust, U. fust (fus, 127,3) 'erit', 
furent 'erunt', from *fuset, *fusent; - - U. eest, est 'ibit' from 
*eiset, etc. 

Although the s-aorist is properly formed from the Verb- 
Stem, the Future has come to follow the Present Stem even 
where it differs from the former. So O. didest 'fabif with the 
Present reduplication, U. fieriest (heries, 127, 3) 'volet', O. herest 
(100, 3, e), U. purtuvies 'porricies', fuiest'fiet', with the -io- of the 
Present Stem. In the Fourth Conjugation there are two for- 
mations, as regards the stem, related to one another as the 
Latin Imperfects leniebam and lenibam ; e.g. U. heriest etc., 
but O. sakrvist 'sacrabit' (Pres. sakruvit). The latter is analogous 
to deiuast. 

The Perfect Indicative 

222. This tense, as in Latin, includes various formations. 
While the vl- and s-Perfects of the Latin are lacking, their place 
is taken by others specifically Oscan-Umbrian. The /-, tt-, and 

170 Inflection [222 

nki-P erfects (227-229), though having no formal connection with 
the Latin w-Perfect, resemble it in scope, in that they are mainly 
confined to the First and Fourth Conjugations. 

NOTE. An s-Perfect, that is, an s-Aorist in origin, is assumed by some 
for U. sesust 'sederit', andersesust. But this is probably based on the parti- 
cipial stem *sesso- with ss from two dentals (138). A w-Perfect is also assumed 
by some, but with even less justification. 

The endings are the same as in other secondary tenses. 
In illustrating the different types, forms of the Perfect Sub- 
junctive and Future Perfect are included. 

223. Reduplicated Perfect. Examples: O. deded 'dedit', 
U. dede (131, c), with Fut. Perf. U. tefust, dirsust, from *dedust 
(by 131); O. fefacid 4 fecerit'; - - U. peperscust 'posuerit'(?); - 
U. pepurkurent 'poposcerint'; --U. fefure 'fuerint' (128, 2, a); - 
U. dersicust 'dixerit' from *dedikust (by 131); O. pniffed 'posuit' 
from *pro-fefed: L. pro-didit, 1 con-didit, etc. (for the ff cf. 
L. rettull, reppull, for *re-tetuli etc.); O. aa-manaffed 'mandavit, 
locavit' from *man-fefed (80, 2), as if L. *mandidit like condidit 
etc. (see 264,2), manafum 'mandavi'; O. fifikus <decreveris'(?). 

a. In all examples but the last the vowel of the reduplication is e. This 
is the original vowel of the Perfect reduplication, but in Latin, after the analogy 
of tetendl to tendo, etc., it was replaced by an i, w, or o, of the root-syllable 
wherever the latter was the same in both Perfect and Present; e.g. momordl 
for earlier memordi, cucurrl, etc., but pepull. O. fifikus, if connected with 
L. flgo, U. fiktu, is an example of a similar, though independent, development 
in Oscan-Umbrian. None of the other Perfect forms is necessarily at variance 
with such an assumption, for in U. dersicust and fefure there is no identity in 
the root-syllable of Present and Perfect, and for U. pepurkurent the Present is 

224. Simple Perfect without reduplication. Examples : 
O. kiimbened 'convenit', O. cebnust (ce- prefix as in L. cedo), 
U. benust 'venerit'; O. dicu st 'dixerit'; O. avafafcer 'dedica- 
vit' (80, 2), U. fakust 'fecerit'; -- U. habus 'habuerit' ; O. dadid 

1 The meaning of O. pruffed and pruftfi (244, 1) agrees more nearly with that of 
( Irk. irporLOrj/ju than with that of L. prodo. In the Latin compounds in -do are merged 
forms of the roots dhe- 'put' and do- 'give', and the existence of the former is less 
obvious in prodo than in condo, which is therefore a more certain cognate of the 
Oscan forms. 

226] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 171 

'dediderit'; -- U. couortus, courtust ' converterit' ; O. pertemust 
'peremerit', peremust 'perceperit'; - - U. procanurent '*proci- 
nuerint'; U. eiscurent 'arcessierint'; -- U. portust ' portaverit' ; 
- O. urust 'oraverit'; -- O. comparascuster ' consulta erit'; 
O. aflakus 'detuleris'(?). 

a. As in Latin, it is impossible to distinguish always between forms which 
are in origin simple thematic Aorists, like Grk. e\nrov etc., and those which 
belong historically to the Reduplicated Perfect, but have lost the reduplication 
in composition or, by analogy, in the simplex, as L. scidi beside earlier scicidl etc. 
Loss of reduplication is most evident in cases like 0. dicust beside U. dersicust 
or U. fakust beside 0. fefacid. O. dadid and U. procanurent are doubtless exam- 
ples of loss of reduplication in composition. 0. urust and U. portust from verbs 
of the First Conjugation (see 211) are, of course, not original formations. 

6. U. lust 'ierit' is parallel to L. il, and U. purtiius 'porrexeris' is an 
extension of the same type, like L. audil after il. With purtiius belongs also 
U. heriiei 'voluerit' (234, note). 

225. Perfect with lengthened vowel in the root-syllable. 
Examples: O. hipid 'habuerit', hiputt, etc. (218), U. prusikurent 
'pronuntiaverint' (cf. also O. sipus 'sciens', 90, 1, 5), with e, like 
L. cepi, venl, etc.; further O. upsed 'fecit', uupsens, upsens, oi>7ro-ez>?, 
with o (53) in contrast to o of the Present (upsannam etc.). 

a. By lengthened vowel is meant here simply a long vowel in contrast to 
a short vowel of the Present. It represents an inherited variation ; e.g. e : a in 
0. hipid, sipus, as in L. cepi to capio (see also 218), or e: e in U. prusikurent, 
as in L. venl to venio. 0. upsed belongs to a denominative of the First Conju- 
gation, from which one would expect Perf. *upsatted or *upsafed, but is formed 
after the analogy of Perfects of primary verbs, and the o in contrast to the o of 
the Present must be due to Perfects like L. eml, odl, etc. 

b. Observe that the forms corresponding to L. eml, venl, and feel do not 
follow this type. Thus O. pertemust (224); 0. kumbened, U. benust (224); 
O. fefacid (223), U. fakust (224), like fhefhaked of the Praenestine brooch (cf. 
L. pepigl beside pegl). 

226. The Z-Perfect. This is found in Umbrian only, the 
examples being Fut. Perf. entelust 'imposuerit', 2d Sg. entelus, 
and apelust 'impendent', 2d Sg. apelus. These are based on 
participial forms * en-tend-lo-, *am-pend-lo- (-lo- is a regular parti- 
cipial suffix in the Slavic languages ; cf . also L. pendulus, 
credulus, etc.), with the change of ndl through nnl, nl, to U (135). 

172 Inflection [226 

The type doubtless arose in the Future Perfect, which is of 
participial origin, and as the only examples are in this tense it 
is impossible to say whether it ever extended to the Perfect, 
giving such forms as *enteled etc. If not, its mention here 
among the Perfect types is only justified by convenience. 

227. The /-Perfect. Examples: O. aikdafed 4 decrevit'(?);- 
O. sakrafir 'sacrato'; U. andirsafust * circumtulerit' ; U. pi- 
hafi 'piatum sit'; -- U. herifi ' oportuerit' ; probably U. cehefi 
'accensum sit'; O. fufens 'fuerunt'; U. amprefuus 'ambieris', 
ambrefurent 'ambierint'. 

This /-Perfect is a periphrastic formation like the Imper- 
fect, the second element in this case being *blmom, *bhues, 
*bhuet, etc., that is, a past tense formed from the root 'to be' 
with the thematic vowel. The Latin Futures like amdbo con- 
tain the same form, but in its Subjunctive function. 

228. The ^-Perfect. This is found in Oscan (with Paelig- 
nian, Marrucinian, and Volscian) but not in Umbrian. Oscan 
examples, all of the First Conjugation, are: priifatted 'probavit', 
PI. priifattens ; dadikatted 'dedicavit' ; teremnattens 'terminave- 
runt'; tribarakattins 'aedificaverint'; - - lamatir, lamatir 'caeda- 
tur'(?) ; djuunated 'donavit'. Cf. Pael. coisatens 'curaverunt', 
Marruc. amatens, Volsc. sistiatiens 'statuerunt'. This formation 
is probably based on the 0-Participle through the medium of the 
Future Perfect (cf. the Umbrian Z-Perfect), but so long as the 
double t is left unexplained its history must remain obscure. 

NOTE. It is possible that a contamination of the to-Participle and 
the wes-Participle resulted in a form with tu (e.g. -tuos) which then 
became U. But it is difficult to support the change of tu to U. 
a. O. angetuzet ' proposuerint', the etymology of which is wholly uncertain, 
has sometimes been taken as a ^-Perfect. But without further evidence of a 
^-Perfect in the Third Conjugation, it seems more probable that the t belongs 
to the root (get- or gent- with prefix an-). By any theory the fragmentary 
angitu.. , if related, is puzzling on account of the i. 

229. The w&i-Perfect. This is found in Umbrian only, 
the examples being Fut. Perf. purdinsiust 'porrexerit', purdin- 
sust, purdinsus, 2d Sg. purtincus; combifiamiust 'nuntiaverit', 

231] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 173 

combifiansiust, combifiansust, Perf. Subj. combifiansi ; dislera- 
linsust 'inritum fecerit'. These forms point clearly to a forma- 
tion containing nki (see 144), but its precise origin is uncertain. 

Taking purdinsiust as the earlier formation, one may assume that it is 
based on an adjectival stem *purdinkio-, again through the medium of the Future 
Perfect (226). Such a form would contain an -inko- based on the O.-U. suffix 
-In- (0. leginum etc.) like L. -iunco- based on the corresponding -ion- (cf. L. rati- 
uncula to ratio). But neither this nor any of the other explanations is entirely 

The Future Perfect 

230. For examples, see 205-209 (especially 207) and 223-229. 
For the omission of final t in U. 3d Sg. habus and couortus, cf. 
127, 3. 

The origin of this formation is disputed, but the most prob- 
able explanation is that it is periphrastic, a combination of a 
short-vowel Subjunctive of the verb 'to be' with an old Nom. 
Sg. of a Perf. Act. Partic. in -us, a possible relic of which is 
O. sipus 'sciens' (90, l, b). The forms would then be 2d Sg. 
-us-ses, 3d Sg. -us-set, whence by syncope -us(s), -ust. After the 
analogy of the Future, e.g. after -azent to -ast, would arise beside 
-ust the 3d PI. in -uzent (O. -uzet, -uset, U. -urent). 

NOTE. Another possibility is that the type is formed from the 
Perfect Stem after the analogy of the Future fust ' erit'. Connection 
with the Latin vi- and m-Perfect, which is strongly urged by some, 
seems to the author the least likely view. 

a. U. uesticos ' libaverit' (VI b 25) beside Imper&t.uesticatu is taken by some 
as coming from *uestikaust, but we should expect rather *uesticafust, or *uesticust 
like portust. It probably stands for uesticos fust, 1 and is a fo-Participle, like 
U. pihos 'piatus', but used here in the Active sense likeU. cersnatur, L. cenatus. 


231. The Italic Subjunctive represents a fusion of the old 
Subjunctive and Optative, which are kept distinct in Greek and 
in Vedic Sanskrit. * 

1 Such an ellipsis, though perhaps without parallel in Latin, is natural enough 
where the Future Perfect has been used in a clause immediately preceding, and where 
the conjunction arnipo ' donee' prevents any ambiguity. But it is also possible that 
the omission is a mere error. 

174 Inflection [231 

The Optative mood-sign was %e, I, for unthematic verbs, as 
seen in L. sim, s7s, etc. (early L. siem, sies, etc.), velim, edim, etc., 
and also in the Perfect Subjunctive in -im etc. In thematic 
verbs the mood-sign, including the thematic vowel, was oi, as in 
Grk. <t>epoL etc., but of this formation there is no trace in Italic. 

The Subjunctive mood-sign for unthematic verbs was iden- 
tical with the thematic vowel of the thematic Indicatives. This 
type, which may be called the short-vowel Subjunctive, is seen 
in Latin in ero and in the Future Perfect, and in Oscan-Umbrian 
in the Future and probably in the Future Perfect (230), but has 
not survived in any forms which are Subjunctives from the 
Italic point of view. For thematic verbs there were two mood- 
signs, a and e. The a is seen in Latin in the Present Subjunc- 
tive of Conjugations II, III, and IV. The e is seen in the 
Present Subjunctive of Conjugation I (probably, see below) and 
in the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive, also in the Future 
of Conjugations III and IV except in the First Singular. In 
general, then, the Italic Subjunctive forms represent either unthe- 
matic Optatives with ie, I, or thematic Subjunctives with a or e. 
In Oscan-Umbrian their distribution is the same as in Latin 
except in the Perfect Subjunctive (234). 

The Present Subjunctive 

232. For examples, see 205-209. In the First Conjugation 
the Oscan forms deiuaid i i\lTQt\ acfcra''censeat', sakahiter 'sacri- 
ficetur', contain -de-, from which comes L. -e- by contraction. 
This -de- from -die- is probably the ^-Subjunctive of -dio-, though 
it might also be wholly or in part the ^"-Optative of an unthe- 
matic stem in -a. The Umbrian forms portaia 'portet' etc. 
represent a departure from the original type and are due to 
the influence of such forms as U. facia, feia, fuia, etc., of the 
Fourth Conjugation. The forms of Conjugations II-I V agree 
entirely with the Latin. Of the unthematic forms, U. si, sins, 
etc., show the same generalization of the I as is seen in L. sis 
etc. (early sies etc.); while O. osii[ns with U for ie shows the 

236] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 175 

opposite extension of ie, or, more exactly, represents the original 
*si-ent (ending -ent) with e changed to e under the influence of 
forms containing -ie-. 

The Imperfect Subjunctive 

233. The only examples are O. fusid 'foret', hjerrins 'cape- 
rent', patensins 'aperirent' (with P&e\.upsaseter 'operaretur, fieret'). 
The i is identical with the e in L. esses, amdres, ageres, etc., and 
the formation represents an <f-Subjunctive of an s-Aorist. The 
s-Aorist, as an unthematic formation, would take the short-vowel 
Subjunctive, and this is preserved in the O.-U. Future (221). 
But, used as Subjunctives, the forms followed the analogy of 
the long-vowel type, which had become characteristic of Italic 

The Perfect Subjunctive 

234. For examples, see 205-209 and 223-229. The i of 
O. sakrafir and tribarakattins points to e rather than i, so that 
the formation is an ^-Subjunctive. 

NOTE. Some maintain that the two Oscan forms with f are not sufficient 
evidence to justify us in assuming a divergence from the Latin formation, which 
is an S-Optative ; that the i of sakrafir may be a mistake such as is found in the 
class of inscriptions to which it belongs, and that the i of tribarakattins may stand 
for i, shortened from I before nt. As regards the latter point, the Imperf. Subj. 
forms like hjerrins etc. beside fusid show that before the ending -ns a long vowel 
was either retained or restored by analogy (78, a), and so we are reasonably 
justified in assuming from tribarakattins a 3d Sg. *tribarakattid. As for U. heriiei, 
which is best taken as a Perf. Subj. ' voluerit' (and heriei, herie ' vel', which is the 
same form), the spelling ei is otherwise unknown for either e or z, but may stand 
for e, like the ei in nesimei (42). It must be admitted that the material bearing 
on the question is scanty, but so far as it goes it points decidedly, we think, to 
an e-Subjunctive. 


235. Two probable examples of the Present Imperative 
are : U. aserio 'observa' and stiplo 'stipulare', both of the First 
Conjugation, with o for final a (34). Here also Pael. eite c ite'. 

236. All other forms are such as correspond to the Latin 
Future Imperative. 

176 Inflection [236 

1. The ending of the Second and Third Singular is O. -tud, 
U. -tu, corresponding to L. -to, early -tod, Grk. -ro>, etc. (53, 54). 
For examples, see 205-209. All the Oscan forms are of the Third 
Person. In the Third Conjugation the thematic vowel suffers 
syncope except after n (88, 1). For U. aitu, deitu, -veitu, see 143 ; 
for 'U.feitUifetu, 219. 

2. There is no unquestioned example of a Plural in Oscan, 
but eituns (nos. 14-18) has often, and perhaps correctly, been 
taken as 'eunto'. As such it is easily explained as formed 
from the Singular after the analogy of the Third Plural of 
other tenses, where -ns corresponds to Sg. -d, e.g. Subj. -am 
beside -ad, -ins beside -id, etc. It is no objection to this that 
the Latin and Umbrian formations are different, for both are 

In Umbrian a Second and Third Plural has been formed 
by the addition of -td (written -ta, -tu, -to ; see 34), of uncertain 
origin. So fututo 'estote', aituta 'agunto', habetutu, habituto 
'habento', tusetutu, tursituto 'terrento', etc. 

a. The form etatu, etato ' itatote' comes from *etatutu, *etatuto, by hap- 
lology, as L. semestris from *semi-mestris etc. 

237. There is also a Passive Imperative, ending in Oscan 
in -mur, in Umbrian in -mu, PI. -mumo. Thus O. censamur 'cen- 
se tor'; -- U. persnihmu, persnihimu 'precator', PL persnihimumo ; 
anouihimu 'induito', eheturstahamu 'exterminate', etc. (the Um- 
brian forms are all Deponents). The history of the ending is 
like that of early Latin -mind, in fruimino etc., which is related 
to the -mini of the Second Plural (originally an Infinitive form), 
but modeled after the Active ending -to(d). Similarly O.-U. 
*-mod was formed after -tod, and in Oscan the d was replaced 
by the r of the Passive. The Umbrian pluralizing -md is 
modeled after the -td. 

NOTE. This *-mod may come from *-mnod and so be almost identical 
with L. -mind. But, in the absence of other evidence for a change of ran to m 
in Oscan-Umbrian, the possibility must be granted that, while formed in the 
same way as L. -mino, it started from a by-form with m, perhaps one of the 
cases in which an I.E. interchange of mn and m has to be recognized. 

238] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 177 

a. U. armamu, arsmahamo ' ordamini' comes from *arsmamumo by hap- 
lology, as etato 'itatote'. And this has effected a reduction in the following 
word, kateramu, caterahamo 'catervamini'. 


238. The Imperative forms have just been mentioned. In 
the Indicative and Subjunctive only the Third Singular and 
Third Plural are represented, but two different types of for- 
mation are to be distinguished. For omission of the final r in 
Umbrian, see 103, 4. 

1. Forms in -ter and -tur, answering to the Latin formation 
with -tur. In Oscan only -ter is found, while in Umbrian -ter 
is used in primary tenses, -tur in secondary. Examples : 

Indicatives. O. uincter 'convincitur', sakarater 'sacratur', 
karanter ' vescuntur', comparascuster 'consulta erit' ; U. herter 
'oportet', tefte <datur'(?), ostensendi ' osteudentur' (39, 2, 156). 
Cf. also Marruc. /erewfer 'feruntur'. 

Subjunctives. O. sakahiter 'sanciatur'; U. emantur, emantu 
'accipiantur', terkantur 'suffragentur', tursiandu 'terreantur' (156). 
Cf. also Pael. upsaseter 'operaretur, fieret'. 

2. Forms in which r alone appears as the ending of the 
Third Singular. This type is unknown in Latin. The most cer- 
tain examples are: Pres. Subj. U./erar; Perf. Subj. O. sakra- 
fir, with which belong O. lamatir, lam&tir, U.pihafei, herifi, cehefi, 
and probably U. ier (cf. Fut. Perf. iust); Pres. Indie. O. loufir 
(from *loufer beside Act. *loufet: L. libet; for meaning 'vel', 
see 202, 18). For the meaning of forms of this type, see 239. 

The Future Perfects U. benuso, couortuso, probably belong 
here, standing for *benusor and *couortusor, though their precise 
origin is doubtful. 

a. The view that U. hertei, herti, stands for *herter, and represents a Pres- 
ent Subjunctive of a still different type from those cited under 1 and 2, is to be 
given up. Though ei usually stands for a long vowel, there are a few instances 
of its use for short i (29) which, taken in connection with U. ostensendi with i 
for e before final r (39, 2), show that it is unnecessary to separate hertei from 
herter and other forms in -ter. Nor is the Subjunctive demanded by the syntax. 

178 Inflection [238 

6. 0. sakraitir 'sacretur', for which one would expect *sakraiter like saka- 
hiter, possibly owes its i to contamination with forms like sakrafir. Or shall we 
adopt the other possible reading sakrattir in spite of the fact that this would 
give us a ^-Perfect and an /-Perfect from the same verb ? 

c. ForO. kaispatar 'caedatur'(?) and krustatar 'cruentetur'(?), apparently 
related to L. caespes and crustus, there is no satisfactory explanation. If they 
are taken as Subjunctives of the ^-Perfect from denominatives of the First 
Conjugation, the -ar instead of -ir cannot be accounted for. It is more probable 
that they are Present Subjunctives of the Third Conjugation, from *kaispo, 
*krusto, the -tar in place of -ter being due, possibly, to contamination with the 
type of U. ferar. Another suggestion is that they are from Presents in -ato or 
-aid, in which case they belong to the same type as U. ferar. 

239. A Passive and Deponent formation characterized by 
r is the common possession of the Italic and Celtic languages. 
This r is unquestionably to be connected with a series of Third 
Plural secondary endings containing r, which are preserved in 
Sanskrit (-ur, -ran, -ranta, etc.). But the precise starting-point 
and the various steps in the development are necessarily obscure. 
The following view seems most probable. 1 

We start from an Active ending -r, parallel to the usual -nt, and a Middle 
ending -ro parallel to the usual -nto. 

The forms in -r, though originally Plural and Active, came to be used 
only when the subject was indefinite, and in this way lost their specifically 
Plural force. Cf. Eng. 'they say' or 'one says', but Germ, 'man sagt', Fr. 'on 
dit', etc. From such a meaning it is but a step to an Impersonal Passive (cf. 
Eng. 'it is said'), and from that again to a fully developed Passive with definite 
subject ; and this development would be assisted by the existence of other forms 
containing r which were based on a Middle ending and so had partly Passive 
force from the outset. In the O.-U. forms in -r the impersonal meaning prevails, 
there being only one form with subject expressed, namely O. esuf lamatir ' let 
him be beaten' (?). In O. Itiviass . . . sakriss sakrafir, avt ultiumam kerssnals 'the 
loviae are to be consecrated with sacrifices, but the last one with banquets', 
sakrafir has the Accusative construction which goes with the meaning 'let one 
consecrate', 'let there be consecration of. O. loufir, U. ier, herifi, benuso, and 
couortuso are impersonal, while in the case of U. ferwr, pihafei, and cehefi it is 
impossible to say whether the word or clause to which they refer is to be taken 
as Nominative or Accusative. 

1 1 follow Thurneysen, K.Z. 37, 92 ff., in his explanation of forms in -ter, but 
for forms like U. ferar I still hold to what is substantially the view of Zinnner, 
K.Z. 30, 276 if., and this without regard to the question of how far an Active imper- 
sonal use is actually to be recognized in the corresponding Celtic forms. 

242] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 179 

The forms in -ter sprang from a Third Plural in -ntro representing a con- 
tamination of the Middle endings -nto and -ro (cf. Skt. -ranta, a combination 
of the same elements in the reverse order). After this the Third Singular end- 
ing -to became -tro ; and -tro, -ntro, became -ter, -nter, in the same way as U. ager, 
L. ager, from *agros (91, 2). 

The forms in -tur, undoubtedly from -tor, are the most difficult, but per- 
haps originated in a combination of -nto with the simple -r, giving -ntor, whence 
the Singular -tor. 

All the formations mentioned, though originating in secondary endings, 
came to be used in primary tenses as well. The distinction of primary -ter and 
secondary -tur is unoriginal and confined to Urnbrian. In Latin, -tur prevailed 
in all tenses ; in Oscan, -ter. 

The Periphrastic Passive 

240. In the Perfect System of the Passive, periphrastic 
forms are more common than the r-forms. Thus : Perf . Indie. 
O. teremnatust 'terminata est', pruftuset 'posita sunt', serif tas set 
'scriptae sunt', U. screhto est 'scriptum est', screihtor sent, etc.; 
Perf. Subj. U. kuratu si'curatum sit'; Fut. Perf. U. pihaz fust 
'piatus erit', muieto fust 'muttitum erit', cersnatur furent 'cenati 
erunt', etc. ; Perf. Infin. U. kuratu em 'curatum esse', ehiato erom 
'emissum esse'. 

The Present Infinitive 

241. For examples, see 205-209. The ending was -om, 
doubtless an Accusative form in origin, with change to -urn 
in Oscan (50). In the First Conjugation -aum remained uncon- 
tracted, and in tribarakavum the v is simply a glide sound. See 83. 

For the Perfect Infinitive Passive, see 240. 

The Supine 

242. The one certain example of the Supine is U. anzeriatu, 
aseriato 'observatum', showing the same formation and use as 
the Latin Supine. On o for -w(m), see 57. 

a. U. aso VI b 50 is often regarded as a Supine, but is more probably a 
Perf. Pass. Partic. ("Let the same person carry it lighted on the right shoulder"). 

180 Inflection [243 

The Present Active Participle 

243. The formation is the same as in Latin. Examples are : 
O. praesentid 'praesente' (178, 5, a), U. zefef, serse 'sedens', U. restef, 
reste 'instaurans' (213, 4, a), U. kutef 'murmurans' (262, 2). For 
the /, see no, 4. 

a. The existence of an O. staief ' stans' is altogether doubtful, owing to 
the uncertainty of the reading and division of words (no. 29). 

The Perfect Passive Participle 

244. The formation is the same as in Latin. 

1. -to-. O. scn/itos'scriptas', U. screihtor; U. sihitu 4 cinc- 
tos'; O. status 'stati'; O. pruftu 'posita' from *pro-fa-to- (fa- 
reduced grade of /<?-, as in fak- beside fek-); L. pro-di-tus, 
con-di-tus, Grk. Trpo-de-ros (see 223 with f ootnote) ; - - U. daetom 
'delictum' (as if L. *de-itum); O. ancensto 'incensa', censtom-en 
'in censum', to censaum (211). For forms in -so- from roots end- 
ing in a dental, see 138 ; and for U. spefa etc., see no, 3. 

a. 0. ancensto, censtom-en, represent the normal formation, as compared 
with L. census which is one of the examples of the analogical extension of -so-. 
Similarly O. censtur : L. censor (O. kenzsur, occurring once, is due to Latin 

b. A probable example of the analogical -so- is *pelso-, assumed from 
U. pelsatu etc. See 262, 1, a. So also U. sepse, which may well mean 'sane' 
(sepse sarsite 'sane sarteque'), is perhaps an adverb formed from *saipso- : 
L. saeptus. Cf. L. lapsus. 

c. U. aso'arsum' (242, a) is commonly connected with L. assus, which 
seems to contain *asso- in place of *asto-. But it might also be connected with 
L. arsus, if the r of arded, areo, were original and not from s, as is often assumed. 
That is, its s might stand in the same relation to the rf of U. trahuorfi (115, 3) 
as that of L. rusum to the restored rs of rfirsum, versus, etc. This of course is 
impossible if L. areo is connected with ara, O.-U. asa-, but the history of this 
whole class of words is obscure. 

2. -dto-. O. teremnatust 'terminata est', staflatas k statutae', 
ehpeilatas 'erectae'; --U. pihaz, pilios 'piatus' (35, 137, 2), $ersnatur 
4 cenati', anzeriates l observatis', etc. 

a. 0. deiuatuns 'iurati 1 , if the n is not merely a mistake, must owe its 
form to the influence of agent-nouns in -fin- like L. praedo, O. sverrunei (247, L'). 

245] Formation of the Moods and Tenses 181 

3. -ito-. U. purditom 'porrectum', Amftt 'opt&to', stahmito 
4 statutum', persnis ' precatus' from *persnit(o)s, etc. Like persnis 
in formation and use is U. uestis, uesteis 'libans', beside uesticatu 
etc. from an extended stem *uestikd-. Here belongs also U. sar- 
site 'sarte' (see above, 1, 5), as if L. *sarcltus instead of sartus. 

4. -eto- (see 36, 3, 88, 2). U. tacez, tases 'tacitus' (137, 2), 
uirseto 'visum', opeter 'lecti' (212, 5), maletu 'molitum' (beside 
comatir 'commolitis' with -to-):, further, in the First Conjuga- 
tion, U. prusecetu, oseto, etc. (211). 

a. U. comohota ' commota' probably belongs here, coming from *moueto- 
by syncope and change of ou to 6 (72). L. motus also comes from *moueto-, but 
independently. For it is not to be separated from votus from *uoueto-, earlier 
*uoghyeto-, U. vufetes (152), in which, obviously, the process is specifically 

The Gerundive 

245. The forms correspond to the Latin, with the change 
of nd to nn (135). The origin of the formation is still unsettled. 
Examples : O. upsannam 'faciendam', sakrannas 'sacrandae', eehiia- 
nasum ' emittendarum' ; U. pihaner 'piandi', anferener 'circum- 
ferendi', pelsans 'sepeliendus'(?). 

NOTE. The Oscan-Umbrian forms bear upon the much-disputed question 
of the origin of the Gerundive to this extent, that they are unfavorable to any 
theory which assumes that the original form contained ndh. For there are too 
serious difficulties, we think, in the way of assuming that the representation of 
an original sonant aspirate after a nasal by a simple sonant is not only Latin and 
Umbrian (161) but also Oscan, and so may belong to the Oscan-Umbrian or even 
the Italic period. See 161, a with footnote, and 264, 2 (O. aa-manaffed from 
Pres. *man/o), not to mention 0. Anafriss. Otherwise Fay, Trans. Am. Phil. 
Assoc. 29, pp. 15 ff. 




246. 1. -tor- in agent-nouns (L. victor). O. aenstur 'censor', 
U. affertur ' *adfertor, flamen', O.embratur'imperator', O.Regaturei 
4 Rectori' (with -d-tor- after derivatives of a-verbs). See 180, 1. 

a. Derivatives of agent-nouns are regularly formed the reduced grade 
of the suffix (97), like L. victr-lx; e.g. U. kvestretie, uhtretie (251, 1), beside 
kvestur, uhtur, O. Fuutrei (180, a). Here belong the Oscan proper names Sadiriis 
'Satrius' (81, 157, 2; cf. L. sator), Vestirikiitii 'Vestricio' (81; cf. L. Vestorius 
with -tor-), Tintiriis ' *Tintrius' (cf. L. Tintorius with -tor-; Tintirius is simply 
the Oscan form, like Pontius, Popidius, Calamus). But the later formation 
with -tor- (cf. L. amatorius, auctoritas) is also represented, e.g. U. speturie 
'*spectoriae' beside Speture '*Spectori', O. Kenssurineis beside kenzsur 'censores'. 

2. -ter- (-ter-, -tr-) in nouns of relationship (L. pater). O. patir 
4 pater', U. f rater 'fratres'. See 180, 2. 

247. 1. -ion- (-m-), -tion- (-tin-), in abstracts denoting action, 
or, with a transfer to the concrete sense, the result of the action 
(L. legio, dctio). O. tribarakkiuf ' aedificium', tanginud 'sententia', 
fruktatiuf ' fructus', medicatinom 'iudicationem', U. natine'natione'. 
See 181, with a. 

a. -ti-, of which -tion- is an extension, is seen in some words where the 
Latin has the extended form. Thus U. ahtim-em * ad caerimonium'(?): L. actio ; 
O. uhftis ' voluntates' : L. optio ; U. -vakaz, -uacos, from *uakat(i)s : L. vaca- 
tid. Cf. also U. puntes ' pentads' from *pomp-ti- (146, 153) ; U. spanti 'latiis' 
from *span-ti (root span-, Eng. span, Germ, spannen, related to spa- in U. spahatu 
(110, 3, a). 

1 That is, the formation of the word as a whole, irrespective of inflectional varia- 
tions. Some matters which belong strictly under this head, such us the formation of 
adverbs, of the comparative! and superlative, etc., have been treated, for greater conven- 
ience, in connection with Inflection. There remain, then, Derivation of Nouns and 
Adjectives by means of suffixes, Secondary Verbal Derivation, and Composition. No 
attempt is made to present the material in full, but examples are given of all the 
more important formations. 


248] Derivation of Nouns and Adjectives 183 

2. -on- in agent-nouns (L. praedo). O. sverrunei 'spokesman' 
(? see note to C. A. 2 ; cf . L. susurrd) ; - - U. maron-, name of an 
official (see note to no. 84). For other nouns in -on-, see 181, b. 

a. -ona-, probably an extension of -on-, and frequent in names of divinities 
(L. Bellona), is seen in U. Vesune. In the parallel names of male divinities, 
U. Afmune, Puemune, Uofione, all Dat. Sg., it is not clear whether the suffix is 
-ono- or simply -on-. 

3. -men- (-mn-) in nouns denoting action or result of the action 
(L.fragmeri). U. nome 'noinen'; O. teremniss 'terminibus' (but 
U. termnom-e etc., like L. terminus beside termen) ; - - U. tikamne 
'dedicatione' (from dikd-; cf. L. certdmen etc.). The extended 
form -mento- is seen in O. tristaamentud 'testamento'. But 
U. pelmner : L. pulmentum. 

248. -lo-, -elo-, -flo-, -Mo-, -tro-, in nouns denoting means or 
instrument, or sometimes place or result. 

1. -lo-,-elo-(L.vinculum). U. *uislo- (preuislatu^pYaevmcu- 
lato') from *uinkelo- ; U. tigel 'dedicatio', Ace. Sg. ti9lu, from 
*dikelo-. See 88, 4, 144. 

2. -flo- (L. pabulum-, orig. -dhlo-, Grk. -#Xo-). A *staflo- 
(L. stabulum) is implied by O. staflatas 'statutae', U. staflarem 
1 *stabularem', Pael. pristafalacirix ' *praestibulatrix'. Cf . the 
adjective suffix -fli- (261, i). 

3. -Jclo-, -kid- (L. pidculum ; orig. -tlo-, Grk. -r\o- ; see 129, 2). 
O. sakarakliim ' templum', U.pihaclu ' piaculo', U. naraklum 'narratio'; 

-U. kumnahkle 'inconventu', from *komno- (U. kumne, O. comono), 
either directly, after the analogy of other forms m-dklo-, or through 
a denominative verb-stem *komnd-;--U. ehvelklu 'sententiam' 
from *ueleklo- (ehueltu,velta' 9 cf. L. vehiculum); U. muneklu 'spor- 
tulam' from *moini-klo- (cf. L. perlculum), containing a denom- 
inative verb-stem *moinl- (cf. L. munia, communis, O. muini-ku) ; 

- (Masc.) O. puklum 'puerum', Pael. puclois (Skt. putrd-);- 
U. fikla 'offam' from * fig-kid (L. jingo). For O. pestlum 'templum' 
with -tlo- preserved, and U. persclo, belonging probably under 1, 
see 129, 2. 

a. Is U. aviekla, auiecla ' angurali' simply an adjective form of a noun 
*auie-klo-, formed from a denominative verb-stem *auie- (cf. U. auie 'augurio')? 

18-4 Word-Formation [248 

We should expect an additional adjectival suffix, as in L. perlculosus, piacularis, 
etc. But on the other hand, a diminutive form *auiekelo-, whether with -kelo-, 
or from an *auieko- (cf. U. aviekate), would give U. *avie$la. Cf. U. ar^lataf 
and struhgla, 249, 1, 2, and 144. 

4. -tro-)-trd-(L.ardtrum). U.krematru'*crematra'(L. cremo)-, 
cringatro ' cinctum' (39,3); kletram 'lecticam' (L. cli-no, cll- 

tellae, etc.). 

a. A transfer to the w-Declension is seen in O. castrous, U. castruo, etc. : 
L. castrum. 

249. -Z0-, -elo-, -kelo-, in diminutives. 

1. -?0-, -elo- (L. porculus). U. Funtler-e, Fondlir-e 'in *Fon- 
tulis' from *fontelo- (L. fons); U. arglataf 'arculatas', derived 
from *arkelo- (L. arcus, arculus; see 154); O. iiiklei probably 
'formula of consecration, consecration' from *iokelo- (L. iocus, 
U. iuka 'preces'). 1 

2. -kelo- (L. osculum). O. ziculud 'die', Ace. PI. djiikulus 
(cf. L. diecula); U. veskla 'vascula', struhgla '*struiculam\ See 

250. -io- i-i-}, -id-. For the inflection of the Neuters in -io-, 

si, \ / > n * 

see 172, 173, i, 5. 

1. In primary derivatives (L. studium, fur la). O. kumben- 
nieis 'conventus'; O. memnim 'monumentum' from *me-men-io-\ 

-U. afkani 'cantum'; O. heriam 'arbitrium, vim'. 

2. In secondary derivatives (L. magisterium, familia). O. 
medicim 'magistracy', Abl. Sg. meddixud (100, 3, c), and meddikkiai 
'in the meddixship', both derived from meddik- 'magistrate, 
meddix', the suffix having here the same force as L. -dtus in 
iudicdtus, magistrdtus (L. iudicium, vindicia, are primary deriva- 
tives from iudico, vindico); O. famelo 'familia' from *famelid 
(100, 3, <?), derived from *famelo- (O. famel, I j. famulus); O. 
Viteliii 'Italia' (also Vitelliu, 162, 1) from * Uitelid, 2 probably derived 
from *uitelo- (U. vitlu, L. vitulus) ; here also probably O. pru- 
pukid 'by previous agreement' (173, 5). 

1 The derivation from a *ditto-kelo-'Any', though altrjictiveon tlie side of mean-, is on the whole less likely. 

2 From some such form was borrowed the Grk. 'iraXia, whii-li lircamc the source 
of L. Italia. 

252] Derivation of Nouns and Adjectives 185 

251. 1. -itid- (L. dilritia). U. kvestretie 'in quaestura', 
uhtretie 'in *auctura', beside kvestur, uhtur (see 246, 1, a). 

a. That these are Locatives of the First Declension and not Ablatives of 
the Fifth with the suffix -itie- (L. durities), is shown by the form of the adjective 
agreeing with kvestretie. 

2. -no-, -nd- (L. donum, urnd). O. dunum, U. dunu 'donum'; 
U. tremnu 'tabernaculo' from *treb-no- (125, 1); O. fiisnii 
'fanum', U. fesnaf-e, from *fes-nd- (99, 1). O. comono 'comitium', 
U. kumne, and O. amnud 'circuitu', amnud 'causa', are formed 
from the prepositional adverbs kom and am, like L. trdnstrum 
from trans. For -no- in adjectives, see 255. 

a. -sna- is to be assumed for O. kersnu 'cena', U. sesna, etc. See 116, 2. 
-ni- is seen in U. poni 'posca' (po-ni-). 

3. -mo-, -md- (L. armus, spilma). O. *tormo-, whence turu- 
miiad'torqueatur', from* tor ArW-wo-(H8); O. e^wo'res' (L. eged?); 

- U. arswor'ritus,' whence also arsmatiam 'Titu&lem^arsmahamo 
'ordamini', without any certain cognates, but probably coming 
from *ad-mo-, with a root ad- used of 'orderly arrangement'. For 
-mo- in adjectives, see 189. 

4. -urid-, -erid-, in derivatives of numerals. U. tekuries, 
dequrier 'decuriis' (191, 10); O. piimperiais ' *quincuriis' (in U. 
pumpefias the f is probably an error). 

5. -tdt(i)- (L. bonitds). O. Herentateis 'Veneris' (Pael. fferen- 
tas ; cf. also 'E/ateW?;? 'A^/aoStr??? eTrtovv^ov. -- Hesychius) from 
*herenti-tdt(i)- by haplology, like L. voluntds from *uolonti-tdt(i)-. 

6. -tu- (L. cantus). U. Ahtu '* Actui' ; U. afputrati ' arbi- 
tratu' with -dtu-, like L. consuldtus etc., but with this force more 
commonly -io- (250, 2) or -dto- (259, 2). 


252. 1. -io-, -iio- (L. patrius). This is especially common 
in praenomina and gentiles, for which see 174-176; also in deriva- 
tives of names of divinities, as O. Mamerttiais 'Martiis', O. Iiiviia 

1 Including many substantives of obviously adjectival origin. 

186 Word-Formation [252 

'loviam', U. luvie, U. Cerfie beside Cerfe, O. Fiisiais, U. Fisier, etc., 
beside U. Fiso. 

a. Many of these are used as epithets of other divinities, as in U. Prestate 
Qerfie, Tefre luvie, etc. (cf. L. Hercules lovius, Venus lovius, etc.). They some- 
times stand alone as independent names, e.g. U. luvie (II a 6, 8), Sagi (II blO). 

2. -eo- (L. aureus) from -eio-. U. fasiu, farsio 'farrea' 
(i from e, 39, l). 

253. *-aiio-, -eiio-, -eiio-. See 61, 3. 

1. -aiio-. O. kersnaiias ' *cenariae' ; - - U. peraaiaf 'anticas', 
pustnaiaf 'posticas', from perne 'ante', postne 'pone'; pefaia, 
persaia 'humi stratas'(?) from perum, per so 'fossam'; in names 
of persons, O. Tantrnnaium, Vesulliais (176, 3), Mamies, Gen. Sg. 
Maraiieis (176,4); extended by the suffix -dno-, O. Pumpaiians 
'Pompeianus', O. Buvaianud'in Boviano'. 

a. Like Veil etc., Pompeii was named from a gens, in this case the *Piim- 
paiius (derived from *pompe 'quinque'; cf. Quintil). 

2. -eiio-. O. vereiiai 'iuventuti', Gen. Sg. vereias, vere/i/Vis 
(? reading uncertain) from *uero- 'defense' (see note to no. 4); - 
U. Teteies 'Tetteius'(?). It is doubtful whether U. deueia 'divi- 
nam' belongs here, though if it contains the simple -io- suffix 
(252, 1), like O. Diiviiai, the spelling ei in both occurrences is 

3. -eiio- (L. plebeius). O. Kerriiai 'Cereali', Kerriiuis, etc. 

NOTE. The suffixes -aiio-, -eiio-, and -eiio- probably originated in the 
addition of the suffix -io- to the Loc. Sg. of a-, o-, and e-stems. With -aiio- is 
to be compared Grk. -cuos (5i'/ccuos); and Grk. -eios (oketos), though coming from 
various sources, corresponds in part to -eiio-. Similarly 0. puiiu'cuia', L. 
quoins, cuius, are, like Grk. TroFos, from *quoi-n>-. 

254. -dsio- (L. ordindrius). O. purasiai 'in igniaria', degetasis 
' *decentarius' ; frequent in substantive use, denoting certain 
ceremonies, as O. Fiuusasiais ' Floralibus', kerssnasias '*cenariae', 
sakrasias '*sacrariae', U. plenasier urnasier ' *plenariis *urnariis', 
etc.; with an added -iko-, O. miiltasikad 'multaticia'. For the 
retention of s in Umbrian, and for U. ezariaf 'escas'(?), see 112, a. 

NOTE. It is not unlikely that this suffix originated in the addition of the 
suffix -io- to the Gen. Sg. of o-stems. 

256] Derivation of Nouns and Adjectives 187 

255. 1. -wo- in primary derivatives. U. plener 'plenis';- 
O. sullus 'omnes', sullu/w, etc. (L. soll-emnis etc.; cf. also Pael. 
solois 'omnibus'), probably from *solno- 1 . For -no-, -nd- in nouns, 
see 251, 2. 

2. -ni- in primary derivatives. U.fons 'favens', Nom. PL 
foner, etc. (cf. L. Fones beside Faunus}. 

3. -no- in secondary derivatives. U. ahesnes'ahenis'. 

4. -dno- (L. Romdnus). O. Abellanus 'Abellani', U. Treblanir 
1 Trebulanis', etc.; with added -io-, O. Dekmanniiiis, name of a 

a. O. amvianud ' detour' would seem to be a derivative in -cmo-, used sub- 
stantively, were it not for the spelling amviannud, which occurs twice, and is 
probably the more correct (n for nn can be paralleled, but not nn for n ; see 
162, 163). The form looks like a Gerundive used substantively, as if L. *amm- 
andum, and meaning a 'circuitous route'. But there is apparently nothing like 
this in Latin. 

5. -mo- (L. dlvlnus). O. deivinais 'divinis', Bantins 'Ban- 
tinus', MafJieprLvo 'Mamertina'; U. cabriner 'caprini', Ikuvins 
'Iguvinus', etc. 

6. -ono-. \J. esono- 'sacer' is possibly from *ais(e)s-ono- (112, a), though 
there is little support in Italic for such an adjective-suffix. The noun-suffix 
-ono-, -ona-, originated in an extension of -on- (247, 2, a). 

256. 1. -ko- in names of peoples (L. Opscl, Osci, Falisci, 
etc.). U. Turskum, Tuscom 'Tuscum';-- U. lapuzkum, lapusco 
4 *Iapudicum' from *Iapud(i}sko- (cf. lapydes, 'lavruSe?, name of 
an Illyrian people) ; - - U. Naharkum, Naharcom ' *Narcum' (cf . 
L. Ndr, Nahartes, Ndrtes}? 

2. -iko- (L. bellicus). O. tuvtiks 'publicus', toutico^ U. totcor, 
etc. ; - - O. muiniku 'communis', muinikam, etc. ; - - U. fratreks, 
fratrexs ' *f ratricus, magister fratrum'. 

3. -ikio- (L. patricius). O. serevkid 'auspicio' probably from 
*seruikio- (173, 5); O. Kastrikiieis 'Castricii'; - - with syncope 
O. Iuvkiiui'*Iovicio'. 

1 Some derive from *soluo-, but the change of lu to U is one which we do not 

2 The uniform spelling with h in both alphabets shows that the h is not merely 
a sign of vowel-length, and that L. Ndr is from *Nahar, like cors from cohors. 

188 Word-Formation [256 

4. -ikio- (L. novlcius, but otherwise rare except in the type 
-tlcius). O. Vestirikiiui * Vestricio', Viinikiis ' Vinicius' (-ikio- rather 
than -ikio- is assumed here on account of the spelling with i, not i). 

5. -ukio- (oT-ilkio-?). U. Kastru9iie (cf. O.castrous, U.castruo, 
from kastru-) in contrast to O. Kastrikiieis. 

6. -ok- (L. auddx). O. malaks 'male volos' (?);-- U. huntak 
'puteum'C?), probably Ace. Sg. N. of *honddk- meaning 'under- 
ground' (cf. hondra 'infra') and used substantively of a 'well'; 
U. curnaco 'cornicem', curnase: L. comix with -Ik-. 

7. -dko- (L. merdcus ; cf. also Celtic names like Teutobodidci 
etc.). U. Tesenakes, Tesenocir (see 35, a). 

8. -k-. O. Vezkei is most easily derived from *Uetes-k- or 
*Uetos-k- with -k- beside -ko- in L. vetuscus, yet the connection 
with the latter word must be regarded as wholly uncertain. 

257. 1. -TO- in primary derivatives. O.-U. sakro- 'sacer' 
(O. a-arcopo, U. sacra, etc.); U. rufra 'rubra' ; U.vufru 'votivum' 
(uof-\ cf. vufetes 'votis'). 

2. -ri- in primary derivatives. O.-U. sakri- beside sakro- 
(see 187, 2); U. pacer 'propitius', Nom. PL pacrer (pak-; cf. 
L. pax etc.); O. akrid (99, 3); U. ocrer (99, 3; for ocar 
see 91, b). 

3. For -era-, -tero-, see 188, 2. 

4. -dli-, -dri-, in secondary derivatives (L. regalis,populdris). 
O. fertalis '(ceremonies) celebrated with sacrificial cakes' (L. fer- 
tum); O. luisarifs (see 138, and note to no. 21); O. Dekkviarim 
'Decurialem'; --U. furu sehmeniar 'forum seminarium' (cf. forum 
piscdrium etc.). Cf. also U. disleralimust, 262, 3. 

5. -ilo- (cf. L. -Ili- in hostllis etc.). O. iuvilu ' *iovila', diu- 
vilam, iiivilam, etc., is probably an adjective form used substan- 
tively, from *diouilo-, a derivative of Diou- (O. Diiivei etc.). 
Cf . L. lulus, lulius, from *Iouilo-, louilio- ; and luilius (inscr.), 
which is perhaps luilius. 

258. 1. -no- in primary derivatives. O. salavs 'salvus' (80, 1), 
U. saluom 'salvum', etc. ; O. siuom 'omnino', U. seuom 'totum', 
etc., from *se-uo- (15, 12);--U. give'citra' (189, l, a, 190, 1);- 

259] Derivation of Nouns and Adjectives 189 

with participial force, O.facus ' factus', praefucus ' praef ectus', f rom 
*fak-uo- (cf. L.-mortuus etc.). 

2. -uo- in secondary derivatives. U. mersuva'iusta' from 
*medes-iio (132, a);--U. tesvam, dersua 'prosperam' probably 
from *dedes-uo- (132, 6); U. felsva 'holera'(?) from *feles-uo- 
(L. holus? see 149, b). 

3. -uio-, an extension of -uo-, in proper names. O. Salaviis, 
Kalaviis, Helleviis, Heleviieis, for which see also 80, 1 ; O. Akviiai, 
U. Piquier. 

4. -ouio- in proper names. O. Kaluvis, Gen. Sg. Kaluvieis ; - 
U. Fisouie, Grabouie. U. Ikuvinus, liouinur, etc. also implies an 
*Igouio-: L. Iguvium. Cf. Mars. Cantouios, and Vitrovius, Sal- 
lovius, etc., which occur in Latin inscriptions but are dialectic, 
the regular Latin forms being Vitruvius, Salluvius, etc. 

NOTE, -ouio- is an extension of -ouo-, earlier -euo-, as -uio- is of -uo-. 
For -euo- beside -uo-, cf. Ion. Kej>e6s from */ce'e/:6s and /cet^s from *Ki>f6s. In 
Latin the two forms of the suffix become identical. 1 

259. 1. -to-, the suffix of the Perf. Pass. Partic. (244), is 
also used, as in Latin (barbdtu*), to form adjectives directly 
from noun-stems. U. hostatu 'hastatos', mersto 'iustum' (88, 3), 
petenata 'pectinatam, comb-shaped', etc. ; U. ponisiater, punicate, 
name of an official, perhaps named from a purple costume 
(*poiniki-ato- : L. punicus). Cf. also proper names from par- 
ticiples or adjectives in -to-, as O. Minaz, Pukalatui (*pukldto- 
from puklo- 'puer', O. puklum etc.), Kluvatiis, Betitis, etc. 

2. -dto- is used in substantives denoting office or official 
body, like L. -dtu-. O. senateis 'senatus' (cf. also L. sendti); 
U. fratrecate (Loc. Sg.) 'office of fratrex'; U". maronatei (Loc. 
Sg.) 'office of maro' (see note to no. 84), maronato (Abl. Sg.; 
see 302). 

3. -ati- in derivatives of names of towns (L. Arplnds). 
O. Saipinaz ' Saepinas, of Saepinum', Liivkanateis ' *Lucanatis' ; - 

1 For the material see especially Solmsen, Studien zur lat. Lautgeschichte, 
pp. 135 ff., who, however, goes too far in assuming that all such forms as are cited 
above in 1, 2, and 3 contain -euo-. not -&ro-. See author's Verb-System, p. 175. 

190 Word-Formation [259 

U. Tafinate, Tarsinate W Tadinatem, of Tadinum'; used sub- 
stantively as names of gentes, U. Atiiefiate, Kaselate, Casilate, 
Talenate, etc. (II b 1-7). 

260. 1. -do-. U. kalefuf, calersu 'with a white forehead' 
(cf. L. cal(l)idus, Isidorus, Orig. 12, 1, 52), like L. pallidus etc.; 

-probably U. sorser 'suilli', sorsalem 'suillam' (see 57). 

2. -idio-, -edio-, in proper names (L. Calidius). O. Husidiis, t 
Pupidiis, Caisidis, Pael. Apidis ; also with syncope O. Pupdiis, 
Pael. Popdis ; with added -ino-, O. Tafidins; U. Coredier, Kure- 
ties (Pael. Uibedis)',--^J. Atiersiur, Atiiefiur (but L. Attidium), 
Pael. Ouiedis. The reason for O. i (not i) and, in general, the 
relation of the different forms are obscure. 

261. -fli- (L. amdbilis ; orig. -dhli-, the adjective z'-stem form 
of -dhlo-, 248, 2). U. facefele (aes facefete) '*facibile, *sacrificabile', 
purtifele '^porricibilem'. Since anaptyxis is unknown in Um- 
brian the first e in -fele is surprising. Possibly it is due to the 
Nom. Sg., in which -fel from -flis would be regular (cf. pacer 
from *pakris 91, 2). 



262. 1. As in Latin, the great mass of denominatives, 
whether or not derived from a-stems, follow the First Conjuga- 
tion. Examples: U. kuraia'curet', kuratu (Pael. coisatens) from 
*koisd (L. euro)', O. moltaum 'multare' from *molktd (O. molto, 
L. multa); O. ehpeilatas 'erectae, set up' from *peild : L. plla ; 
O. deiuaid 'iuret', deiuast, deiuatud, etc. from *deiuo- (L. deus ; 
see 16, 4) ; U. stakaz 'statutus' from *stdko- (cf. L. ttdgnwri); - 
U. pihatu 'piato', pihos, etc. from adj. *plo- (L. pirn)-, O. pru- 
fatted'probavit' from adj. *profo- (L. probus); O. teremnattens 
'terminaverunt' from *termen- (O. teremniss, L. termeri);- 
U. vepuratu Testinguito'(?) from adj. ue-pur- ' fireless' (U. vepurus, 
263, 2); O. upsannam 'operandam, faciendam', U. osatu, etc. from 
*opes- (L. opus)-, -- U. tuderato 'finitum' from *tudes- (U. tuder}\ 

262] Secondary Verbal Derivation 191 

-U. etufstamu, eturstahmu 'exterminate' from *tudes-to- (cf. 
L. modes-ins). 

There are also examples of the formation from the o-Parti- 
ciple, corresponding to the Latin iteratives. Thus U. etaians 
'itent', etato, etc. from *ei-to-, not from *i-to- like L. ito; 
U. statitatu 'statuito' from statlto- (U. statita, see below, 3) ; - 
U. frosetom 'fraudatum' from *frausso- (L. frausus) as if 
L. *frauso ; U. preplotatu of uncertain meaning, but perhaps 
' *praeplauditato, strike down' from *plaudeto-. 

a. U. pelsatu, pelsans, etc. is probably derived from a Partic. *pelso-, like 
L. pulso from pulsus, though its etymological connection is uncertain. The 
meaning ' bury' (in the trench ; cf. VI b 40) seems the most probable among 
various suggestions, and the connection with L. sepelio may be maintained if 
we take the latter as se-pelio (for se- beside se- cf. solvo from *se-luo, socors from 
*se-cors). In this case *pelso- will be *pel-so- for *pel-to- with the same analog- 
ical -so- as in L. pulsus etc. (see also 244, 1, a, 6). 

2. Denominatives of the Second Conjugation are : O. turu- 
miiad ' torqueatur from *tormo- (cf. L. tormentum); O. fatium 
'fari' like L. fateor from Partic. *fato- (<aro?), which was 
replaced in Latin by/afo-;--U. kutef speaking low' (kutef pes- 
nimu equivalent to the more- common tacez pesnimu ' tacitus pre- 
cator') probably as if L. *cauteo (*cautens) from cautus ; 
O. piitiad, putiiad'possit', as if L. *poteo (cf. potens, potul), from 
poti- (L. potis). 

3. Denominatives of the Fourth Conjugation are : U. pers- 
nihimu 'precator', persnis, etc. from *persni-, *persk-ni- (146) (cf. 
Skt. prap-nd- from the same root, whence denom. prapnaydmi) 1 ; 

-U. statita 'statuta' from *sta-ti- (Grk. ardent) ; - - U. stahmito 
'statutum', stahmeitei, from the stem of U. stahmei 'statui' 
(*std-mo- or *std-mi-): l O. sakruvit 'sacrat', sakrvist, from *sakru- 
(214, 3);--U. disleralinsust 'inritum fecerit' from an adjective 
*dis-leisdli- 'off the track' (L. lira, Germ. G-eleise) and so 'wrong, 

1 The assumption of a primary verb with a m-suffix, a type of which there are 
no other relics in Italic, is altogether less probable. 

192 Word-Formation [263 


263. 1. The first element is a noun or adjective stem 
(L. armi-ger). O. meddiss, meddis 'meddix', Gen. Sg. medikeis, 
etc., from *medos (U. mefs 'ius') and dik-, 1 precisely like L. iadex 
from ius and dik-; Liganak-dikei, name of a goddess, the first part 
being a derivative related to L. lex (80, 2; cf. Seo-jMotyopos an epi- 
thet of Demeter);-- U. man-trahklu, man-draclo 'mantele'(97); - 
U. tu-plak (192, 1) ; II. du-pursus 'bipedibus', petur-pursus 'qua- 
drupedibus' (94, 191, 2, a, 4, a); U. di-fue 'bifidum' (191, 2, a); - 
U. nuf-pener ' pondiis', name of a small coin, the first part 
being obscure, while the second is from *pendo- (cf. L. du-pon- 
dius ; 94); U. seu-acni- (159, a). O. tribarakkiuf 'aedificatio' 
and the verb tribarakavum are probably derivatives of a *trebark- 
or *trebarkio-, compounded of *trebo- or *treb- (O. triibum 
'domum'; see 171, 14) and *ark- (L. arx, arced), and so meaning 
first 4 the closing in, i.e. the construction of, a building', then 
simply 'building', like L. aedificatio. 

a. U. seuacni-, peracni-, exemplify the same shifting to the i-stem form 
that is seen in L. inermis, biiugis, etc. 

2. The first element is an adverbial prefix. Most of these 
prefixes are the same which are used in the composition of verbs 
(264, l), and occur separately as prepositions, e.g. O. kiim-bennieis 
'conventus'. For examples, see 299-302. But the following 
occur only in noun and adjective (including participial) com- 

The negative an- (L. in-; see 98), corresponding to L. in-, in 0. an-censto 
'non censa', am-prufid 'improbe', amiricatud '*immercato'; U. an-hostatu 'non 
hastatos', an-takres 'infeegris', aanfehtaf ' inf ectas' (73, a), ansihitu 'non cinctos', 
auirseto 'non visum', asnata 'non umecta', asegeta 'non secta' (n omitted in last 
two examples by 108, 1; for auirseto from an-u- cf. U. co-uertu etc. (300, 2). 

U. sei- (L. sed-, se-) in sei-podruhpei 'seorsum utroque' (200, 2). 

l O. meddiss may be from *mvdcs-dik~ through *m(>df<dik-, s being lost between 
two mutes, or from *medo-dik- with the not infrequent substitution of the o-stem for 
the .s-stem form. 

264 J Composition 1 93 

IT. ven- in ven-persuntra, vem-pesuntres, ve-pesutra 'ficticia' (?) beside per- 
sontro- 'figmentum'(?) is evidently connected with L. we-, but with a nasal, 
perhaps representing an added particle ne, and without distinctly negative force. 1 
Another probable example of this prefix is U. vepurus, which is best explained 
as 'fireless' (cf. U. pir, pure-to, etc.), esunes-ku vepurus meaning 'at the sacri- 
fices without fire' (cf. Grk. iepa &irvpa). 

3. Juxtaposition (L. sendtusconsultum). U. lupater, like 
L. lupiter from Voc. Sg. *Dieu-pater (Ze> Trare/o); U. desen-duf 

a. The juxtaposition of prepositions and adverbs of time and place, as in 
L. ab-hinc, inter-ibi, etc., is exemplified by U. ap-ehtre 'ab extra, extrinsecus'. 
For other examples of compound adverbs see 202, passim. 


264. 1. The only extensive type of verbal composition is 
that in which the first element is an adverbial prefix. Most of 
these prefixes are such as occur separately as prepositions, and 
examples will be given in connection with the latter (299-302). 
Those not occurring separately are : 

(L. a, ab). 0. aa-manaffed 'mandavit, locavit', U. aha-uendu 'avertito', 
aha-tripursatu, a-tripursatu, ah-trepufatu, a-trepufatu 'tripodato'. See 77, 2. 
The preposition with a case-form does not happen to occur. But cf . U. ap-ehtre 
'ab extra, extrinsecus' (263, 3, a). 

(L. am&-, am-). For am- and *aw/er-, for which, however, there is a 
related preposition, O. ampt (300, 1), see 161 with a. 

(L. an- in an-helo). U. an-tentu, an-dendu, with the same meaning as 
en-tentu, en-dendu 'intendito', am-pentu, a-pentu 'impendito', an-ouihimu 'indu- 
itor', an-zeriatu, an-seriato 'observatum', a-seriatu, etc., an-stintu, a-stintu 'distin- 
guito', an-stiplatu 'stipulator', am-paritu 'conlocato', am-parihmu ' surgito ' (in 
the last four examples connection with L. am-, a?w6-, is possible, but less likely) ; 
0. avafaKer 'dedicavit' (80, 2), probably an-getuzet 'proposuerint' (228, a). 
Cf. also U. anda, anglaf 'oscines' (155). 

(L. dis-). U. disleralinsust. See 262, 3. 

(L. por-). U. pur-douitu, pur-.tuvitu 'porricito', pur-din&iust, pur-ditom, 
etc. See 51. 

(L. re-). U. re-vestu 'revisito', re-statu 'instaurato', re-stef, etc. 

0. ce-bnust ' venerit' contains the particle seen in L. ce-do, ce-tte. 

1 So occasionally in Latin. See I.F. 10, 248 if. 

1 94 Word-Formation [264 

2. Juxtaposition. A probable parallel to L. animadverto 
is U. eitipes 'decreverunt' from *eitom *hipens (see 84), used like 
L. 'ratum habuerunt'. For *hipens, i.e. *hepens, cf. O. hipid 
etc. (218). 

The first part is perhaps from *aiketo- with the same root as Skt. l- 
'have power', Eng. own, etc. (cf. also 0. aikdafed, 264, 3), the phonetic develop- 
ment being *aikto-, *ekto-, *eito- (143). 

O. manafum 'mandavi', aa-manaffed 'mandavit, locavit', from 
*manfefom, *manfefed (8'0, 2, 223), belong to a Pres. *manfo, earlier 
*mandho, whence also L. man-do, which was originally inflected 
like abdo, condo, etc., but passed over to the First Conjugation 
(thus avoiding confusion with mando 'chew'). 

This *man-dho is formed after *con-dho (L. condo) etc. from man-, seen 
in U. manf manus' (Ace. PL), L. man-ceps, etc. (If it is viewed thus as an 
analogical formation, it is not necessary to assume a case-form in man-.) 

A parallel formation is probably U. hondu 'pessumdato'(P), belonging to 
a Pres. *hondo, this from *hon-fo, *hom-dhd, horn- being the same element that 
is seen in U. hondra 'infra 1 etc. (L. humus). The phonetic development is the 
same as in U. -uendu (161). 

3. O. tribarakaviim ' aedificare' is probably, like L. aedificd, a derivative 
of a noun already compounded. See 263, 1. Of O. aikdafed the most probable 
explanation is that it means ' decrevit, authorized' and is derived from *aiko-do-, 
the first part belonging to the root aik- seen in Skt. l$- ' have power' etc. (cf . also 
U. eitipes, 264, 2). 



265. The Possessive Genitive in the various phases of 
possession and connection is common. Thus O. sakarakliim Here- 
kleis 'templum Herculis'; predicative O. Herentateis siim'Veneris 
sum'; O. L. Pettieis meddikiai 'in the meddixship of L. Pettius'; 
O. senateis tanginud 'senatus sententia'; U. farer agre Tlatie 
'f arris agri Latii'; U. popluper totar liouinar 'pro populo civi- 
tatis Iguvinae'; predicative U. pisest totar Tarsinater 'quisquis 
est civitatis Tadinati'. 2 

The Objective Genitive. U. katleticel 'catuli dedicatio'; 
arsier frite 'sancti fiducia, with confidence in (thee) the holy one'. 

266. The Partitive Genitive. U. mestru karu fratru'maior 
pars fratrum'; O. minstreis aeteis eituas 'minoris partis pecu- 
niae'; O. idic tangineis 'id sententiae', like L. id temporis etc. 

The following are bolder than anything in Latin, but may 
be paralleled elsewhere. U. iuenga peracrio tursituto 'iuvencas 
ex opimis fuganto' (VII a 51); U. struhclas fiklas sufafias kumaltu 
'prepare some sacrificial cake, etc.' (II a 41). 

The use of the Partitive Genitive as subject, which is found 
in Avestan, Lithuanian, and rarely in Greek, is probably to be 
recognized in U. eru emantur herte '(whether) any of them are to 
be accepted' (Va 8). 

1 The treatment of the Syntax is brief, not through any intention to slight this 
side of the grammar, but because the syntactical material is relatively meagre. That 
is, owing to the nature of the remains only a limited number of constructions are 
met with. Moreover, in view of the general similarity to Latin syntax, it is needless 
to heap up examples of the common constructions, and some matters, such as the 
uses of the parts of speech, etc., may be passed over entirely. 

2 These last two examples belong to the class in which it is impossible to draw 
the line between the Possessive and the Partitive Genitive. 


196 Syntax [267 

267. Genitive with Adjectives. O. diuvilam Tirentium Ma- 
giium sulum muinikam ' iovilam Terentiorum Magiorum omnium 

268. Genitive of Time. This Genitive, which is found 
in Greek and elsewhere (VVKTOS 'by night', rpiwv fjLrjvwv 1 within 
three months', etc.),, and which is a natural development of the 
Possessive Genitive (the time to which an action belongs), is 
to be recognized in O. eisucen ziculud zicolom XXX nesimum 
comonom ni hipid 'shall not hold the comitia within the next 
thirty days from that day' (T. B. 17). Cf. L. in diebus Vproxsu- 
meis in the Latin inscription of the Tabula Bantina. 

NOTE. The zicolom is often taken as an Ace. Sg., as if 'from that day 
until the thirtieth day following', but there are serious objections to this, namely 
1) the use of the Accusative without a preposition, 2) the use of the numeral 
signs for the ordinal, 3) the use of nesimum ' proximum' in such a phrase, as if 
L. ad diem tricensimum proximum. 

269. Genitive of the Penalty. O. ampert minstrels aeteis 
eituas moltas moltaum fo'c#wc?'dumtaxat minoris partis pecuniae 
multae multare liceto' (T. B. 12, 13), and moltaum licitud, ampert 
mistreis aeteis eituas licitud ' multare liceto, dumtaxat minoris 
partis pecuniae liceto' (T. B. 18). That is, 'one may fine with 
(a fine of) not more than half the property'. 

In the former passage aeteis may be the Genitive of the Penalty with moltas 
in apposition, or it may be taken as an explanatory Genitive with moltas, this 
last being the Genitive of the Penalty. 1 The preceding ampert, literally nun 
trans, is not a preposition (in this case, we should expect the Ace.), but an 
adverb used without effect on the case-construction, just as, frequently, L. plus, 
minus, amplius. Similarly in the corresponding Latin phrase [dum minoris] 
partus familias taxsat (T. B. Latin side), partus is Genitive of the Penalty, and 
not governed by taxsat. 

a. A noteworthy construction, perhaps containing a sort of detached 
Genitive of the Penalty, is seen in IT. fratreci motar sins a. CCC 
'magistro multae sint asses CCC' (VII b 4), which is paralleled by 
L. lovei bovidpiaclum datod et a. CCC moltai suntod (CIL. XI, 4766), 
where moltai must be Gen. Sg. and not Nom. PL, as is shown by the 

1 Some take moltas as a Connate Accusative (Plural) and assume that it is to 
be understood in the shorter passage. But the Plural is unlikely. See also a. 

271] Uses of the Cases 197 

following eius piacli moltaique dicator[ei] exactio est\od]. The con- 
struction might arise through a contamination of such expressions 
as rnagistro a. CCC multa sint (sunto) and magistrum a. CCC multae 
multato. Cf. the detached Abl. in U. muneklu habia numer prever 
(292), and L. lupiter, tibi bove aurato voveo futurum (Acta Arvalium). 

270. Genitive of the Matter Involved, in legal phraseology. 
O. suaepis . . . altrei castrous auti eituas zicolom dicust 'siquis 
alteri capitis aut pecuniae diem dixerit', that is, on a charge in- 
volving the death penalty or a fine (T. B. 13, 14 ; on castrous see 
note to passage), contrasted with dat castrid loufir en eituas 'de 
capite vel in pecunias' (T. B. 8, 9). Cf. L. quoad vel capitis vel 
pecuniae iudicasset privato (Livy 26, 3, 8), beside de capite, etc. 
A bolder example is O. aserum eizazunc egmazum pas exaiscen 
ligis serif tas set 'to make a seizure involving these matters which 
are written in these laws' (T. B. 24). Cf. L. eiq(ue) omnium 
rerum siremps lexs esto (T. B., Latin side). Note also the free 
use of the Genitive in the Law Code of Gortyna to denote the 
matter or person involved, e.g. TO> eXevOepco 'in the case of a 
freeman', rw XP V(0 ' m the matter of time', 77 peKacrrw eypdrrai 
'as is written in each case'. 

NOTE. To take such Genitives as depending on a noun either expressed 
(e.g. zicolom in the first Oscan example) or understood, is forced. It is possible, 
of course, that they originated in connection with a noun and afterwards came 
to modify the sentence as a whole, thus going through the reverse of the process 
seen in the case of the Adnominal Dative. But even this assumption is unneces- 
sary, and it is more probable that we have to do simply with certain phases of 
a broad use of the Genitive denoting the sphere to which an action belongs. 

271. Free use of the Genitive of a noun with gerundive 
in agreement. With L. (arma) quae cepit legum ac libertatis 
subvortundae (Sallust) compare U. uerfale pufe arsfertur trebeit 
ocrer peihaner 'the templum where the flamen remains for the 
purification of the mount' (VI a 8). A more striking example 
is U. sururo stiplatu pusi ocrer pihaner^et him make the same 
request as for the purification of the mount' (VI b 48). 

NOTE. This Genitive, which obviously modifies the sentence as a whole, 
and not a noun expressed or understood, belongs historically with the preceding. 
See note to 270. 

198 * Syntax [272 


272. Dative of the Indirect Object with transitive verbs. 
O. Anagtiai Diiviiai dunum deded 'Angitiae Diae donum dedit'; 
U. buftriffetu Marte Grabouei 'boves tris facito Marti Grabovio'. 

273. Dative with certain verbs used intransitively. U. ri 
esune kuraia 'rem divinam curet' (cf. euro with Dative in early 
Latin); arsferture ehueltu 'flaminem iubeto' (cf. iubeo with 
Dative in Tacitus); persnihmu Puemune ' supplicate Pomono'. 

274. Dative with prepositional compounds. U. prosesetir 
strusla fida arsueitu 'prosectis struem offam addito (advehito)', 
U. pir ase antentu 'igneni arae imponito'. 

275. The Dative of Reference or Concern. U. aserio . . . 
anglaf esona mehe, tote lioueine . . . 'observa . . . oscines divinas 
mihi, civitati Iguvinae' (VI a 4, 5); O. piei ex comono pertemest 
'(the magistrate) in whose case the assembly shall be prevented 
in this way' (T. B. 7); O. suaepis altrei . . . zicolom dicust 
'siquis alteri . . . diem dixerit' (T. B. 13, 14); U. pune karne 
speturie . . . naraklum vurtus 'cum carni *spectoriae . . . nuntiatio 
mutaverit' (II a 1); U. ahauendu . . . atero pople 'avertito . . . 
malum populo' (VII a 27; cf. L. sohtitium pecori defendite etc.); 
preuendu . . . atero tote 'advertito malum civitati' (VII a 11); 
O. Maiiui Vestirikiiui . . . inim Maiiufi] luvkiiui . . . ekss kumbened 
'Maio Vestricio . . . et Maio lovicio . . . ita convenit' (C. A. 1 ff.; 
observe the use of two Datives where Latin has one Dative and 
cum with the Ablative); O. ekas iiivilas luvei Flagiui stahint 'hae 
*iovilae lovi Flagio stant' (no. 25) ;--(). aasas ekask eestint 
hurtui ' these altars are for (belong to) the sacred grove' (T. A.) . 

'NOTE. Several of these Datives might of course be differently classified, 
e.g. that with O. kumbened and U. preuendu under 274, that with ahauendu 
under a special class of "verbs of taking away." The last two examples cited 
are very close to the Dative of the Possessor (276), but this is only a special 
variety of the Dative of Reference and in our usual terminology is restricted to 
the use with the verb 'to be'. 

276. Dative of the Possessor. U. etantu mutu afferture si 
'tanta multa flamini sit' etc. 

281] Uses of the Cases 199 

277. Dative with Adjectives of Relation. U. futu fans 
pacer . . . pople 'esto favens propitia . . . populo'; O. nessimas 
staiet veruis 'proximae stant portae' (but veruis may also be taken 
as an Ablative of the Point of View, 288). 

278. Dative with Nouns. The Dative with nouns of verbal 
meaning (L. obtemperatio legibus etc.) is seen in U. tikamne luvie 
'with a dedication to lovius' (II a 8). The Dative of Reference 
with nouns is found only in brief clauses which are in the nature 
of headings, as O. Evkliii statif 'Euclo statua' (T. A.). 


279. The Accusative of the Direct Object with transitive 
verbs and the Accusative with Prepositions (299, 30 1) are of 
course extremely common. The Cognate Accusative is seen 
in U. teio subocau suboco 'te invoco invocationes' (Via 22 etc.; 
cf. te bonas preces precor, Cato, De Agric. 134). Note also 
U. perca arsmatiam anouihimu 'virgam ritualem induitor' (cf. 
L. galeam induitor)', O. censamur eituam 'censetor pecuniam' 
(cf. voluisti magnum agri modum censeri, . . . cum te audisset servos 
suos esse censum, Cic. pro Flacco, 32). 


280. In contrast to its restricted use in Latin, the Locative 
is widely used in Oscan-Umbrian. It has preserved a distinct 
form in the Singular, at least in the First and Second Declen- 
sions, to which nearly all the examples belong, while in the 
Plural it is merged with the Dative-Ablative-Instrumental. In 
Oscan it is ordinarily used without a preposition, but in Umbrian 
it is very frequently, perhaps always (see 169, 7), combined with 
the postpositive -en. For the Locative with other prepositions, 
see 301, 302. 

281. Locative of Place. 1. OSCAN. Bansae 'at Bantia', 
Tiianei 'at Teanum', eisei terei 'in this territory', comenei 'in the 
assembly', viai mefiai 'in the middle of the road', aasai purasiai 

200 Syntax [281 

'on the tire-altar', liivkei 'in the grove 1 , thesavrei 'in the treasury'; 
with -en, hurtin'in the grove' (171, 7), ezaisc-en licfis^in these 

2. UMBRIAN. Akefunie, Acersoniem 'at Acedonia', tote Touine, 
toteme louinem (169, 7, a] 'in the city of Iguvium', ocre Fisie, 
ocrem Fisiem (169, 7, a) 'on the Fisian mount', destre onse, testre 
e uze 'on the right shoulder', arven 'in the field', tertie sviseve 
'in the third pot', tafle e 'on the table', fer ine 'on the stand'(?), 
manuv-e'in the hand', Fondlir-e 'at the Springs', fesner-e'at the 

282. Locative of Time. 1. OSCAN. eizeic zicel[ei] 'on that 
day', alttrei putereipid akenei'in every other year' (? see 200, 2, a), 
piistrei iiiklei 'at the following ceremony' (?), medikkiai 'in the med- 
dixship', Fiuusasiais 'at the Floralia' (similarly eidiiis Mamerttiais, 
Fiisiais piimperiais, used, in the iovilae-inscriptions, of certain 

2. UMBRIAN. sume ustite'at the last period' (?), kvestretie, 
uhtretie (251, 1, #), fratrecate, maronatei 'in the quaestorship' etc., 
plenasier urnasier, sehmenier dequrier ' at the festivals of - -'. 

283. A Locative of Circumstance is seen in O. eizeic uincter 
'is convicted of this'. Cf. L. in hoc scelere convictus beside the 
usual Genitive construction. 


284. The fusion of the original Ablative and Instrumental 
was accomplished in the Italic period, so that in Oscan-Umbrian, 
as in Latin, they are no longer distinguished in form. For the 
Ablative with prepositions, see also 300, 302. 


285. Ablative of the Place or Time Whence. O. Akudun- 
niad'from Acedonia', Tianud Sidikinud 'from Teanum Sidicinum' 
(both examples from coin-legends); O. imad-en 'from the bot- 
tom up', eisuc-en ziculud l hom this day on' (the -en here is not 

290] Uses of the Cases 201 

essential to the Ablative force). In Umbrian this Ablative 
is regularly accompanied by the preposition e, ehe 'ex' or the 
postpositive -ta, -tu, -to (300, 9), as ehe esu poplu 'from this people', 
akru-tu 'from the field', anglu-to hondomu . . . anglom-e somo 'from 
the lowest to the highest corner', pure-to 'from the fire'. 

286. Ablative of the Source. O. eitiuvad miiltasikad, aragetud 
multaspkud] 'from the money raised by fines'. Cf. L. (ex) aere 
conlato, aere moltaticod. 

NOTE. These examples might also be classed under the Ablative of Means. 

287. Ablative of Accordance. O. senateis tanginud (once 
with dat) 'in accordance with the judgment of the senate', 
U. afputrati fratru Atiiefiu 'in accordance with the judgment of the 
Atiedian brothers', O. prupukid svemmei 'spokesman(?) by previ- 
ous agreement', U. fratru mersus 'in accordance with the customs 
of the brothers' (III 6 ; cf. L. (ex) moribus). 

NOTE. This Ablative is probably, in part, of Instrumental origin, and 
is not always to be distinguished clearly from the Ablative (Instrumental) of 
Attendant Circumstances, and of Means. 

288. Ablative of the Point of View. U. nesimei asa'next 
to the altar' (L. proxime ab), testru sese asa'at the right of the 
altar' (see 307); so probably U. todceir tuderus seipodruhpei ' on 
both sides, separately, of the city limits' (VI a 11). 

289. Ablative after Comparatives. O. mais zicolois X nesi- 
mois 'more than the ten following days'. Although mais might 
be used without effect on the following case, as sometimes 
L. pltts, an Ablative of Time seems less probable here. 


290. Ablative of Means. O. sakriss sakrafir, avt ultiumam 
kerssnais ' consecrate with victims, but the last with banquets' ; 

-O. tristaamentud deded'gave by will' (Ablative of Source also 
possible; cf. L. (ex) testamento) -, -- U. mani nertru femftt'hold 
with the left hand'; -- U. kletra fertuta 'carry on (by means of) a 
litter'; U. esu bue pihafei 'expiate with this ox';--U. vinu 

202 Syntax [290 

persnihmu 'make supplication with wine', similarly, with verb 
understood, tio esu bue 'thee with this ox (I supplicate)'. 

a. U. herie uinu herie poni fetu l \el vino vel posca facito' (VIb 19, 20) 
is to be compared with L. ture et vino fecerunt (Ada, Arvalium), etc. But the 
Accusative construction is the usual one, as in Latin also, and the use of the 
Ablative here is perhaps due to its denoting a subsidiary offering, thus approach- 
ing the uses mentioned in 293. 

6. With L. quid hoc homine facias compare U. fetu uru pirse mers est ' do 
with him what is right' (VIb 55). 

291. Ablative of the Route. U. uia auiecla etuto 'go by 
the augural way' ; O. eksuk amviannud eituns 'let them go(?) by 
this detour' (see note to nos. 14-18). O. r[ihtud] amnud 'right 
around in a circle' (C. A. 16, 17) is to be compared with L. sur- 
sum (deorsum) rivo recto (iugo recto} 'right up (down) the stream 
(ridge)' (GIL. I 199). 

292. Ablative of Measure and Price. O. via teremnattens 
perek(ais) III 'laid out the roads three rods wide'. Note espe- 
cially U. muneklu habia numer prever pusti kastruvuf 'sportulam 
habeat nummis singulis in capita, shall receive a perquisite of 
one sesterce for each person' (V a 17, 18 ; cf. also V a 13). 

293. Ablative of Accompaniment. This is regularly accom- 
panied by the preposition com. U. com prinuatir staJiitu 1 - stand 
with the assistants', eru-com prinuatur dur etuto 'let the two 
assistants go with him', O. com preiuatud actud, con preiuatud 
urusf-deal (plead) with the defendant', com atrud awm'have a 
lawsuit with another'. But it also appears without the preposi- 
tion where the feeling of accompaniment has become subordinate 
to that of means or manner. Thus U. apretu tures et pure 'go 
about (i.e. perform the lustration) with the bulls and the fire' 
(I b 20). Note the Ablative with and without com in U. eno 
com prinuatir peracris sacris ambretuto 'let him together with the 
assistants go about with unblemished victims' (VI b 56 ; but also 
etuto com peracris sacris, VI b 52). The Ablative of Accompani- 
ment without com, in close attachment to a noun, also appears 
in U. arvia puni purtuvitu 'offer fruits of the field with sour wine' 

297] Uses of the Gases 203 

(II a 24) and U. persutru vaputis mefa vistica feta fertu 'bring the 
persontrum with incense etc.' (II b 13), in which the feeling is 
much the same as in some of the examples given under the 
Ablative of Attendant Circumstances (294). See also 290, a. 

a. In Umbrian, the Ablative with postpositive -co(ra), -ku(m), has devel- 
oped a distinctly locative sense, 'at', e.g. asa-ku 'at the altar', termnu-co 'at 
the boundary', testru-ku peri, nertru-co persi 'at the right (left) foot', vuku-kum, 
uocu-com 'at the temple', ueris-co 'at the gate', etc. In the sense of 'with' the 
postpositive occurs only with pronominal forms, as eru-com (in example above). 
Cf. L. mecum, quibuscum, etc. 

294. Ablative of Attendant Circumstances, Manner, etc. 
U. eruhu ticlu sestu luvepatre 'present to Jupiter with the same 
dedication' (lib 22), fetu tikamne luvie ' offer with a dedication 
to lovius' (II a 8), arsier frite tio subocau 'with confidence in 
(thee) the holy one I invoke thee' (VI a 24 etc. ; frite could also 
be a Locative in form, but probably belongs here rather than in 
283), futu fos pacer pase tua^bQ favorable and propitious with 
thy peace' (Via 30 etc.), O. dolud mallud i with guile'; here 
also O. medikeis serevkid 'under the inspection of the meddix', 
pr. meddixud 'under the magistracy of the praetor' (cf. Loc. 
medikkiai, 282). 

a. Of the same origin are the adverbial O. ammcatiZ'*immercato, with- 
out remuneration' (cf. L. immerito, inauspicato, etc.), and U. heritu ' consulto, 
intentionally' (see 307). 

295. Ablative of Time. U. menzne kurclasiu 'in the last(?) 
month' (II a 17), pesclu semu 'in the middle of the prayer' (VI b 
15, 36). 

296. Ablative Absolute. O. toutad praesentid ' in the pres- 
ence of the people', U. aves anzeriates 'when the birds have been 
observed' (I a 1 etc.). 


297. The sphere of meaning of the Ablative (-Instrumental) 
overlaps that of the Locative at certain points, and in several 
of the examples already given the Ablative expresses what might 

204 Syntax [297 

also be expressed by the Locative. Thus Means and Place are 
often identical, and we find U. mani kuveitu 'bring with the hand', 
niani tenitu 'hold with the hand' (290), beside manuv-e habetu 'hold 
in the hand'; -- U. kletra fertuta 'carry by means of a litter' (290), 
beside tafle e fertu ' carry on a table'. The road by which one 
goes is also the road on which one is, and the Ablative of the 
Route may be used even where there is no word of motion. 
Cf. L. iam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat (Livy 
4, 41, 8). The Ablative of Time, originally an Instrumental 
denoting duration of time, comes to be used with much the 
same force as the Locative of Time. See 295. The Ablative 
of Accompaniment with postpositive -co has developed a Loca- 
tive force. See 293, a. Cf. also the Ablative with op in Oscan 
in a strictly local meaning (300, 5). 

These and other points of contact in function, together with 
the identity of form in the Plural which exists in all branches of 
Italic, have led in Latin to the almost complete absorption of 
the Locative by the Ablative. And even in Oscan-Umbrian, 
where in general the Locative preserves its identity, 1 there are 
examples of the Ablative which can only be viewed as encroach- 
ments on the Locative, namely : 

298. Ablative of the Place Where. U. tremnu serse 'sitting 
in the tent' (Via 2, 16), sersi 2 pirsi sesusfwhen he has seated 
himself on the seat' (VI a 5); so also probably anderuomu 
sersitu (VI b 41), though anderuomu is of unknown meaning, 
and is taken by some as ander uomu 'inter - -'; O. Bvivaianud 
'at Bovianum' (no. 46 ; see p. 43, footnote). 

1 In consonant-stems in Umbrian the Abl. Sg. and Loc. Sg. are not to be dis- 
tinguished, both ending in -e, which, like the L. -e, is probably the old Loc. ending -i. 
In Oscan there are no examples of the Locative in the Third Declension. 

2 Abl. Sg. of an i-stem. The Loe. Sg., whether of an i-stem or consonant-stem, 
would end in -e. 

299] Prepositions 205 


With the Accusative only 

299. 1. (L. ad}. (). az (ad-s, like L. ab-s ; 137,2), U. -af, -a 
(133,6). O. az hurtiim 'at the grove'; --U. asam-a '(return) to 
the altar', asam-af ' (offer etc.) at the altar', spinam-af ' (go) to the 
column', spiniam-a ' (pray) at the column'. 

CPDS. O. adfust 'aderit', aserum 'adserere' (137, 2), akkatus 'advocati' 
(89, 3, 102, 3, 139, 1), aflukad, aflakus (?97, a, 139, 1), adpiid 'quoad' (202, 9); 
U. afpeltu 'adpellito', afveitu, arveitu, arsueitu, etc. 'advehito', affertur, arsfertur, 
arfertur, etc. '*adfertor, flamen', neifhabas ' ne adhibeant' (84), af kani ' *accinium, 
cantum', afputrati 'arbitratu', ope, appei, etc. 'ubi' (202, 8), arnipo 'donee' 
(202, 10). For U. af-, ar-, ars-, ar-, see 132 with a. 

NOTE. U. -af , -a, occurs only in Tables III, IV, and II a. Else- 
where 'to' is expressed by -e(ri) (301, 2) and 'at' by -ku(m), -co(w) 
(293, a). 

2. (L. ante). O. ant 'usque ad' (from *anti; see 92). The 
only example is ant punttram (no. 3) 'up to the bridge' (i.e. 'up to 
in front of the bridge', and so 'close up to the bridge'). 

NOTE. The meaning 'before' is expressed by O. prai, U. pre (300, 7). 

3. (L. extra). O. ehtrad (142, 190, 3). Thus ehtrad feihiiss 
'outside the walls'. 

4. U. hondra, hutra 'infra' (15, 5, 188, 2). Thus hondra esto 
tudero 'below these limits', hondra furo, hutra furu 'below the 

a. O. huntrus teras (no. 19, 11) apparently means 'infra terrain' and con- 
tains a related preposition, of obscure formation, followed by the Genitive. But 
the sentence is incomplete, and it is not wholly certain that huntrus cannot be 
simply Ace. PI. 'inferos'. 

5. (L. per). O. pert, U. pert 'trans' (from *per-ti; cf. post 
from *pos-ti). O. pert viam 'across the road', U. pert spinia 'beyond 
the column'. Cf. also O. am-pert'not beyond, not more than', 

1 "Prepositions" is used here as a syntactical term and includes the post- 

2 Given here for convenience. For prefixes which have no corresponding forms 
used as prepositions, see 263, 2, 264, 1. 

206 Syntax [299 

which however is used adverbially, not as a preposition (see 269). 
The same form, joined postpositively to the Ace. PL, appears in 
the numeral adverbs O. petiro-pert ' quater', U. triiuper, trio-per 
'ter' (192, 2 ; for the loss of -, see 127, 3). 

CPDS. 0. pert-umum (pert-emest, pert-emust) 'perimere, prevent'. The 
simple per- appears in 0. per-emust 'perceperit', also in U. per-tentu 'stretch out' 
('protendito' may be used in translating, since L. pertendo is used only in a 
transferred sense, but this per- has nothing to do with -per ' pro' ; for U. perne 
etc. sec 300, 8, a), per-etom 'peritum', per-acni- 'sollemnis' (159, a); with inten- 
sive force, in U. per-acri- 'opimus, in perfect condition' (in form like L. per-acer, 
but with the meaning which the root shows in Grk. CLK/AT) etc.). 

NOTE. The meaning 'beyond, across', seen in O.-U. pert, is an 
easy development of 'through', and traces of a similar use are found 
elsewhere. Cf. Lith. per tilta'go over the bridge', per trls myles 
'over (more than) three miles', etc. Here, probably, L. perfidus. 

6. O. perum 'sine' (*per-om ; see 201, 5). Thus perum dolom 
mallom 'without guile'. 

NOTE. The meaning is simply a further specialization of that seen in 
pert. Cf. Eng. 'beyond doubt' = 'without doubt'. 

7. O. pustin, U. pustin, pusti, posti 'according to' (an exten- 
sion of post, probably *posti-en). O. pustin slagim senateis suveis 
tangimid 'by vote of the respective senates according to the terri- 
tory' (see note to C. A. 34); U. posti acnu '(four pounds of 
spelt) for each year' (or 'ceremony'; see 159, a), pusti kastruvu 
'(one, two, or three sestefces) per head, for each person' (or 'estate'; 
but see note to T. B. 8, 13), pustin ancif 'by turns', pustin ereclu 
'(to Pomonus and Vesuna) on their respective altars'. 

NOTE. From a *posti-ne (cf. U. post-ne) one would expect 0. *ptistln 
with i, while from *posti-en the i of ptistin is regular (see 44, b). For the 
meaning, cf. Eng. after = according to, in 'after their value', 'after our sins', 
etc., L. secundum, Germ, nach, etc., and also the distributive force of L. in in 
' in singulos annos' etc. 

8. (L. supra). U. subra (157, 1, 190, 3). Thus subra esto 
tudero 'above these limits'. Elsewhere the form is used adver- 
bially (subra screihtor 'written above' etc.). 

300] Prepositions 207 

With the Ablative only 

300. 1. (L. amb-, Grk. a^i). O. ampt (see 161, a). Thus 
eksuk amviannud eituns ampt tribud tuv. ampt Mener ' by this detour 
let them go(?) around the Public Building (and) around the 
temple of Minerva' (no. 18). Except for this one example we 
find, as in Latin, only the prefix. 

CPDS. The prefix appears usually as am-, rarely as amb- (Umbrian), and 
also in an extended form *amfer- (after anter-), O. arnfr-, U. ambr-. See 161 
with a. 

2. (L. cum). O. com, U. com, -co(m), -ku(m). See 293 with a. 

CPDS. O. kiimbened 'convenit', kumbenniefs 'conventus', comparascuster 
'consulta erit', kujmparakineis 'consilii'; U. combifiatu 'nuntiato', couertu 
'revertito' (17, 13), kuveitu 'convehito, congerito' (for co- before u cf. early 
Latin coventioriid, Yolsc. couehriu 'curia'), comoltu 'commolito', comohota 'com- 
mota' (17, 17), conegos ' genu nixus', kukehes 'incendat'(P). Cf. also O. comono 
'comitia', U. kumne ' comitio' from *kom-no- (15, 4, 251, 2). 

3. (L. de). O. dat (190, 3, a). Thus dat eizac egmad 'con- 
cerning this matter', dat eiza(i)sc 'concerning these matters', dat 
sena[teis] tanginud 'in accordance with the judgment of the 
senate' (also senateis tanginud, 286 ; cf . L. de sententid beside 
sententid), dat castrid 'in a matter involving the death penalty' 
(also castrous, 270). 

CPDS. O. dadikatted 'dedicavit', da[da]d 'dedit', dadid 'dediderit', all with 
dad- for dad-d- (163); U. da-etom '*de-itum, delictum' (da from *dad by 133, 
and extended to cpds.). 

4. (L. ex, e). U. e, ehe. There are only two examples, 
e-asa 'from the altar' and ehe esu poplu 'from this people', the 
meaning being commonly expressed by the postpositive ~td 
(below, 9). 

CPDS. 0. ehpeilatas 'erectae', ehprelvirf (142, a); eestint 'exstant', ee[stit] 
'exstat', eehiianasum'emittendarum' (77, 1); U. e^we^w'iubeto', ehvelklu 'sen- 
tentiam', eveietu 'voveto', efieturstahamu, eturstahmu ' exterminato', efurfatu 
'expurgato'(?), ehiato 'emissos', ebetraf-e'in exitus'. Cf. also 0. ehtrad ' extra' 
and U. ap-ehtre 'ab extra' (142). 

NOTE. The conditions under which the e of O. eestint etc. arose 
are not clear. See 77, 1, with note. 

208 Syntax [300 

5. (L. 06). O. up, op (from *opi- by 92 ; cf. Grk. CTTL, Skt. 
dpi). Thus iip eisiid sakarakliid 'at this temple', [tip] slaagid 'at the 
boundary', op toutad, op eizois 'in the presence of the people, of 
these persons', 'apud populum', 'apud eos'. 

CPDS. 0. osii[ns'adsint' (122, 2); U. ostendu 'ostendito' (122, 1), prob- 
ably ufestne (138, a), perhaps ooserclom (77, 3). 

6. ( O. piist, post, U. post, pus (from *pos-ti ; cf. Lith. 
pas etc.). O. piist feihiiis 'behind the walls', post eizuc, post exac 
'after this';--U. post uerir, pusveres (139,2) 'behind the gate'. 
Cf. L. posted, posthdc. In origin this is probably an Ablative 
of the Point of View. 

a. In U. postertio pane 'postquam tertium' tertio is not an Ablative after 
post, but an independent adverb of time, post being here an adverb, forming 
together with pane a conjunction. 

Cf. the derivatives U. postne 'pone' (cf. perne 'ante'), whence pustnaiaf 
'posticas'; 0. posmom 'postreinum', piistiris 'postering', etc. See 139, 2, 188, 2, 

7. (L. prae). O. prai, U. pre, pre (63). O. prai Mamerttiais 
'before the Martian festival', U. pre uerir 'before the gate.' As 
only plural forms occur, the Locative is also possible, but it is 
far more probable that the case is the same as that used with 
pru, post, etc. 

CPDS. O. praesentid 'praesente,' praefucus ' praef ectus' ; U. prehabia 
'praehibeat', prepesnimu 'praef ator', preuendu ' advertito' (used in contrast to 
ahauendu 'avertito'), etc. Cf. also prepa 'priusquarn' (202, 4) and pretra 'pri- 
ores' (188,2). 

8. (L. pro). O. pru (53), U. -per, -pe(r) (from -pro, 91, 2; 
for -pe, see 103, 4). O. pru meddixud 'by virtue of magistracy' 
(L. pro imperio etc.), pru medicatud 'in place of judgment', that is 
'as if judgment had been rendered' (cf. L. pro ioudicatod, CIL. 
IX 782); U. tota-per, tuta-per, tuta-pe'for the city', poplu-per 
'for the people', ocri-per 'for the mount', fratrus-per 'for the 
brothers', etc. 

CPDS. ' O. pruhipid 'prohibuerit', prupukid 'by previous agreement' (86, 5, 
173, 6); U. prusekatu 'prosecato', procanurent '*procinuerint', prupehast 'ante 
piabit', etc. Note the distinct temporal force of the prefix in O. prupukid, 
U. prupehast. Cf. also 0. pruter pan 'priusquain' (188, 2, 202, 4). 

301] Prepositions 209 

a. In U. perne ' ante' , pernaiaf ' ant leas' , 0. Pernai ' Prorsae' , the per- 
is not from pro-, like U. -per, but is original. Cf. Lith. pernai ' in the 
previous year', Grk. irtpva-i, etc. 

9. U. -ta, -tu, -to (for -td ; see 34), of uncertain origin. Thus 
skalce-ta ' f rom the bowl', akru-tu 'from the field', pure-to 'from 
the fire', etc. See 285. 

With the Accusative and Locative 

301. 1. (L. inter). O. anter (U. anter-, ander-, 98, c, 156 ; 
no certain example of prepositional use). Thus O. anter slagim 
[Ajbellanam inim Nuvlanam 'between the territory of Abella and 
that of Nola' (C. A.; cf. also nos. 14-17); but anter teremniss 
'within the boundaries' (that teremniss is an Ablative is much less 
likely). If we may judge from the single example, the Locative 
was used where the meaning is 'within'. In all examples of 
the Accusative the meaning is 'between (two points)'. 

Cms. O. Anterstatai '*Interstitae' ; U. andersislu ' intersidito', antermen- 
zaru Mntermenstruarum', anderuacose, antervakaze ' *intervacatio' (? see note to 
VI b 47, Ib 8), anderuomu (? see 298). 

2. (L. in). O. en, -en, U. -en (-e, -em, 109, 1 ; once -i, 39, 5). 

With Accusative. O. en eituas ' for a fine', censtom-en 'to the 
census'; --U. anglom-e 'to the corner', fesnaf-e'to the temple', 
etc. Frequently -en is used where Latin would prefer ac?'to', 
and in a few cases even like c?'at'. Thus (Via 10) anglu-to 
somo uapef-e auiehclu todcom-e tuder'-irom the highest corner at 
the augural seats to the city limits' (uapef-e auiehclu resumes 
briefly the previous porsei nesimei uapersus auiehcleir est). 

With Locative. O. exaisc-en ligis ' in these laws' ; U. manuv-e 
'in the hand', etc. See 280-282. For O. hurtin Kerriiin with -en 
added to both noun and adjective, see 171, 7. 

In O. imad-en'from the bottom up', eisuc-en ziculud'hom 
this day on', -en is used adverbially. 

CPDS. O. embratur 'imperator', U. enetu 'inito', endendu 'intendito', 
isegeles 'insectis' (39, 5). Cf. also the derivative 0. Entrai '*Interae'. 

210 Syntax [301 

3. (L. super). U. super with Locative, super-ne (cf. adverbs 
per-ne, post-ne, L. pone, super-ne, etc.) with Accusative. Thus 
superne adro '(place the white vessels) over (on top of) the 
black'; but super kumne '(let loose the heifer) above the place 
of assembly', super erecle '(make libation) over the shrine'. 

4. (L. trans). U. traf, trahaf, traha, tra (110, 4). Thus 
traf Sahatam etu 'go across the Sacred Way' (similarly with 
couertu 1 return' ', combifiatu 'announce'); but trahaf Sahate feetu 
'sacrifice on the other side of the Sacred Way' (similarly tra 
ekvine fetu). 

CPD. U. trahuorfi 'transverse'. 

With the Locative and Ablative 

302. (L. sub). O. O-VTT fieBiiciai 'in the meddixship'; - 
but U. su maronato (su by 125, 1) 'in the maroship' (see note to 
no. 84). Some assume that maronato is Loc. Sg., from a w-stem, 
but more probably it is Abl. Sg. of the 0-stem seen in the Loc. 
Sg. maronatei. A difference in construction is more likely than 
a difference in stem. For both Locative and Ablative are paral- 
leled by the corresponding constructions without the preposition 
(O. medikkiai, U. maronatei, etc., 282 ; O. meddixud, 294). For 
the Abl. Sg. in -o see 171, 6, a. 

CPDS. U. subocauu 'invoco' (102, 2), subahtu 'deponito, set down', subator 
'set aside, omitted' (218; for force of sub cf. L. subdued 'remove'), sumtu 
'sumito' (114, c), sutentu 'subtendito' (su- by 121), probably sufafiaf 'partis 
exsertas' (? cf. faf- in ex-fqfillatd, Plautus Mil. Gl. 1180, and ef-fqftldtum 
'exertuin', Festus ed. Thewrewk, p. 69), and sufefaklu of uncertain meaning. 

a. In Umbrian, forms of the adjective sopo- are used predicatively 
in the sense of 'sub'. See 306. 

With Other Cases 

303. (L. contra). O. contrud (190, 2). In O. contrud exeic 
'contrary to this' exeic is commonly taken as a Locative, but is 
much more easily understood as a Dative, properly a Dative of 
Relation with contrud used adverbially. Cf. L. siti contra pug- 
nandum (Cels. 4, 5 (2)), huic contra itum (Tac. A. 11, 10). 

307] Adjectives 211 

304. The Genitive is found only with the so-called improper 
prepositions, as in O. egm\as touti]cas amnud'iei publicae causa' 
(cf. amniid 'circuitu'), U. ocrer pehaner paca 'montis piandi causa' 
(paca Abl. Sg. of *pdkd- ; cf. L. pdetum etc.). Another possible 
example is O. liimitu[m] pernum 'in front of the boundaries' (C. A. 
29), but the reading here is wholly uncertain. For O. ampert 
mistreis aeteis, where aeteis has been taken as a Genitive after 
ampert, see 269. 


305. Use of adjectives to denote a part. With L. summits 
mons etc., cf. U. pesclu semu 'in the half of the prayer' (semu: 
L. semi-; see 189, l, a), that is, 'in the middle of the prayer, dur- 
ing the prayer' ; O. ejisai viai mefiai 'in the middle of this road'. 

306. Predicative use of adjectives with the force of adverbs. 1 
With L. sciens 'wittingly', libens 'willingly', etc., compare O. dei- 
uatud sipus l swe&T wittingly', U. tases persnimu 'pr&j silently', 
kutef pesnimu 'pray quietly', etc. Similarly U. postro in sopo 
postro peperscust 'put the under parts behind' is an adjective 
agreeing with sopo (cf. pustra, pustru, II a 32, II b 19), but in 
effect an adverb. U. sopo- is frequently used in the same way, 
like L. suplnus, Grk. VTTTIOS. Thus persuntru supu erecle (IV 17), 
where supu, though an adjective agreeing with persuntru, has the 
force of 'sub', in contrast to the 'super' of persuntru . . . super 
erecle (IV 19); uestisia sopa purom-e (VI b 17 ; cf. also Vila 
38), where sopa, though agreeing with uestisia, goes in sense with 
the following, sopa purom-e meaning 'beneath, into the fire' and 
so 'beneath the fire, sub ignem'. 


307. Predicate use of adverbs in the sense of adjectives 2 
(L. bene est, etc.). U. porsei nesimei asa deueia esf" which is 
next to the altar of the gods' (but O. nessimas staiet veruis 'stand 

1 That is, where an adverbial construction seems more natural to us. 

2 That is, where an adjectival construction seems more natural to us. 

212 Syntax [307 

next to the gate'); U. esuf testru sese asa asam-a purtuvitu 'him- 
self standing at the right of the altar he shall place the offering 
on the altar' (IV 15 ; cf. also III 23, IV 3), in which sese is prob- 
ably an adverb, as if L. *sesse, meaning 'situated' (cf. L. dextro- 
vorsum etc.);--U. efek prufe si 'let this be approved', literally 
'let this be (regarded as) properly (done)' 1 ; U. fetu puze neip 
eretu (II a 4) and, in briefer form, pusei neip Jieritu (VI a 27 
etc.) '(take it) as not intentionally (done)'. 




308. The Passive. Besides the Passive force, as ,seen for 
example in O. uincter 'vincitur', comparascuster 'consulta erit', 
U. emantur 'accipiantur', ostensendi 'ostendentur', the Deponent 
use is frequent. So O. karanter ' vescuntur', U. terkantur ' suffra- 
gentur', U. ewrsta^77iM' exterminate', U. persnihimu 'precator', 
persnisfust 'precatus erit', etc. Sometimes, however, the Active 
form is used in contrast to the Deponent of the Latin, e.g. 
U. stiplo, stiplatu: L. stipulor; U. osatu, O. upsed, etc. : L. operor 
(but O. upsatuh sent no. 44 is Deponent 'operati sunt', in contrast 
to U. oseto 'operata, facta');--O. fatium: L.fateor. Compare 
the use of Active forms in early and late Latin parallel to 
Deponents of the classical period. 

a. With the Deponent use of L. cenatus beside ceno, iuratus beside iuro, 
etc., compare 0. deiuatuns 'iurati', U. gersnatur furent 'cenaverint', and also 
U. uesticos (fust) 'libaverit' (230, a). 

6. A Passive form with distinctly middle force is seen in U. amparihmu 
'raise oneself, rise' beside the Active amparitu ' raise, set up (the litter)'. A 
similar relation is sometimes assumed between U. subra spahatu 'spread out 
over, throw on' (VIb 41) with object expressed (the vessels that have just been 
used), and subra spahmu (VIb 17, Vila 39), subra spafu (Va 20), with no 
objects expressed. But the meaning of the latter is probably not 'throw one- 
self over, walk over', but 'perform the ceremony of throwing on (the vessels)'. 

1 Cf. O. izic amprufid facus estud ( (if any one has been made ti-ibune of Mm 
people contrary to this) let him be (regarded as) made so improperly'. 

311] The Verb 213 

c. U. uestis, uesteis ' libans' is parallel to U. persnis ' precatus' both in 
formation and use. It comes from *uestlto-s, with verb-stem *uesti-, of which 
*uestika- (U. uesticatu ' libato') is an extension. The etymology of this group of 
words, to which belong also U. vestigia ' libamentum' and probably Uestisier, 
name of a god, is unknown. 

309. The frequent impersonal use of the Passive (L, itur, 
itum est, etc.) is noteworthy, e.g. O. sakarater 'a sacrifice is made', 
U. pur dito fust 'the offering shall take place', muietofust 'a noise 
shall be made', herter'it is desired, desirable' and so used like 
L. oportet. Nearly all of the forms in which r alone appears as 
the personal ending are used impersonally. See 239. 

310. Transitive use of verbs usually intransitive, and vice 
versa. U. ninctu, in form L. ninguito, means 'overwhelm with 
snow'; similarly U. sonitu 'overwhelm with sound', tremitu 'make 
tremble', though these are not of the same conjugation as L. sono, 
tremo. Cf. also U. nepitu*- overwhelm with water' from a root 
seen in L. Neptiinus. U. habe (VI b 54 = I b 18) is used intransi- 
tively, 'holds himself, remains'. 


311. The use of the tenses shows no variation from what 
is found in Latin. The use of the Present Indicative to denote 
what is customary is frequent, as is natural in the language of 
ritual. It occurs with future meaning in some temporal and 
conditional clauses cited below. There is only one occurrence 
of the Imperfect Indicative, namely fufans 'erant', C. A. 10, where 
it simply denotes past situation, as so frequently in Latin. The 
Perfect Indicative occurs chiefly in dedications and inscriptions 
on public works, where it has the simple narrative force (His- 
torical or Aoristic Perfect). The Future and Future Perfect 
are very frequent in temporal clauses, the difference between 
the two being the same as in Latin. 

All 'the occurrences of the Imperfect Subjunctive are in 
clauses depending on an Historical Perfect, namely O. ekss kum- 
bened . . . puz idik sakara[klum] . . . fusid, . . . pun patensins, . . . 

214 Syntax [311 

patensins, . . . [hjerrins ' ita convenit, ut id templum . . . esset, . . . 
cum aperirent, . . . aperirent, . . . caperent' (C. A. 10-54); also 
Pael. upsaseter coisatens 'fieret curaverunt'. The Perfect Sub- 
junctive is regularly used in prohibitions and occasionally in posi- 
tive commands and expressions of wish. See 312, 313. It occurs 
also a few times in temporal and conditional clauses (319, 320). 

Commands and Prohibitions 

312. The Subjunctive of Command is frequent in Umbrian 
in the passage V a 1-V b 7, where the Atiedian Brothers decreed 
l let the flamen, whoever he shall be, have the care (kuraia) of the 
ceremony, let him furnish (prehabia) whatever is necessary. Let 
him receive (habia) certain fees. When the brothers shall have 
feasted, let the magister or quaestor take a vote (ehvelklu feia) as 
to whether the matter has been properly looked after. And if 
the majority pronounce it satisfactory let it be approved (efek 
prufe si). If not, let the magister or quaestor take a vote (ehvelklu 
feia) as to the amount of the penalty, and whatever penalty they 
demand, let the flamen's penalty be so great (etantu mutu affer- 
ture si)'. But even within the limits of this passage the Imper- 
ative occurs twice, and elsewhere the Imperative is almost 
exclusively employed, occurring in hundreds of examples. The 
other examples of the Subjunctive are ene tra Sahta kupifiaia 'then 
announce across the Sacred Way' (I b 35, in the midst of a series 
of Imperatives ; the corresponding clause in VII a 43 has the 
Imperative combifiatu), and terkantur 'let them approve' (III 9, 
also in the midst of Imperatives). 

NOTE. It is hardly accidental that the series of Subjunctives in Va is 
immediately preceded by eitipes ' decreverunt. ' Although the clauses are not 
actually dependent, they are so closely attached in feeling that the choice of 
the Subjunctive rather than the Imperative may well be due to the exclusive 
use of the former in dependent clauses. Similarly /o.s set, pacer sei ' be favorable 
and propitious', belonging under 314, always occurs immediately after the 
phrase teio subocau'I invoke thee', whereas elsewhere the Imperative futu . /<* 
pacer is used. Cf . VI a 22 ff . 

314] The Verb 215 

In Oscan also, the Imperative is nearly always employed in 
positive commands. Examples of the Subjunctive are saahtiim 
tefiirum sakahiter 'let a burnt-offering be made' (T. A.); lamatir 
'let him be beaten' (T. B.); sakrafir 'let there be a consecration' 
(nos. 29, 30). For the use of the Perfect in the last two exam- 
ples, cf. L. sit denique inscriptum in f route unius cuiusque quid 
de re publica sentiat (Cic. Cat. 1, 13, 32), and see 313. 

With the preponderance of the Imperative in both Oscan 
and Umbrian is to be compared the usage of early Latin inscrip- 
tions, in many of which (e.g. the Lex Bantina, Lex agraria) the 
Imperative is used exclusively, while in others (e.g. the Senten- 
tia Minuciorum) a Subjunctive of Command may now and then 

313. In prohibitions, Umbrian uses the Imperative regu- 
larly, the Present Subjunctive occurring once in neif habas ' let 
them not furnish' (IV 33). In Oscan, however, the Imperative 
is never used, but always the Perfect Subjunctive. Thus nep 
Abellaniis nep Nuvlanus pidum tribarakattins 'let neither the Abellani 
nor the Nolani build anything' (C. A. 46 ff.); izic eizeic zicel[ei] 
comono ni hipid 'let him not hold an assembly on this day' (T. B. 
7, 8); ne phim pruhipid 'let him not prevent any one' (T. B. 25); 

nep fef acid 'let him not cause' (T. B. 10), in contrast to the 
Imperative factud of a positive command in the same sentence ; 

nep cemtur fuid, nei suae pr. fust 'let no one be censor, unless 
he has been praetor' (T. B. 28). 

NOTE. -This use of the Perfect Subjunctive is to be compared with the 
Greek use of ^ with the Aorist Subjunctive, and, together with its occasional 
use in positive commands (312) and expressions of wish (314), is to be connected 
with the energetic force natural to the aoristic function. No temporal distinc- 
tion is involved. 

The Subjunctive of Wish 

314. The Subjunctive of Wish, though of different origin, 
is not always easily distinguished from the Subjunctive of Com- 
mand. But certainly U. fos sei, pacer sei'be favorable, propi- 
tious', alternating with futu fos pacer (see 312, note), belongs 

216 Syntax [314 

here, likewise the Oscan Subjunctives in the Curse of Vibia 
and the shorter curse, no. 20, namely turumiiad, krustatar, kais- 
patar, lamatir'may he be tortured, etc.', and, with the negative, 
nep piitiad, nep heriiad'may he not be able, etc.' 1 Here also 
U. pihafei'may it be expiated' (Via 29 etc.). For the use of 
the Perfect, as in the case of U. pihafei, O. lamatir (possibly krus- 
tatar, kaispatar; but see 238, e), which is also frequent in early 
Latin, see 313, note. 

The Subjunctive in Substantive Clauses 2 

315. The Subjunctive is usually introduced by O. puz, 
U. jpim'ut' (202, 6), but in certain phrases, as in Latin, it may 
also stand without any conjunction. Examples are: U. stiplo 
aseriaia 'demand that I observe' (VI a 2) ; U. etaians deitu 'let 
him tell them to go' (VI b 64);--U. combifiatu erus dersa'-lei 
him give notice to add the ems' (VII a 44) ; but with an inter- 
vening clause as well as a different verb, carsitu . . . puse erus 
dersa'let him call out ... to add the ems' (Vila 43); with 
U.. ticit 'decet', herter 'oportet', O. kasit'decet' (in form L. caret}, 
as U. facia tigit'one ought to sacrifice' (II a 17), O. fakiiad kasit 
'one ought to sacrifice' (no. 31), U. dirsans herti'ihey ought to 
give', etc. ; O. ekss kiimbened . . . puz idik sakara[klum] . . . fusid 
etc. 'it was agreed that this temple should be' etc. (C. A. 10 ff. ; 
see also 31 1); U. eo iso ostendu, pusi pir pureto ceJiefi dia (VI a 
20), best taken as 'let him set them out in such a manner (iso) 
that (pusi) he cause (dia) one fire to be lighted from the other', 
cehefi depending directly on dia ; so probably U. pepurkurent 
herifi (V b 6) 'shall have urged to be necessary' (as if L. poposce- 
rint oportuerit) ; O. factud pous touto deiuatuns tanginom dei- 
cans l let him cause the people to declare their opinion under 
oath' (T. B. 9). 

1 In Greek curses the Optative is used in both the positive and the negative form. 

2 For convenience the Subjunctives in Substantive Clauses are grouped together 
here, without regard to their specific origin (Volitive etc.). 

317] The Verb 217 

A noteworthy construction is seen in O. nep fefacid pod pis 
dat eizac egmad min\8\ deiuaid dolud malud l let him prevent any 
one from swearing falsely in this matter' (T. B. 10 f.), in which 
nep fefacid is felt as the equivalent of a verb of preventing and 
followed by pod mins, which is identical with L. quominus in 
meaning and nearly so in form (202, I) 1 . 

Clauses of Indirect Question 

316. In U. ehvelklu feia . . . , panta muta afferture si 'take a vote 
as to what the flamen's penalty shall be' (V b If.), the si is simply 
a dependent Subjunctive of Deliberation or Propriety. But an 
unquestionable example of a Subjunctive in an indirect question 
of fact, where the direct question would have the Indicative, is 
U. ehvelklu feia . . . , sve rente kuratu si ' take a vote as to whether 
it has been arranged properly' (V a 23 ff.). 

Noteworthy, because of the lack of any interrogative word, 
is U. revestu . . . emantur herte 'see whether they are to be accepted' 
(V a 8, 10). Since even in Latin the original Indicative may 
still stand in indirect questions of fact, there is no necessity of 
taking herte as a Subjunctive. See 238, 2, a. 

Relative Clauses 2 

317. In nearly all the relative clauses occurring, whether 
the relative is definite or indefinite, and whatever the mood of 
the principal verb, the Indicative is used. Thus U. pisest . . . , 
eetu*- whoever is . . . , let him go' (VI b 53 f.); O. sakarakhim 
Herekleis [up] slaagid pud ist, . . . puz idik sakara[klum] . . . fusid 'that 
the temple of Hercules which is at the boundary . . . should be' 
(C. A. 11 f.);--U. pisi pumpe fust . . . , ere ri esune kuraia ' who- 
ever shall be . . . , let him look after the ceremony' (V a 3 ff.) ; 
O. censamur esuf . . . poizad ligud iusc censtur censaum angetuzet 

1 1 cannot understand the objection of v. Plauta (II, p. 482) to this view, nor his 
assertion that the construction does not correspond to L. prohibeat quominus but to 
prohibeat quominus non or prohibeat ut non. 

2 Except those of time, for which see 318. 

218 Syntax [317 

'let him be rated according to the law by which the censors 
shall have proposed to take the census' (T. B. 19 f.), etc. (exam- 
ples of the Future and Future Perfect are very numerous). 

Hence in U. prehabia pife uraku ri esuna si herte, et pure esune 
sis 'let him furnish whatever is necessary for the ceremony, and 
whatever persons are necessary' (V a 5 f .) there is no necessity 
of taking herte as a Subjunctive (see 238, 2, a), and in the second 
clause sis probably depends on a herte to be supplied from the 
preceding, though of course a Subjunctive would also be possible 
(cf. cui iussus siet, auscultet, Cato, De Agric. 5, 3, etc.). 

A reasonably certain example of a Subjunctive in a descrip- 
tive relative clause is seen in O. siom . . . idle tangineis deicum 
pod ualaemom touticom tadait ezum ' (having sworn) that they will 
render such judgment as they think to be for the best public 
good' (T. B. 9 f.) 1 . 

Here may be mentioned, though persei is in this case a con- 
junction (202, 2), U. persei mersei'so far as is right' (Via 28, 38, 
48) beside perse mers est (VI b 31, 55), the main verb each time 
being a Subjunctive. Cf. L. quod opus siet, used by Cato even 
where the main verb is Indicative (e.g. De Agric. 16). The choice 
of the two expressions, 'so far as is right' or 'so far as may be 
right', has nothing to do with the mood of the principal verb. 

Temporal Clauses 

318. All the temporal clauses which occur refer to future 
time, and in the great majority of cases, as in Latin, the Future 
or Future Perfect Indicative is used. The usual conjunctions 
are O. pon, U. ponne (202, 3) and U. ape (202, 8). The latter is 
far more common than ponne in the later Umbrian, and with 
the Future Perfect entirely displaces it (cf. ape ambrefurent 
VI b 56: puni amprefuus Ib 20, etc.). IT. pure (202, l) and pife, 
pirsi (202, 2), also have temporal force sometimes, as in pure nuvime 

1 Better taken so than as an Indirect Question (Verb-System, p. 144), since ]>o<1, 
in it ///(/, is used. 

319] The Verb 219 

ferest 'when he shall bring them the ninth time' (II a 26), sersi 
pirsi sesust'when he shall have taken his seat' (Via 5). 

But the Present Indicative with future meaning is also 
found. Thus U. ponne oui furfant, uitlu torn trif fetu'when 
they purify(?) the sheep, sacrifice three bull-calves' (VI b 43 ; 
furfant Pres. Indie, of Conj. I, as shown by efurfatu) ; -- U. pune 
seste, urfeta manuve habetu 'when you dedicate (the calf), hold the 
orbita in the hand' (lib 22 f.); U. ponne iuengar tursiandu 
hertei 'when it is necessary to drive forth the heifers' (VII b 2 ; 
for hertei see 238, 2, a). Cf. also O. adpiid fiiet 'so long as they 
occur' (no. 31 a ; for adpiid see 202, 9). 

Compare the Latin use of the Present Indicative with future force after 
antequam and priusquam, and, especially in early Latin, in relative and condi- 
tional clauses (see also 319). 

The Present Subjunctive is also found. Thus O. pun far 
kahad, nip putiiad edum 'when he takes food, may he not be able 
to eat' (no. 19, 8);--U. pone esonome ferar pufe pir entelust, 
erefertu,poe . . . 'when that in which the fire has been placed is 
brought to the ceremony, let him bring it, who . . . ' (VI b 50). 

This of course is the Anticipatory Subjunctive, which is frequent enough 
in such clauses in early Latin, arid which in Oscan-Umbrian, as in Latin, was 
not completely displaced by the Future Indicative (itself a Subjunctive in 

The Imperfect Subjunctive occurs in C. A. 50, where the 
verbs of the surrounding clauses are also in the same tense, 
depending on ekss kiimbened. See above, 311. 

319. With the Conjunctions meaning 'before', 'after', 'until', 
namely O. pruter pan (202, 4), U. prepa (202, 4), post pane (202, 4), 
nersa (202, 11), arnipo (202, 10), the Future Perfect is the com- 
monest construction, but there is one occurrence each of the 
Future Indicative and the Perfect Subjunctive, the latter, as in 
Latin, with the same force as the Future Perfect. Thus : 

Future. O. com preiuatud actud, pruter pam medicatinom 
didest 'let him treat with the defendant before he gives judg- 
ment' (T. B. 15 f.). 

220 Syntax [319 

Future Perfect. --U. nep andersistu, nersa courtust porsi 
angla anseriato iust'one shall not interrupt(?) until the one who 
has gone to observe the birds has returned' (VI a 6) ; - - U. pos- 
tertio pane poplo andirsafust, . . . persnihimumo 'after he has 
performed the lustration of the people the third time, ... let 
them pray' (VII a 46 f.) ; earn mani nertru tenitu, arnipo uesti- 
sia uesticos 'let him hold it in the left hand until he has poured 
out the libation' (VI b 24 f .) ; anderuomu sersitu, arnipo comatir 
pesnisfust 'let him sit in the . . . until he has prayed with the 
broken cakes' (VIb 41). 

Perfect Subjunctive. neip amboltu, prepa desua combifiami 
'one shall not go around before he has announced a propitious 
bird' (VI b 52). 

Conditional Clauses 

320. In conditional clauses, introduced by O. svai, suae, U. sve, 
sue (202, 14), the commonest construction is the Future or Future 
Perfect Indicative, the main verb being usually an Imperative 
or Subjunctive of Command. The Tabula Bantina alone fur- 
nishes some sixteen examples. The Future Perfect in both 
condition and conclusion occurs once in Umbrian (VI a 7). 
U. pife, pirsi (202, 2), also, sometimes has conditional force 'in 
case that, if, e.g. persei . . . pir orto est 'if a fire has occurred' 
(Via 26 etc.), pefe . . . aiu urtu fefure 'if disturbances (?) shall 
have occurred' (II a 3 ; see 128, 2, a). 

The Present Indicative with future force, which is frequent 
in early Latin legal inscriptions and is found occasionally in 
Latin poetry (e.g. Verg. Aen. 3, 606), is seen in O. suaepis cens- 
tomen nei cebmtst, in eizeic uincter, esuf lamatir 'if any one shall 
not have come to the census and is convicted of it, let him be 
beaten' (T. B. 20 f.). Cf. also U. svepis habe 'if any one remains' 
(Ib 18), svepis heri 'if any one wishes' (IV 26). 

The Present Subjunctive is found in U. svepu . . . vakaze, 
suepo . . . uacose (I b 8, VI b 47), according to the explanation 
as *uaco8-se 'vacatio sit'. See note to passage. 

323] Agreement 221 

The Perfect Subjunctive in future or future perfect sense, 
also found in Latin, is seen in O. svai neip dadid, lamatir 'if he 
does not give it up, let him be beaten' (no. 19, 4) ; so probably 
U. ier (238, 2) in nosue ier ehe esu poplu, . . . , portatu ... 'if one 
does not go from this people, carry him . . . ' (VI b 54 f.). 

Noteworthy, because of the lack of any conjunction, is 
U. heriiei faciu affertur, . . . facia ticit 'if the flam en wishes to make 
the sacrifice, it is proper' (II a 16 f.). 


321. The Present Infinitive is used as in Latin. The con- 
struction with subject Accusative is already developed, e.g. 
O. deiuatuns . . . siom deicum 'having sworn that they will say' 
(T. B. 9) etc. The Supine is used exactly as in Latin, e.g. 
U. aseriato etu 'go to observe.' For the -to- Participle without 
passive force, see 308, a. The Gerundive is used as in Latin, 
e.g. iuvilas sakrannas 'the iovilae to be consecrated', upsannam 
deded 'had made', etc. For the Genitive construction in U. ocrer 
pihaner, see 271. 


322. Agreement of adjectives belonging to nouns of differ- 
ent gender. Agreement with the Masculine is seen in U. peiqu 
peica merstu 'pico pica iusto' (VI a 1 ; but elsewhere with adjec- 
tive repeated, peico mersto peica mersta, etc.). Agreement with 
the nearest noun is seen in the recurring passage (VI a 32 f. 
etc.) saluo seritu ocrer Fisier, totar liouinar nome, nerf, arsmo, 
ueiro, pequo castruo,fri salua seritu 'salvum servato arcis Fisiae, 
civitatis Iguvinae nomen, principes, ritus, viros, pecuwra capita, 
fruges salvas servato', where saluo agrees with the first object 
nome, and salua with the last, fri. 

323. Agreement by sense. As in Latin, the Plural may 
be used with a collective noun or a noun joined to another by 
com. Thus O. pous touto deiuatuns tanginom deicans 'ut populus 

222 Syntax [323 

iurati sententiam dicant' (T. B. 9) ;--U. sve mestru karu fratru 
Atiiefiu, pure ulu benurent, prusikurent 'si maior pars fratrum Atie- 
diorum, qui illuc venerint, pronuntiaverint' (V a 24 ff .) ; U. com 
prinuatir . . . ambretuto, . . . com prinuatir eso persnimumo 'cum 
legatis ambiunto, cum legatis sic precantor', 'let him (the fla- 
men) with the assistants go about, pray' (VI b 56 f.). Cf. also 
U. hondra furo sehemeniar hatuto totar pisi heriest 'infra forum 
seminarium capiunto civitatis quisquis volet' (VII a 52). 

324. Attraction. The attraction of a noun to the case of 
the relative pronoun is seen in U. uasor (Nom. PI.) uerisco Tre- 
blanir, porsi ocrer pehaner paca ostensendi, eo iso ottendu t VB8& 
ad portam Trebulanam, quae arcis piandae causa ostendentur, 
ea sic ostendito' (VI a 19 f.); also in O. eitiuvam paam . . . deded, 
eisak eitiuvad 'pecuniam quam dedit, ea pecunia' (no. 4), though 
here the noun is repeated in its proper case. In Latin such 
attraction is mainly poetical in the best period (urbem quam 
statuo vestra est, Verg. Aen. 1, 573), but not uncommon in early 
prose. Cf. Vituries quei . . . damnati sunt, . . . eos omneis etc. 
(CIL. I 199, 43 f.), viatores praecones quei ex Tiac lege lectei sub- 
lectei erunt, eis viatoribus praeconibus etc. (CIL. I 202, col.n,31f.). 


325. Asyndeton. The omission of the connective in a 
series of coordinate words or clauses is, as in Latin and else- 
where, extremely common. Noticeable is the frequency of 
phrases consisting of pairs of words without connective, like 
L. volens propitius etc. Thus U. fans pacer 'favorable and pro- 
pitious', pernaiaf pustnaiaf 'before and behind', antakres kumates 
'whole and broken', afepes arves 'offerings of fat and the fruits 
of the field', atru alfu 'black and white' (I b 29), dupursus petur- 
pursus 'bipeds and quadrupeds', perne postne 'before and after', 
fato fito 'success and good fortune' (as if L.factum fitum, the 
first referring to 'efficiency, successful accomplishment', the 
second to 'that which happens, turns out well, good fortune'), 

328] Order of Words 223 

sepse sarsite 'together and completely' (cf. L. sane sarteque; for 
the forms see 244, 1, >, 244, 3) 1 , veskla snata asnata 'vessels wet and 
dry' (i.e. vessels for liquids and those not for liquids ; cf. Eng. 
'dry measure' and 'liquid measure'). Note also O. pr. censtur 
'praetor or censor' (T. B. 27). 

326. Omission of the Subject. In the Iguvinian Tables, 
as in early Latin prose, the subject is frequently left unex- 
pressed, when it is well understood who is the proper person 
to perform the action in question. Thus ape apelust, muneklu 
habia etc. (V a 17 ff.) 'when one (i.e. the proper person, in this 
case the flamen) shall have performed certain rites, he shall 
receive certain fees'. Even when there is a change of subject, 
it may be left unexpressed. Thus in VI b 48 ff. there is a series 
of verbs with no subject expressed, though some of the actions 
are performed by the augur and others by the flamen, as is seen 
from the more detailed statements in VI a 1 ff. 

327. Omission of the Verb. The verb subocauu 'invoco' 
is omitted in U. tio esu hue peracrei pihaclu 'te hoc bove opimo 
piaculo' (VI a 25 etc.), tiu puni tiu vinu 'te posca te vino' (II a 25), 
with which compare L. te hoc porco piaculo (Cato, De Agric. 
141, 4). Corresponding to eno deitu arsmahamo etc. 'tune dicito : 
" ordinamini" ' etc. (VI b 56 etc.) the older version has simply 
enumek armamu etc. 'tune "ordinamini" ' etc. (Ib 19 etc.). 

The omission of the verb or of the object in dedications is 
of course common, likewise of the verb when it is readily 
supplied from a preceding clause. 


328. There is no fundamental difference from the Latin 
order, the resemblance being closest with the style of early 
prose such as that of Cato or the inscriptions. The following 
points are perhaps worthy of mention. 

1 U. sepse sarsite is also taken as ' separately and together', sepse being explained 
as from *se-pse. But this is on the whole less likely. 

224 Syntax [328 

1. As in Latin, the adjective regularly follows its noun, 
but may precede it if emphatic. Thus U. ocri-per Fisiu, tota-per 
liouina 'pro moiite Fisio, pro civitate Iguvina', etc., but destru-co 
persi, nertru-co persi ' ad dextrum (sinistrum) pedem', destram-e 
scapla 'in dextram scapulam', etc. In the numerous sacrifices 
of three victims the numeral always follows its noun in VI a 22, 
58, VI b 1, 3 etc., but always precedes it in the earlier version 
(I a 3, 7, 11, 14 etc.). Demonstrative pronouns precede, posses- 
sives follow their nouns, as in Latin. 

2. As in Latin, words or even whole clauses belonging to 
a subordinate clause are sometimes introduced before the rela- 
tive pronoun or conjunction. Thus O. prai Mamerttiais pas set 
'which are before the Martian' (no. 27), beside the normal order 
in the companion inscription (no. 28) ; O. sakaraklum Herekleis 
[lip] slaagid pud ist 'the temple of Hercules which is at the boun- 
dary' (C. A. 11 ff.). In this last passage all the words quoted, 
together with the succeeding four lines, belong to the clause 
introduced by puz (1. 17), which depends upon ekss kiimbened 
(1. 10). But in this case, owing to the length of the intervening 
relative clauses, the subjects are repeated after piiz. Cf. L. sei 
ques esent quei sibei deicerent necesus ese Bacanal liabere, eeis utei 
ad pr. urbanum Romam venirent (SC. de Bacch. 3 ff.). 

3. With a series of objects the verb is sometimes placed 
before the first and repeated after the last. Thus U. fertu . . . 
fertu (II a 17 ff.), pihatu . . . pihatu (VI a 29 f.), seritu . . . seritu 
(VI a 32 f. ; quoted in 322). 


The following collection contains all the more important inscriptions. 
Those omitted contain, for the most part, only proper names or mutilated words. 

Uncertain letters are indicated by a change in type, italic in black-face 
text, rouian in italic text. 1 Obvious mistakes are corrected in the text, the 
original reading being given in a footnote. Where there can be any reason- 
able doubt as to a correction, it is given in the footnote, the original reading 
being left in the text. Mistakes in the division of words (which is indicated by 
dots, usually one, sometimes two) are corrected without remark. Restorations 
are inclosed in brackets. The division of the lines is indicated by | , except 
where the printed lines follow those of the original. 2 

For the sake of convenience, capitals and marks of abbreviation and 
punctuation are supplied in the text, as well as in the translation. 3 The trans- 
lation of the more uncertain words is given in italics, or sometimes omitted 
entirely ; yet from the fact that a given translation is not italicized it does not 
follow that this translation is undisputed, but only that the author regards it as 
reasonably certain. A few fictitious Latin words are used for convenience, and 
marked with an asterisk. But transcriptions and translations of proper na'mes, 
even when unknown in Latin, are notso marked, except in the Glossary. The brief 
comments to some of the inscriptions are merely supplementary to the Glossary. 

For each inscription the corresponding numbers of the collections of 
Con way and v. Planta are given. Some slight variations from the reading 
of one or both of these are based upon autopsy. See the author's Critical 
Notes to Oscan Inscriptions, I.F. 12, 13 ff. 


The Cippus Abellanus and the Tabula Bantina are given first, as furnishing 
connected reading of some length and illustrating the spelling in each of the two 
alphabets. They are also commented upon more fully than the other inscriptions. 
After these numbers the arrangement is geographical. 

1 Many letters which are somewhat mutilated, but of which enough remains to 
make it perfectly clear what was intended, are printed without change of type. In 
the texts of Conway and v. Planta mutilated letters are marked more freely. I am not 
sure now that I have been entirely consistent in this matter, but think I have not 
failed to mark letters which are mutilated enough to be really doubtful. 

2 In the case of a one-line inscription covering more than one line of printed 
text, | is added at the end. So nos. 6, 41 b, etc. 

3 But in some cases where the interpretation is extremely doubtful, notably in 
no. 19, marks of punctuation are omitted from the text and given only in the translation. 



Oscan Inscriptions 

[No. 1 

i. Cippus Abellanus 

A limestone tablet about 6 feet 5 inches high, 1 foot 8 inches broad, and 
11 inches thick. Inscribed on both sides. Found in 1745 at Avella in use as 
a door-step, and believed to have been brought from Castel d' Avella, the prob- 
able site of the ancient Abella. Now in the Seminary at Nola. Conway no. 95, 
v. Planta no. 127. 

Maiiui Vestirikiiui Mai. S/r. 
prupukid sverrunei kvaistu- 
rei Abellanui inim Maiiu[i 
Iiivkiiui Mai. Pukalatui 
5 medikei deketasiiii Nuvl[a- 
nui] inim ligatuis Abell[anuis 
inim ligatuis Niivlanuis, 
pus senateis tanginud 
suveis piituruspid ligatfus 

10 fufans, ekss kiimbened. 
Sakaraklum Herekleis [up 
slaagid pud ist inim teer[um 
pud up eisiid sakaraklud [ist 
pud anter teremw/ss e/*[truis 

15 ist, pai teremenniu mu[inikad 
tanginud pruftuset r[ihtiid 
amniid, puz idik sakar[ klum 
inim idik tenim muinijkum 
miiinikei terei fusid [inim 

20 eiseis sakarakleis i[ nim 
tereis fruktatiuf, fr[ukta- 
tiuf] muinikii putwr[mpid 
fus]id. Avt Niivlanw . . . 
.... //erekleis fi/[sn . . . 

25 .... pi spid Niivla;/ .... 

Maio Vestricio Mai. f . Sz'r., 
ex antepacto arbitro, quaestori 
Abejlano, et Maio 
lovicio Mai. f. Puclato 
meddici *decentario Nolano 
et legatis Abellanis 
et legatis Nolanis, 
qui senatus sententia 
sui utrique legati 
erant, ita convenit. 
Templum Herculis ad 
finem quod est, et territorium 
quod ad id templum est, 
quod inter termina exteriora 
est, quae termina communi 
sententia posita sunt recto 
circuitu, ut id templum 
et id territorium commune 
in communi territorio esset, et 
eius templi et 
territorii fructus, fructus 
communis utrorumque 
esset. At Nolani 
. Herculis fanum 

No. 1] 

Oscan Inscriptions 


Ekkum [svai pid herieset 
triibarak[avum terei pud 
liimitu[m] pernum [piiis 

30 Herekleis fiisnii mefifu 
ist, ehtrad feihiiss p[s 
Herekleis fiisnam amfr- 
et, pert viam piisstist 
pai ip ist, piistin slagim 

35 senateis suveis tangi- 
niid tribarakavm li- 


kitud. Inim iiik triba- 
rakkiuf pam Niivlanus 
tribarakattuset 1 inim 

40 liittiuf Nuvlanum estud. 
Ekkum svai pid Abellaniis 
tribarakattuset l iiik tri- 
barakkiuf inim liittiuf 
Abellanm estud. Avt 

45 piist feihuis pus fisnam am- 
fret, eisei terei nep Abel- 
lanus nep Niivlanus pidum 
tribarakattins. 1 Avt the- 
savrum pud esei terei ist, 

50 pun patensins, muinikad t[n- 
giniid patensins, inim pid e[isei 
thesavrei pukkapid ee[stit 
ajittium alttram alttr[iis 
hjerrins. Avt anter slagim 

55 Ajbellanam inim Niivlanam 
sjullad viu uruvii ist . edii . 
ejisai viai mefiai tereme- 
n]iu staiet. 


Item [si quid volent 
aedificare [in territorio quod 
limitwm tenus [quibus 
Herculis fanum medium 
est, extra muros qui 
Herculis fanum ambiunt, 
trans viam positum est 
quae ibi est, pro finibus 
senatus sui sententia, 
aedificare liceto. 
Et id aedificium 
quod Nolani 
aedificaverint et 
usus Nolanorum esto. 
Item si quid Abellani 
aedificaverint, id 
aedificium et usus 
Abellanorum esto. At 
post muros qui fanum ambi- 
unt, in eo territorio neque Abel- 
lani neque Nolani quidquam 
aedificaverint. At thesau- 
rum qui in eo territorio est, 
cum aperirent, communi senten- 
tia aperirent, et quidquid in eo 
thesauro quandoque exstat, 
portionum alteram alteri 
caperent. At inter finis 
Abellanos et Nolanos 

ubique via flexa est , 

in ea via media termina 

l tribarakat tuset, tribarakat tins. 

228 Oscan Inscriptions [No. 1 


Cf. Mommsen, Unterital. Dial., 121 ff. ; Biicheler, Commentationes philo- 
logicae in honorem Th. Monnnseni, 227 ff. ; Bartholomae, I.F. 6, 307 ff. ; 
v. Planta II, 622 ff. ; Coiiway, Exempla Selecta, 10 ff. 

The inscription contains an agreement between the cities 
of Nola and Abella in regard to a temple of Hercules, which 
was situated on the boundaries and owned in common. Such 
joint ownership of temples was not uncommon in antiquity. 
One may recall the temple of Artemis Limnatis on Mt. Tayge- 
tus which caused endless trouble between the Laconians and 
Messenians (Pausanias 4, 4, 2), the temple and grove of Juno 
Sospita at Lanuvium common to the Romans and Latins (Livy 
8, 14), and especially the temple which Servius Tullius built on 
the Aventine for the use of Romans and Latins (Livy 1, 45 ; 
Dion. Hal. 4, 26). For this temple on the Aventine we are told 
that Servius Tullius made regulations and had them inscribed 
on a bronze stele which was placed in the temple, where it 
remained "until my time, with letters such as the Greeks once 
used" (Dion. Hal. 1. c.). The Cippus Abellanus is probably 
one of two copies, the other having been set up at Nola. 1 

The precise date is unknown. The prominence of the 
senate points to a period after 216 B.C., when the powers of 
the senate of Nola were notably increased, while it can hardly 
be later than the Social War, in which Nola was virtually ruined. 
One may take 150 B.C. as an approximate date. 

The general arrangement of the temple property here is 
one that is well known elsewhere. The land immediately 

1 This was Mommsen's view and is distinctly favored by the provenance of 
the tablet ; Biicheler, as is evident from his explanation of slaagid, 1. 12, as ' e regione', 
supposes there was only one tablet, which was set np near the site of the temple ; and 
Conway urges that " the cost of erecting such a block and cutting such a long inscrip- 
tion would surely have been too considerable to allow of two copies where one would 
do." But dual copies of even longer inscript ions are well attested. Cf ., for example, 
Dittenberger, Syll. Inscr. Uraec. 2 , no. 20. an inscription of over sixty lines on a marble 
stele found at Eleusis, another copy of which was ordered set up on the Acropolis at 
Athens; further, Coll it z, Sammlung d. griech. Dialekt-Inschrit'tcn, no. :>45 (over 90 
lines, two copies authorized), Collitz, no. 3624 (325 lines, three copies authorized), etc. 

No. 1] Oscan Inscriptions 229 

surrounding the temple formed the sacred precinct proper and 
was inclosed by walls. Outside of this was the land which was 
a part of the temple property but not withheld from secular uses. 
This was marked off by a series of boundary-stones. Such land 
was often used for pasturage and thus made a source of consid- 
erable income. In the case of our inscription, building was to 
be permitted on this land, if properly sanctioned. 

Summary of Contents, and Notes 

11. 1-10. Agreed as follows between the quaestor of Abella 
and the meddix of Nola and the delegates of Abella and Nola, 
appointed by their respective senates : 

1. 2. The word sverrunei does not refer to a special kind of quaestorship 
or to some other regular office held in addition to the quaestorship, but rather to 
a special appointment made 'by previous agreement' (prupukid) with reference 
to the business in hand. According to the very probable connection with Eng. 
swear and an-swer (see 96), it may well have some such meaning as 'spokesman.' 

I. 5. Besides the meddiss tuvtiks which appears in inscriptions of Pompeii, 
Herculaneum, Capua, and Bovianum, and seems to designate the head of a league 
of cities, the title meddix (see 15, 6) was also applied to municipal officers. 
Cf. medikeis Piimpaiianeis, no. 3. At Nola (cf. also no. 42, from which it 
appears that there were two such officials, and no. 43) the title was defined by 
a word which corresponds in form to a L. *decentarius. This may be explained 
either as related to L. decens (cf. L. dlcentarius from dlcens) and meaning 
'regularly appointed, ordinarius', or as related to L. decem (see 191, 10) and 
referring to some organization of the city's territory or population of which we 
have no precise knowledge. 

II. 11-23. That the temple of Hercules, and the adjacent 
land within the outer boundaries which have been set around, 
be held in common, and the income from them be joint income 
of both cities. 

I. 12. slaagid (perhaps related to O.Ir. slickf- track', slige 'street') means 
properly 'boundary, border' as here, but the word was also used, like L. finis in 
the Plural, of 'territory, district', and this is the meaning of slagim in 11. 34, 54. 

II. 27-48. If any one wishes to erect a building on the land 
in front of the temple limits, outside the wall running about the 
fane and across the road, it may be done with the sanction of the 

230 Oscan Inscriptions [Nos. 1- 

senate under whose jurisdiction the land falls. If the Nolans 
build, the building and its income shall belong to them ; to the 
inhabitants of Abella, if they build. But behind the wall sur- 
rounding the fane, no one shall erect a building. 

1. 29. The reading of the second word is very uncertain. The best sense 
would be given by a word meaning 'inside of, the liimftii- being understood as 
equivalent to the teremenniii inclosing the whole temple property. So if we 
accept perniim it may mean 'in front of looked at from the inside, as in the 
case of pert vfam, 1. 33. 

I. 33. To understand pert vfam we must assume that a road skirted the 
walls. Possibly the road connecting Nola and Abella ran up to the walls and 
then divided, passing around on each side. 

II. 34-35. ' By the vote of the respective senates according to the territory'. 
As the temple was situated on the boundary, the adjacent land would include 
sections from the original territory of both cities, each city retaining jurisdiction 
over its own section in the matter of granting permission to build. 

11. 48-54. When they open the treasury which is in this 
territory, they are to open it by common consent, and whatever 
is in the treasury they are to share. 

11. 54-58. The boundary-stones are on the road between 
the territory of Abella and that of Nola. 

This last sentence defines the locality of the boundary-stones, but the 
precise meaning is obscured by the uncertainty of the reading in 1. 56. At the 
beginning the^old reading p]iillad taken as 'qua' gives a reasonable sense, but 
there is no support for such a word, as there is for sjullad. At the end the only 
really certain letters are edfi, and, while the old reading tedur is out of the ques- 
tion, v. Planta's pedu X is only a possibility. The old explanation of uruvti as 
'flexa', related to L. urvum, the curved part of a plow (which is then not to 
be connected with Skt. vrj- 'turn'), is in itself simpler than the connection with 
Grk. fvpvs, Skt. writ- 'wide', though it must be confessed that either 'qua . . . 
flexa' or 'ubique . . . lata' seems a better combination than 'ubique . . . flexa'. 
But the whole line is puzzling. It is not even clear whether the road referred to 
is one connecting the two cities, or one which itself forms the boundary-line 
between their respective territories. 

2. Tabula Bantina 

Fragment of a bronze tablet, about 15 by 10 inches, containing also, on the 
other side, a Latin inscription (GIL. 1 197). The Oscan inscription was origi- 
nally in two columns, a few letters of the right-hand column still showing. 
The fragment represents the middle portion of the left-hand column, and probably 

Oscan Inscriptions 


contains about one sixth of the whole inscription. Found in 1793 at Bantia, 
near the boundaries of Apulia and Lucania. Now in the Museum at Naples. 
Written in the Latin alphabet. There are six paragraphs, divided by spaces. 
Conway no. 28, v. PL no. 17. 

1 ... onom ust izic TU . . . \ 

2 ... suae . . nus q moltam 
angiiu . . . nur 1 . . . | 

3 deiuast 

maimas carneis senateis 
tanginud 1 am 1 | 

4 XL osii[ns p]on ioc egmo 
comparascuster '. Suae pis pert- 


emust, pruter 1 pan .... 

5 deiuatud sipus comenei 
perum dolom mallom, siom ioc 
comono mais egm\as touti-] \ 

6 cas &mnud pan pieisum 
brateis auti cadeis amnud, 
inim idic siom dat sena\teis\ 

7 tanginud maimas carneis 
pertumum. Piei ex comono 
pertemest, izic eizeic zicel[ei] \ 

8 comono ni hipid. 

.... si ... quaestor multam 



maximae partis senatus 
sententia [dummodononminus] 
XL adsint, cum ea res 
consulta erit. Si quis per- 
emerit,prius quam [peremerit], 
iurato sciens in comitio 
sine dolo malo, se ea 
comitia magis rei publicae 
causa quam cuiuspiarri 
gratiae aut inimicitiae causa, 
idque se de senatus 
sententia maximae partis 
perimere. Cui sic comitia 
perimet (quisquam), is eo die 
comitia ne habuerit. 

Pis pocapit post 
post exac comono hafiest 2 
meddis dat castrid loufir \ 
9 en eituas, factud pous 5 touto 
deiuatuns tanginom deicans, 
siom^ dat eizasc 5 idic tangineis\ 

Quis quandoque 
post hac comitia habebit 
magistratus de capite vel 
in pecunias, facito ut populus 
iurati sententiam dicant, 
se de iis id sententiae 

1 nur, ud am, rut, from a small fragment now lost. 

2 Aes hafiert. Correct form probably hapiest. 

3 Probably iox pus, ou being due to following word. See footnote, p. 40. 

4 Aes stom. 5 Probably for eizaisc. 

232 Osccin Inscriptions 

10 deicum, pod ualaemom dicere, quod optimum 
touticom tadait ezum, publicuni censeat esse, 
nepfefacid 1 pod pis neve fecerit quo quis 
dat eizac egmad min[s] de ea re minus 

11 deiuaid dolud 2 malud. Suae- iuret dolo malo. Si- 
pis contrud exeic 3 fefacust quis contra hoc fecerit 

auti comono hipust, molto etan- \ aut comitia habuerit, multa tanta 

12 to estud: n. CDCD. In. suaepis esto: n. MM. Et siquis 

ionc fortis meddis moltaum eum potius magistratus multare 
herest, ampert minstreis aeteis\ volet, dumtaxat minoris partis 

13 eituas moltas moltaum licitud. pecuniae multae multare liceto. 


Suaepis pru meddixud Siquis pro magistratu 

altrei castrous auti eituas alteri capitis aut pecuniae 

14 zicolom dicust, izic comono diem dixerit, is comitia 

ni hipid ne pon op ne habuerit nisi cum apud 

toutad petirupert urust populum quater oraverit 

sipus perum dolom \ sciens sine dolo 

15 mallom, in. trutum zico. malo et quartum diem 

touto peremust. Petiropert, populus perceperit. Quater, 

neip mais pomtis,* neque plus quinquiens, 

com preiuatud actud \ cum reo agito 

16 pruter pam medicatinom di- prius quam iudicationem 
dest, in. pon posmom con prei- dabit, et cum postremum cum 
uatud urust, eisucen ziculud reo oraverit, ab eo die 

17 zicolom XXXnesimum como- in diebus XXX proximis comi- 
nomni hipid. Suae pis con- tia ne habuerit. Si quis con- 
trud exeic fefacustjonc suaepis\ tra hoc fecerit, eum siquis 

18 herest meddis moltaum, volet magistratus multare, 
licitud, ampert mistreis liceto, dumtaxat minoris 

, aeteis eituas licitud. partis pecuniae liceto. 

4 Following the spacing on the bronze, some puiictunlc nflrr fio/iitis. Still 
others make the division after pc.firupert. The division adopted is the only one 
which admits a satisfactory interpretation. 

No. 2] 

Oscan Inscriptions 


Pon censtur 

19 Bansae 1 toutam 2 censazet,pis 
ceus Bantins fust, censamur 
esuf in. eituam poizad ligud 

20 iusc s censtur censaum angetu- 
zet.* Aut suaepis censtomen 
nei cebnust dolud mallud \ 

21 in. eizeic uincter, esuf 
comenei lamatir pr. 
meddixud toutad prae- 
sentid perum dolum \ 

22 mallom, in. amiricatud allo 
famelo in. ei. siuom paei 
eizeisfust,pae ancensto fust, \ 

23 toutico estud. 

Cum censores 

Bantiae populum censebunt, qui 
civis Bantinus erit, censetor 
ipse et pecuniam qua lege 
ii censores censere proposu- 
erint. At siquis in censum 
non venerit dolo malo, 
et eius convincitur, ipse 
in comitio caedatur praetoris 
magistratu, populo prae- 
sente sine dolo 
malo, et *immercato cetera 
familia et pecunia omnino quae 
eius erit, quae incehsa erit, 
publica esto. 

Pr., suae praefucus 
pod post exac Bansae fust, 
suae pis op eizois com \ 

24 atrud ligud acum herest, 
auti pru medicatud manim 
aserum eizazunc egmazum \ 

25 pas exaiscen ligis scriftas 
set, ne phim 5 pruhipid 
mais zicolois JT nesimois. 
Suae pis contrud \ 

26 exeic pruhipust, molto 
etanto estud: n. CD. In. 
suaepis ionc meddis mol- 
taum herest, licitud, \ 

Praetor, sive praefectus 
post hac Bantiae erit, 
si quis apud eos cum 
altero lege agere volet, 
aut pro iudicato manum 
adserere de eis rebus 
quae hisce in legibus scriptae 
sunt, ne quern prohibuerit 
plus diebus X proximis. 
Si quis contra 
hoc prohibuerit, multa 
tanta esto : n. M. Et 
siquis eum magistratus mul- 
tare volet, liceto, 

1 Aes Sansae. 2 Aes tautam. 

3 The first two letters are mutilated, but there is no doubt of the reading. 

4 Aes anget uzet. 5 For pirn. See footnote, p. 144. 

234 Oscan Inscriptions [No. 2 

27 [ampert] minstreis aeteis [dumtaxat] minoris partis 

eituas moltas moltaum pecuniae multae multare 

licitud. liceto. 

Pr. censtur Bansae \ Praetor censor Bantiae 

28 [nepisfu]id, nei suae q. [ne quis] fuerit, nisi quaestor 

fust, nep censtur fuid, fuerit, neve censor fuerit 

nei suae pr. fust. In. suae- nisi praetor fuerit. Et si- 

pis pr. in. suae- \ quis praetor et si- 

29 q [quis censor] q 

. . . ~\um nerumfust, izic post ] virum fuerit, is post Suaepis \ ea tr. pi. ne fuerit. Siquis 

30 [contrud exeic tr. pi. facus [contra hoc tr. pi. factus] 

f]ust, izic amprufid facus erit, is improbe factus 

estud. Idle medicim eizuc \ esto. Id magisterium eo 


[pocapid Bansae'] . . . . . [quandoque Bantiae] 

medicim acumtw magisterium annorum 

VI nesimum \ VI proximorum 

32 um pod | quod 

33 medicim. 1 .... magisterium. 


Cf. Kirchhoff , Das Stadtrecht von Bantia ; Lange, Die oskische Inschrift 
der Tabula Bantina; Jordan, B.B. 6, 195 ff. (for the Avellino fragment); Bre"al, 
Me"m. Soc. Ling. 4, 381 ff.; Biicheler in Bruns, Fontes iuris Romani 6 , 48 ff.; 
Moratti, Archivio giuridico, 1894, 74 ff. ; v. Planta II, 599 ff. ; Conway, Exeinpla 
Selecta, 2ff. 

The inscription contains a series of municipal regulations 
for the town of Bantia. Its date and relation to the Latin 
inscription on the other side of the tablet are matters of dis- 
pute. But the probability is that the Latin inscription, the 
date of which falls somewhere between 132 and 117 B.C., is 

1 From 1. 29 on so much is lost that, even with the help of an inexact copy of a 
fragment containing a portion of what is now missing ((-ailed the Avellino fragment), 
no certain restoration of the whole text can be m;ulr. 

No. 2] Oscan Inscriptions 235 

quite independent of the Oscan and somewhat earlier. The 
Oscan inscription belongs then to the last quarter of the second 
century B.C. 

Translation and Notes 

11. 1-4. Only the conclusion beginning with deiuast is clear. 

u . . . he shall take oath with the assent of the majority of 
the senate provided that not less than forty are present when 
the matter is under advisement." 

11. 4-8. " If any one by right of intercession shall prevent 
the assembly, before preventing it he shall swear wittingly in the 
assembly without guile that he prevents this assembly rather for 
the sake of the public welfare than out of favor or malice toward 
any one, and that too in accordance with the judgment of the 
majority of the senate. The presiding magistrate whose assembly 
is prevented in this way shall not hold the assembly on this day." 

The verb *pertemo (pertemust etc.) is used in the technical sense of 'prevent 
by intercession'. The intercession at Rome, while possible to any magistrate of a 
rank equal to or higher than that of the one in charge, was a prerogative employed 
especially by the tribunes of the people. These officials existed at Bantia, as is seen 
from 1. 30. The intercession could be exercised, among other occasions, against 
calling together the assembly, no matter for what purpose summoned. But some- 
times a particular law contained the special provision that no intercession should 
be allowed. In our inscription the right of intercession is conditioned upon an 
oath to the effect that the privilege is exercised in the public interest, and with the 
approval of the senate. Compare the voluntary oath taken by Tiberius Gracchus, 
when interceding against the imprisonment of Scipio Asiaticus, that it was not 
due to any friendship for Scipio Africanus (Aul. Gell. 6, 19); and also the fact 
that even at Rome, in the case of a comitia summoned for the election of magis- 
trates, the intercession was dependent on the sanction of the senate (Cic. ad Att. 
4, 16, 6). On the general subject of the intercession see Class. Diet. s.v. 

1. 5. The phrase sipus perum dolom mallom is simply the reverse of the 
common Latin formula sciens dolo malo, which occurs with prohibitions, as ' let 
him not swear (or act) wittingly with guile'. 

1. 6. The phrase pieisum brateis auti cadeis amnud is clearly the equivalent 
of cuiuspiam gratiae aut inimieitiae causa of Latin legal phraseology, and the 
Greek ovre xd/srros 

1 For brateis (also Fael. bratom, brata, Vest, brat.) no satisfactory etymology 
has been suggested, while cadeis may well be related to Goth, hatis, Eng. hate. 

236 Oscan Inscriptions [No. 2 

" Whatever magistrate shall hereafter hold an assembly in 
a suit involving the death penalty or a fine, let him make the 
people pronounce judgment after having sworn that they will 
render such judgment as they believe to be for the best public 
good, and let him prevent any one from swearing in this matter 
with guile. If any one shall act or hold an assembly con- 
trary to this, let the fine be 2000 sesterces. And if any magis- 
trate prefers to fix the fine, he may do so, provided it is for less 
than half the property of the guilty person." 

This and the following section refer to the assembly in its judiciary function 
as a court of appeal. 

With dot castrid loufir en eituas (11. 8, 9) and castrous auti eituas (1. 13) 
compare the Roman indicia capitis l and indicia pecuniae. Cf. Livy 26, 3, 8 
quoad vel capitis vel pecuniae iudicasset privato (note also in this passage privato 
reo, as in 11. 15, 16). 

With 11. 9, 10, compare iuranto . . . neque se aliter consilium habiturum . . . 
neque sententiam dicturum, quam ut ex h(ac) l(ege) exque re communi municipum 
eius municipi censeatfore (CIL. II 1963). 

1. 10. For the construction with nepfefacid, see 315, end. 

For 11. 12, 13, see 269. 

1 Nearly all commentators have taken dat castrid and castrous as 'de fundo', 
'fundi'. But the objection raised long ago by Lange, Tab. Bant., 21 ff., has never 
been answered, namely that according to all Roman analogies we have to do with 
criminal procedure, in which a suit involving real estate would have no place. He 
translates 'capitis', but with an untenable explanation of the form. Recently Breal, 
Mem. Soc. Ling. 11, 5, without recollection of Lange 's view, quotes the '^pinion of a 
legal colleague that 'capitis', not 'fundi', gives the contrast to be expected, and sug- 
gests that castrid, castrous, were inscribed by mistake in place of a word corresponding 
to L. caput. But this last assumption is not necessary. For, retaining the formal 
connection with L. castrum, the meaning 'head', though apparently remote, is more 
easily explained than 'real estate'. The word is generally connected with L. crr.s-.v/.s-, 
and so would contain the root (s)kat-, s(k)ad-' cover, protect', the cognate nearest in 
form being Skt. chattra-m 'parasol'. From the meaning 'protection', whence in 
L. ' fortress', may come ' cover' or ' summit', which frequently interchange with ' head'. 
Cf. Skt. kakud ' mountain-peak' and 'head'; Germ. Giebel: Grk. /ce0aX^; Germ. 
kopf probably: Eng. cop, Dutch kopje; and especially Germ. Dach 'covering, 
roof (decken, artya, etc.), used dialectic-ally in sense of 'head'. 

The Umbrian castruo, kastruvuf, which cannot be separated from the Oscan 
forms, occur in two often repeated phrases. In Va 13 ff. the perquisite for the per- 
formance of certain ceremonies is fixed at so much pusti kastruvuf, commonly taken 

No. 2] Oscan Inscriptions 237 


" If any magistrate shall have appointed the day for another 
in a suit involving the death penalty or a fine, he must not hold 
the assembly until he has brought the accusation four times in 
the presence of the people without guile, and the people have 
been advised of the fourth day. Four times, and not more than 
five, must he argue the case with the defendant before he pro- 
nounces the indictment, and when he has argued for the last 
time with the defendant he must not hold the assembly within 
thirty days from that day. And if any one shall have done 
contrary to this, if any magistrate wishes to fix the fine, he 
may, but only for less than half the property of the guilty 
person be it permitted." 

The Roman procedure, as described in Cic. pro domo, 17, 45, Livy 26, 3, 
etc., is followed closely except that, according to the usual understanding of 
the case (otherwise Lange, Tab. Bant., 65 ff.), the interval of the trinundinum 
at Rome occurred after the third preliminary hearing, the quarta accusatio being 
immediately followed by the decision of the comitia ; whereas at Bantia the 
interval of thirty days (this was also a recognized interval at Rome for certain 
classes of trials) was between the last hearing, which was the fourth or some- 
times even the fifth, and the convocation of the comitia. 

The op toutad, 1. 14, refers to the informal assembly, the contio. The 
trutum zico., 1. 15 (cf. the die prodicta, Cic. 1. c.), probably means the/our^day, 
that is the day for the fourth and (usually) final hearing, though trutum is also 
taken as 'definitum, fixed'. 1 


" When the censors shall take the census of the people of 
Bantia, whoever is a citizen of Bantia shall be rated, himself 
and his property, according to the law under which these 

as 'in fundos', 'for each estate'. But the meaning 'in capita', 'for each person' 
(cf. Livy 2, 33, 11, etc.) is more appropriate (cf. in hominem a. II, CIL. VI 820). 
In the other passage, where the word occurs among a series of objects which the god 
is asked to preserve (Via 30 etc.), the meaning 'capita' is less attractive, and were 
it a question of this passage alone we should prefer 'fundos'. But it is possible to 
take pecuo castruo together as 'pecuum capita', or else to assume that the word was 
also used for small animals, sheep, goats, etc., in contrast topecuo, large animals, kine. 
1 With this meaning there is no nearer connection for trutum than Lith. tvirtas 
'firm', while as 'quartum' its explanation is simple (191, 4). Moreover the analogy 
of the Roman quarta accusatio affords a strong presumption in favor of 'quartum', 
even though the procedure is not precisely the same. 

238 Oscan Inscriptions [Nos. 2- 

censors shall have proposed to take the census. And if any one 
fraudulently fails to come to the census, and is convicted of it, 
let him be scourged (?) in the assembly, under the magistracy of 
the praetor, in the presence of the people, and let the rest of his 
household, and all his property which is not rated, become public 
property without remuneration to him." 

At Rome there was a formula census or lex censui censenda dicta. Accord- 
ing to the lex Julia municipalis (CIL. I 206) the censors are instructed to find 
out name, age, financial condition, etc., ex formula census, quae Romae ab eo, 
qui turn censum populi acturus erit, proposita erit (cf. poizad ligud etc. here). 
At Rome, too, each citizen had to appear in person (cf. suaepis censtom-en nei 
cebnust here). 

The penalty at Rome for non-appearance at the census without sufficient 
excuse (cf. dolud mallud here) was death or slavery of the person and sale or 
confiscation of his property. Cf. Valer. Max. 6, 3, 4 et bona eius et ipsum vendidit 
and Livy 1, 44, 1 censu perfecto, quern maturaverat metu legis de incensis latae 
cum vinculorum minis mortisque, . . . The meaning of lamatir, 1. 21, which 
occurs also in the Curse of Vibia (no. 19), is disputed, but 'caedatur' is more 
probable than 'veneat'. 1 


" The praetor, or if there shall be a prefect at Bantia after 
this, in case any one wishes to go to law with another before 
them, or to make a forcible seizure, as if judgment had been 
rendered, on these matters which are written of in these laws, 
shall not prevent one for more than the ten succeeding days. 
If any one contrary to this shall prevent, the fine shall be 1000 
sesterces. And if any magistrate wishes to fix the fine he may 
do so, but only for a fine involving less than half the property 
shall it be permitted." 

The construction is awkward. The subject of pruhipid (1. 25) is Pr. at 
the beginning, the clause suae . . . fust being thrown in parenthetically. Yet 
eizois refers to the prefect as well as to the praetor. With pru medicatud manim 
aserum compare pro ioudicatod n. [L.] manum iniect[i]o estod (CIL. IX 782). 

1 The translation ' veneat' (Biicheler) for the passage in the Vibia Curse was 
thought to receive some support from the presence of 7reirpT)/j.tifos in the Cnidian 
Curses, but it is now recognized that this is not from irnrpda-Kw, but from Trl/j.wpri(jLi, 
and means 'consumed with fever' (cf. Rh. M. 49, 39). Accepting the translation 
'caedatur', lamatir may be connected with O.Bulg. lomiti' break', Eug. lame and 
(colloquial) lam. Cf. Danielsson, Pauli's Altit. Stud. 3, 183. 

3] Oscan Inscriptions 239 


" No one shall be praetor or censor of Bantia unless he has 
been quaestor, nor shall any one be censor unless he has been 

praetor. And if any one shall be praetor, and , he shall 

not become a tribune of the people after this. And if any one 
shall be made tribune contrary to this, he shall be made so 

This section treats of the order of magistrates, which here is quaestor 
praetor censor, while at Rome it is usually quaestor censor praetor, though 
sometimes the praetorship precedes the censorship as here; cf. Livy 41, 9, 11. 
Except for the first sentence, the text is so fragmentary that the precise meaning 
is entirely uncertain. 

3-13. Inscriptions on Public Works, and Dedications 

Most of these belong to the second century B.C. None is later than the 
Social War, after which Oscan ceased to be used in official inscriptions ; and, on 
the other hand, with the exception of no. 9, from a temple believed to belong to 
the third century, there is probably none earlier than 200 B.C. Within these 
limits there are no evidences of date beyond the forms of the letters, which 
show, for example, that no. 3 is one of the earliest of this period, no. 4 one of 
the latest. All of these inscriptions are now in the Naples Museum. 

3. Road-makers' tablet, found near the Porta Stabiana. Conway no. 39, 
v. PL no. 28. 

M. Siuttiis M. N. Puntiis M. M. Suttius M. f. N. Pontius M. f. 

ajidilis eka viam terem[na- aediles hanc viam termina- 

tjtens ant^ttnttram Staf[ii- verunt usque ad pontem Stabi- 

anam. Viu te[r]emnatust per. anum. Via terminata est perticis 

5 X. Iwssu via Pumpaiiana ter- X. lidem viam Pompeianam ter- 

emnattens perek. Ill ant kai- minaverunt perticis III usque ad 

la Iiiveis Meeilikiieis. Ekassvi- aedem lovis Milichii. Has vi- 

ass ini via luviia ini Dekkvia- as et viam loviam et Decuria- 

rim medikeis Pumpaiianeis lem meddicis Pompeiani 

10 serevkid imaden uupsens, iu- auspicio ab imo fecerunt, ii- 

su 2 aidilis prufattens. dem aediles probaverunt. 

1 For topographical matters cf . especially Nissen, Pompejanische Studien, and 
Mau's Pompeii translated by Kelsey (references are to the second edition, 1902). 

2 iu[s]su impossible; here and in 1. 5 uncertain whether u or ti, but see 53. a. 

240 Oscan Inscriptions [NOB. 3- 

Cf. Nissen, Pomp. Stud., 531 ff., and Mau, Pompeii, 184. 

The aediles laid out two roads, arid these as well as two others they also 
constructed or repaired under the direction of the meddix of the city. One 
road, leading out from the Stabian gate where the inscription was set up, they 
laid out at a certain width as far as the Stabian bridge. The street leading 
from the same point into the city, and called, from its importance, the Via 
Pompeiana (now known as the Strada Stabiana), they laid out at a certain 
width as far as the temple or precinct of Jupiter Milichius. The Via lovia 
was doubtless named from a temple of Jupiter, and the Via Decurialis from 
some public building. The phrase mam terminare is not used in Latin, but the 
reference is clearly to the laying out of the road, that is, marking off its exact 
width, delimiting it (on the sides). Vfass . . . imad-en uupsens ' made from the 
bottom up' corresponds to the Latin mas substruxerunt. 

4. A tablet found on the site of what is believed to have been a palaestra. 
Conway no. 42, v. PI. no. 29. 

V. Aadirans V. eitiuvam paam V. Adiranus V. f. pecuniam quam 

vereiiai Pumpaiianai tristaa- iuventuti Pompeianae testa- 

mentud deded, eisak eitiuvad mento dedit, ea pecunia 

V. Viinikiis Mr. kvaisstur Primp- V. Vinicius Mr. f. quaestor Pom- 

5 aiians triibum ekak kiimben- peianus domum hanc conven- 

nieis tanginud upsannam tus sententia faciendam 

deded, isidum prufatted. dedit, idem probavit. 

Cf. Nissen, Pomp. Stud., 168 ff. 

The quaestor had this building constructed from the money which V. Adi- 
ranus left by will to the Pompeian vereiia. This was probably an association of 
young men devoted to athletic and military training like the Greek ephebes. 
The word is best explained as a derivative with suffix -eiio- (253, 2) from a 
*uero- 'defense', containing the same root as 0. veru 'portam', Goth, warjan 
'ward off', etc. (15, 15), so that the original meaning would be 'defensive body' 
(cf . Germ. Landwehr) ; but the military side of the association may have become 
entirely subordinate at the time of this inscription. 1 

5. Inscribed under a sun-dial found at the Stabian baths. Conway no. 43, 
v. PL no. 30. 

Mr. Atiniis Mr. kvaiss/ur Mr. Atinius Mr. f. quaestor 

eitiuvad | multasikad pecunia multaticia 

kumbennieis tangi[n.] | aamanaffed. conventus sententia locavit. 

With eftiuvad multasikad and aragetud multas[ikud] (no. 43) compare 
L. quaistores aire moltaticod dederont (GIL. I 181). 

1 The spelling verehias, no. 30, if indeed this is the correct reading, I regard as 
a somewhat freakish variant of that seen in vereiiai and not as sufficient ground for 
preferring connection with O. Verehasiiii. 

11] Oscan Inscriptions 241 

6. Stamped in dots on the margin of the pavement in the temple of 
Apollo. Con way no. 52, v. PI. no. 31. 

U. Kamp[aniis . kvaijsstur O. Campanius f. quaestor 

kumbennpeis tanginud] conventus [sententia] 

Appelluneis eitiufvad Apollinis pecunia 

upsjannu aaman[aff]ed. | faciendum locavit. 

Doubtless a word for pavement is to be supplied before tips]annu. With 
Appelluneis eitiu[vad compare L. portic(um) . . . de stipe Dian(ae) emendum 
[fa]ciendum coeraver[e (GIL. X 3781). 

7. On a stone block with cornice. Conway no. 44, v. PI. no. 34. 

V. Piipidiis V. med. tiiv. V. Popidius V. f . meddix tuticus , 

passtata ekak upsan. porticum hanc faciendam 

deded, isidu pnifattd. dedit, idem probavit. 

Compare V. Popidius Ep. f. q. porticus faciendas coeravit, found in the 
forum of Pompeii (CIL. X 794). 

8. On a marble slab formerly attached to a piece of sculpture representing 
a female head. Conway no. 45, v. PI. no. 35. 

V. Pupidiis V. V. Popidius V. f. 

med. tiiv. meddix tuticus 

aamanaffed, locavit, 
isidu idem 

prufatted. probavit. 

9. On a block from the epistyle of a small building thought to be a well- 
house (Mau, 139 ; otherwise Nissen, 338). Conway no. 47, v. PI. no. 36. 

Ni. Trebiis Tr. med. tuv. N. Trebius Tr. f. meddix tuticus 

aamanaffed. locavit. 

10. On a small pedestal. Conway no. 48, v. PI. no. 36 a. 
Mz. Avdiis Kli. Mz. Audius Cle. f. 
Dekis Seppiis Upf. Decius Seppius Off. f 
kvaizstur upsens. quaestores fecerunt. 

11. On a stone slab. Conway no. 50, v. PI. no. 32. 

. Sjj^uriis Ma. . Spurius Ma. f. 

kjvaisstur quaestor 

kujmparakineis consilii 

tajngin. aamanaffed. sententia locavit. 

242 Oscan Inscriptions [Nos. 12- 

12. On a stone basis. Con way no. 53, v. PI. no. 40. 

V. Sadiriis V. aidil. V. Satrius V. f. aedilis. 

13. On a plaster slab. Conway no. 59, v. PI. no. 62. 

Ahvdiu Ni. akun. CXH . . . Audio N. f. an. CXII 

Formerly read ahvdiuni etc. , no interpretation being attempted. But the 
mark of separation is clear. 1 Apparently we have to do with an epitaph, the 
praenomen being lost. 2 For the spelling oj: Ahvdiu see 61, 2, a, and 171, 3, a. 

14-18. The Eituns Inscriptions 

These are painted in red on the outside walls of houses standing near 
street-corners. For their interpretation cf. Nissen, Pomp. Stud., 497 ff. ; Con- 
way, I.F. 3, 85 ff. ; Degering, Mitt. d. deutsch. archaol. Inst., rom. Abt., 13, 
124 ff. ; Mau, ibid. 14, 105 ff. ; Mau, Pompeii, 240 ff. The usual and more 
probable view is that they are military notices, dating from the Social War, 
when Pompeii was besieged by Sulla (89 B.C.). It is suggested that many of 
the important streets were barricaded and that these inscriptions served as 
guides to the soldiers, pointing out the shortest available route to their respec- 
tive stations along the city walls. Nos. 14-16 are near streets leading to the 
north wall, no. 17 is on a street leading to the western wall, while no. 18, unknown 
until 1897, is near what at the time of the earthquake was a blind alley, but 
which at an earlier period probably led through to the region of the "Triangu- 
lar Forum" near the south wall. The veru Sarinu of nos. 14, 15, is not the 
Sarnian gate, but what is now known as the Herculanean gate. The buildings 
mentioned in no. 18 were probably in the Triangular Forum, the temple of 
Minerva being perhaps the well-known Doric temple at that place. 

The phrase puf faamat means ' where (the officer named) is stationed' (for 
faamat : L. famulus, see 99, 2 ; the officer's home is his command). The amvf- 
annud (see 255, a) is not simply 'way', but 'way around, detour' (to avoid the 
barricaded streets ; see above). For eituns the common interpretation as Nom. 
Sg. 'iter' is the most difficult to justify grammatically. If the form is a noun 
at all it is Nom. PI. of an -on- stem, meaning perhaps 'goers', that is 'patrols'. 
But the author is now inclined to favor the old interpretation 'eunto', there 
being no real difficulty in explaining the form as an Imperative (236, 2). 

14. Conway no. 60, v. PI. no. 47. 

Eksuk amvianud eituns Hoc circuito eunto 
anter tiurri XII ini ver. inter turrim XII et portam 
Sarinu, puf faamat Sarinam, ubi habitat 
Mr. Aadhiis V. Mr. Atrius V. f. 

1 Dennison, Am. Jour, of Arch. 1898, 399 b, Buck, I.F. 12, 21. 
3 Neither the published reports nor my own recollection of the inscription serves 
to confirm or refute the supposition that it is incomplete. 


Oscan Inscriptions 


15. Con way no. 61, v. PI. no. 48. 

Eksuk amviannud eit. Hoc circuitu eunto 

anter tiurri XII ini inter turrim XII et 

veru Sar/nu, puf portam Sarinam, ubi 

faamat Mr. Aadiriis V. habitat Mr. Atrius V. f. 

16 . Conway no. 62, v. PI. no. 50. 
Zik[s]uk awvianufi? eitu[ns 
anter tiurr]i X ini XI, puf 
faama]* T. Fisanis U. 

17 . Conway no. 63, v. PI. no. 49. 
Eksuk amv[i]anud 
eituns an[ter trjiibu 
Ma. Kastrikiieis ini 
Mr. Spuriieis L M 
puf faamat 
V. Sehsimbms L. 

Hoc circuitu eunto 

inter turrim X et XI, ubi 

habitat T. Fisanius O. f. 

Hoc circuitu 
eunto inter domum 
Ma. Castricii et 
Mr. Spurii L. f., 
ubi habitat 
V. Sexembrius L. f. 

18. Notizie degli scavi 1897, p. 465, Mitt. d. deutsch. archaol. Inst., 

rom. Abt., 13, 124 ff., I.F. 12, 13 ff. 
Eksuk amviannud 
eituns ampt tribud 
tuv. ampt Mener. 

Hoc circuitu 

eunto circum Villam 

Publicam, circum Minervium. 

19. The Curse of Vibia 

On a lead plate about 8f by 3 in. , found in 1876 near a tomb, 
the Naples Museum. Conway no. 130, v. PI. no. 128. 

1 Keri Arent[ikai manjafum pai Cereri Ultrici mandavi, quae 

quive vim suam, 
cohortem suam adferat 

Now in 

pu* [p]i heriam suvam 
legin[um suvam &fl]akad 

2 usurs inim malaks nistrus 
Pakiu Kluvatiu/ 1 Valamais 2 
p[uklui] anka</um damia . 

osores et malevolos propinquos 
Pacio Clovatio Valaemae 
filio. oceidionem, damnum 

1 Final letter almost certainly i, not d as usually read, so Dat. with nistrus 
(cf. 277). For Pakiu see 171, 3, a. 2 Bead Valaimas. 

244 Oscan Inscriptions [No. 19 

3 leginum aflukad idik tfei cohortem adferat, id tibi 
manafum Vibiiai prebai mandavi. Vibiae - 
ampu[l]ulum da[da]d Keri ministrum reddat. Cereri Ultrici 
Ar[entikai PaMmKluvatiium]| (mandavi) [Pacium Clovatium] 

4 Valaimas puklum inim ulas Valaemae filium, et illius 
leginei svai neip dadid cohort!. Si nee reddiderit, 
lamatir akrid eiseis dunte . caedatur acriter eius 

5 inim kaispatar i[nim] et glebis tundatur et 
krustatar svai neip avt cruentetur. Si nee, aut 
svai tiium idik fifikus pust si tu id decreveris post 

eis I , 

6 pun kahad avt n...rnum cum incipiat aut - , 

neip putiiad punum kahad nee possit, quandoque incipiat, 

avt svai pid per- aut si quid perficere 

fa | [incipiat nee] 

7 putiiad nip hu[n]truis nip possit; nee inferis nee 
supruis aisusis putiians superis sacrifices possint, quid- 
pidum putiians ufteis quam optati possint (propinqui) 
ud/. . . [Pakiui Kluvatiiui] | [efficere Pacio Clovatio] 

8 Valaimas puklui pun far Valaemae filio ; cum far 
kahad nip putiiad edum capiat nee possit edere 
nip menvum limu nee minuere famem 

pi | [quoquam .... eorum] 

9 pai humuns bivus karanter quae homines vivi vescuntur. 
suluh Pakis Kluvatiis Omnino Pacius Clovatius 
Valaims 2 puk turumiiad Valaemae f. torqueatur. 

/ | [Liberum .... sit] 

10 Vibiiai Akviiai svai puh Vibiae Aquiae sive 

aflakus Pakim Kluvatiium detuleris Pacium Clovatium 

Valaimas puklui 3 supr . Valaemae filium supra 

11 inim tuvai leginei inim et tuae cohorti et 

sakrim svai puh aflakus hostiam, sive attuleris 

2 Re;ul Valaimas. 8 Read puklum. 

No. 19] Oscan Inscriptions 245 

huntrus teras huntrus infra terram infra 

a. . . [PaMm Kluvatiium] | [(Devoveo) Pacium Clovatium] 

12 Valaimais 2 puklu 3 avt Keri Valaemae filium aut Cereri 

Aret[ikai] avt ulas Ultrici aut illius 

leginei . . . trutas cohort! . . . 

tus ....... | ........ 

Cf. Bticheler, Rh. M. 33, 1 ff. ; Bugge, Altitalische Studien (Christiania, 
1878); Pascal, La tavola osca di esecrazione (Naples, 1894). On the curse- 
inscriptions in general cf. the convenient summary of contents by Battle, 
Proceed. Amer. Phil. Assoc. 26, LIV, and especially Wiinsch, Defixionum 
tabellae Atticae (with additions in Rh. M. 55). 

This inscription, as well as the following and also no. 40, belongs to a class 
of magical curses of which there are numerous examples among Greek and Latin 
inscriptions. Most of them, including the three Oscan, are written on thin lead 
plates, which were rolled up and placed in graves, in the belief that they gained 
access thus to the infernal deities invoked. They are written carelessly and 
often with intentional obscurity. Sometimes the natural order of words is 
changed, or a meaningless jumble of letters inserted. The curse is sometimes 
against an unknown person who has committed a wrong, but oftener one or 
more individuals are expressly named. Sometimes the cause of the curse is 
given, e.g. theft, cheating, assault, infidelity, a lawsuit, etc. The curse may 
be conditional, "if so-and-so does not (e.g. return a stolen object), may he . . .". 
The introduction in Latin inscriptions is usually "mando", "commendo","devo- 
veo", "dedico", or a like word, followed by "diis inferis'% "manibusinferis", 
or the name of some particular infernal deity. The punishments suggested are 
various, sometimes merely incapacity to eat, talk, or accomplish anything, but 
generally death with all sorts of tortures. 

The person uttering the curse often takes the precaution to add a clause 
which shall avert from himself or herself any possible evil incidental to the curse. 
So frequently, in Greek inscriptions, e/xoi 5 foia or faoi 5e Ka.ea.p6v. 

Owing to the fragmentary character of our inscription, no complete inter- 
pretation of it is possible, but the general trend is clear. The author of the 
curse is Vibia, and its object Pacius Clovatius, and incidentally his relatives, 
who are also her enemies (1. 2 ; for usurs inim malaks another interpretation 
worthy of consideration is 'mulieres et liberos', connecting usurs with L. uxor 
and malaks with L. mollis). The appeal is to Ceres Ultrix and her cohort of 
spirits (cf. aviepoi . . . Ad/iar/H, Kotfp^i, nXotfram, deois TOIS irapa Adfj-arpi airatri Kal 
Trdo-cus, Collitz, 3536). In 1. 1 pai probably introduces a relative clause of pur- 
pose, 'in order that she may direct her force and her cohort upon . . .'(?) The 
addition of the masculine pui is to be compared with Latin si deus si dea. 

2 Read Valaimas. 8 Read puklum. 

246 Oscan Inscriptions [Nos. 19- 

The cause of the curse is probably a theft, the object stolen being perhaps 
a slave (1. 3). If the object is not returned (1. 4) Vibia wishes Pacius Clova- 
tius to be scourged (for lamatir see p. 238) and tortured (precise meaning of 
kaispatar and krustatar uncertain ; for the forms see 238, c). But if it is other- 
wise decreed, she will be satisfied if he is incapacitated. So 11. 6-9. " When he 

either undertakes to , may he be powerless, when he undertakes it, or if he 

wishes to accomplish anything, may he be unable to ; nor shall (his relatives ?) 
avail him at all by sacrifices to either the infernal deities or those of the upper 
regions. When he takes food, may he not be able to eat nor allay his hunger 
by anything which men eat. In every way may Pacius Clovatius be tortured." 
But no harm must come to Vibia, in whichever way the curse is effected (11. 10 f.). 

The entire left-hand margin of the plate is broken off, so that the amount 
that is missing from the end of each line can only be inferred from restorations. 
But Pascal's restoration of Pakim Kluvatiium after Ar[entikai in 1. 3 is well-nigh 
certain. For wherever the text is complete Valaimas puklum (or its variant) is 
preceded by this name (so in 11. 2, 9, 10). Biicheler, who restored 1. 3 differ- 
ently, thought that not over ten or eleven letters were missing. 

The inscription has no double consonants (note Keri = Kerrl, no. 45), no 1, 
and probably no u (if it had V, the dot is no longer visible). This, together with the 
style of the letters, shows that it is to be ranked among the earlier inscriptions, 
though not so old as no. 21 (contrast aisusis, 1. 7, with luisarifs, no. 21), and 
there is no good reason for not dating it well back in the third century B.C. 

20. On a lead plate found in the same place as the preceding. Now in 
the Naples Museum. Conway no. 131, v. PL no. 129. 

1 Steni Klum. Virriis Stenius Clura. Verrius 

Tr. . apiu Virriiis Tr. - - Verrius 

Plasis Bivellis Plarius Bivellius 

Uppiis Helleviis Oppius Helvius 

5 Liivikis Uhtavis Lucius Octavius 

6 Statiis Gaviis nep fatium nep Statius Gavius nee fari nee 

deikum putians. | dicere possint. 

7 Liivkis tlhtavis Nuvellum Lucius Octavius Novellum 

Velliam | Velliam (reddat. Sinon,) 

8 nep deikum nep fatium piitiad | nee dicere nee fari possit, 

9 nep memnim nep ulam sifei nee monumentum nee ollam sibi 

heriiad. capiat. 

With the phrase nep fatium nep deikum putians compare nee loqui nee sermo- 
nare possit in a Latin curse (CIL. I 818). Since praenomina in -iis are entirely 
irregular (174), one is tempted to read 11. 3-6 in columns (as Conway does for 
11. 3-4), that is, Plasis Uppiis, Liivikis Statiis, etc. But against this is Luvkis 

20] Oscan Inscriptions 247 

Uhtavis in 1. 7. In 11. 7-8 Niivellum Velliam is without much doubt a proper 
name, but it is impossible to understand the construction without assuming 
an omission. 

21-34. The lovilae-Dedications 

Cf. especially Biicheler, Rh. M. 39, 315 f., 43, 128 ff., 557 ff., 44, 321 ff., 
45, 161 ff.; Conway, Ital. Dial. 101 ff. 

Of these inscriptions, some are cut in blocks or thick slabs of coarse tufa 
(see photograph at end of book), while others are stamped on terra-cotta tiles. 
Many of the tiles bear the same inscription on both sides (nos. 23, 24, 25), and 
one of the tufa blocks is also inscribed on both sides (no. 31); while many of 
the tufa blocks belong in pairs which stood side by side, with inscriptions refer- 
ring to the same dedicators and differing only in some details (nos. 27-28, 29-30, 
32-33). Most of the inscriptions contain the word diuvila-, iuvila-, as the name 
of the object dedicated. This seems to be connected with the stem of L. luppiter, 
lovis (257, 5), and in one inscription (no. 25) the iovilae are dedicated to Jupiter 
Flagius ; there is also mention of loviae or Jupiter festivals (no. 29). It was, 
then, in all probability the technical name for some well-known and established 
Jupiter offering, of just what nature we cannot tell. From the expression 
'this iovila', 'these iovilae', we might assume that the stone was either itself 
the iovila, or else a pedestal for the iovila, which in that case would perhaps be 
a small statue. But the terra-cotta tiles could not be pedestals, and moreover 
the inscriptions on some of them seem to point to the iovilae as objects near by 
(nos. 21, 26). 

The iovilae were dedicated by individuals (nos. 22, 25, 26, 32-33), by mem- 
bers of the same family (nos. 27-28), or of the same gens (nos. 21, 29-30, 34). 
Many of the inscriptions are accompanied by various devices which are undoubt- 
edly heraldic emblems or coats of arms. Often the festivals or periods at which 
the iovilae were dedicated are mentioned. The ptimperias were probably festi- 
vals of certain societies or family groups (cf . U. pumperias XII, II b 2 ; origi- 
nally groups of five), and of these some were called Fisian and others Martian 
(nos. 27-28), apparently from the divinity in whose honor they were held (for 
Fiisfais cf. U. Fisio- beside Fiso '*Fiso, deo Fidio'). So too there were Fisian 
Ides (no. 21) and Martian Ides (no. 29). Other festivals are the loviae (no. 29, 
also 24) and, probably, the Vesulliae (nos. 26, 34). Some festivals were celebrated 
with a banquet, others with a sacrifice (contrast kerssnais and sakriss, no. 29, 
and kerssnasias, no. 27, with sakrasias, no. 28). 

Most of these inscriptions, if not all, belong to the third century B.C. The 
mention of a meddix precludes a later date than the capture of Capua by the 
Romans in 211 B.C. Nos. 21-24, which lack the i and ti, belong to the beginning 
of the third or perhaps the end of the fourth century. No. 21 with its Dat.-Abl. 
PI. luisarifs is one of the very earliest Oscan inscriptions, barring coin-legends. 
The other numbers have the letters f and ti, but they are used with great careless- 
ness, and, moreover, the reading is often uncertain. 

248 Oscan Inscriptions [Nos. 21- 

21. Conway no. 101, v. PI. no. 130. 

Diuvilam Tirentium *Iovilam Terentiorum 

Magiium sulum muinikam Magiorum omnium communem 

Fisiais eiduis luisarifs Fisiis idibus lusoriis 

sakrvist. liuk destrst. sacrabit. Ea dextra est. 

It is altogether probable that luisarifs is related to L. ludd, lusus, as if 
L. *lusaribus, though this connection is rejected by Biicheler. To 'consecrate 
the iovila at the festival of the Fisian Ides, which is celebrated with games' is 
the same as to ' consecrate with games'. Cf. the consecration with sacrifices and 
with banquets in no. 29. 

22. Conway no. 102, v. PI. no. 139. 

Ek. diuvil. | Upfaleis | Saidiieis Hanc *iovilam Ofelli Saedii 
sakruvit | pustrei. sacratinpostera(consecratione?). 

23. Conway no. 105, v. PI. no. 141. 

a. Pumperias pustm[as *Quincuriae postremae 

Kluvatiium. Clovatiorum. 

6. Pum/>erias pustm[as *Quincuriae postremae 

Kluvatiium. Clovatiorum. 

24. Conway no. 103, v. PI. no. 147. 

a. Kluva . . . Clovatiorum 

Diuvia . . . loviae 

damu . . . 

6. Kluv . . . Clovatiorum 

damuse . . . 

Diuvia . . . loviae 

25. Conway no. 108, v. PI. no. 138. 

a. Ekas iuvilas luvei Hae *iovilae lovi 

Flagiui stahint. | Flagio stant. 

Minnieis Kaisillieis Minii Caesillii 

Minateis ner. Minati f. principis 

6. Minieis Kaisillieis Minii Caesillii 

Minateis ner. | Minati f. principis 

ekas iuvilas luvei Flagiui | hae *iovilae Tovi Flagio 

stahint. slant. 

28] Oscan Inscriptions 249 

Flagiuf is probably related to L. flagro and so to be compared with such 
epithets of Jupiter as Fulgur, Fulgurator, Fulguralis, Fulmen, Fulminaris (Carter, 
de deorum Roman orum cognominibus, p. 44). Whether ner. is an abbreviation 
of a cognomen such as Nero, or of a title (cf. ini ner 'quattuorvir') is uncertain, 
but the latter is more probable. 

26. Conway no. 109. v. PI. no. 134 a. 

Tr. Virriieis Ken- Tr. Verrii Cen- 

ssurineis ekas sorini hae 

iiivilas tris eh- *iovilae tres 

peilatasset Ve- erectae sunt Ve- 

5 sulliais. Fertalis sulliis. *Fertales 
staflatasset statutae sunt 

Mi. Blussii(eis) Mi. m. t. Mi. Blossii Mi. f . in *meddicia tutica. 
Nessimas staiet Proximae stant 

veruis luvkei. portae in luco. 

It is not entirely clear whether fertalis is used substantively of certain 
ceremonies celebrated with cakes, being then in the Nom. PI. and subject of a 
new sentence, or as an adjective agreeing with Vesulliais. The spelling -is, not 
-is, would be more surprising in the latter case than in the former (see 178, 7). 

27. Conway no. 115, v. PI. no. 131. 

Zik. iuhil. Sp. K|/vieis Haec *iovila Sp. Calovii 

inim | fratrum mm nik. et fratrum communis 

6 est Fiisiais | pumperiais est Fisiis *quincuriis 
pra i Mamerttiais | quae prae Martiis 
pas set. Kersswasias sunt. *Cenariae 

L. Pettie/ls meddzkia* | L. Pettii in *meddicia 

10 fufens. fuerunt. 

28. Conway no. 116, v. PI. no. 132. 

[iuvijl [ek. Sp.] | Kaluvieis [*iovila haec Sp.] Calovii 

ini'm fratn/m | mifinik. et fratrum communis 

5 est | Fiisiais pum|periais est Fisiis *quincuriis 

pas pr|ai Mamerttiais quae prae Martiis 

set. Sakrasia's L. sunt. *Sacrariae L. 

10 Pettieis me'ddikkiai fufiens. Pettii in *meddicia fuerunt. 

250 Oscan Inscriptions [Nos. 29- 

29. Conway no. 113, v. PI. no. 133. 

tipil. Vi. Pak. Opilli Vibii Pacii 

Tantrnnaium Tanterneiorum 

iwvi/as sakran- *iovilae sacran- 

nas e*dw/s Ma- dae idibus Mar- 

5 mertt/a/s. Pun tiis. Cum 

medd/s kapv ad- meddix Capuanus ad- 
fust, Iwviass me- erit, lovias me- 

ss/mass i&ief dioximas - 

fud sakriss sa- - hostiis sa- 

10 krafzr, avt crato, at 

ultiumam ker- ultimam ce- 

ssnais. nis. 

For the reading of 11. 6-9, cf. I.F. 12, 17 ff. Nothing satisfactory can be 
made out of the word between messimass and sakriss. 

30. Conway no. 114, v. PI. no. 134. 

Upil. Vi. Pak. Opilli Vibii Pacii 

Tantmnaif Tanterneiorum 

iiiv//. sakr&nn. *iovilae sacrandae 

Piimperiais *quincuriis 

5 siill soil 

pun medd. pis Cum meddix quis 

vere/rwjs - iuventutis 

fust, sakrid erit, hostia 

sakrafir. sacrato. 

31. Conway no. 117, v. PL no. 135. 

a. ... art ... 

kaspt damsenjn- decet - 

ias pas fi/'et - quae fiunt 

pustrei iuklei in postera consecratione 

5 eehiianasiim, emittendarum, 

avt sakrim at hostiam 

fakiiad kasit faciat decet 

medikAr. tiivtik. in *meddicia tutica 

Kapv. adpiid Capuana quoad 

10 fiiet. fiunt. 

36] Oscan Inscriptions 251 

6. . . ida .... vi* 

w/edikid - *meddicio 

tuvtik. da/v. tutico - 

sakraitir kas# sacretur decet 

6 damsennias 

pas fiiet piistr. quae fiunt in postera 

iwklei vehiian. consecratione emittendarum ; 

medik. minive. in *meddicio minore. 

kersnarias. *cenariae. 

What kind of offerings or celebrations are meant by damsennias is not 
clear, though the word (with damuse, no. 24) is very likely connected with 
L. damium, name of a sacrifice to Bona Dea, who was called Damia and Dami- 
atrix. Minive in b 8 is perhaps an abbreviated form (Loc. Sg. for *minivei ?) 
from a stem *miniuvu-, as if L. *mirmo-, with iv for iuv (31, b). Was there a 
'minor meddix 1 in contrast to the 'meddix tuticus' ? The second letter of avt, 
a 6, is e corrected to v. In eehiianasum, a 5, beside vehiian., b 7, the error is 
almost certainly in the second form, though some assume the opposite. 

32. Conway no. 106, v. PL no. 136. 

Sepis Helevi \ piimpe. \ Seppius Helvius *quincuriis 

Faler. \ iuvil. de. \ Falerniis *iovilam dedit 

Virriieis medikiap]. Verrii in *meddicia. 

33. Conway no. 107, v. PL no. 137. 

Sepieis Heleviieis sum. Seppii Helvii sum. 

Mi. Anni|iei(s) medik;kiai Mi. Annii in *meddicia 

tuv. iuvilam \ priifts \ tutica *iovilam probaverunt 

pumper a *quincuriae 

Falenia s. Falerniae. 

The same s serves for the final of the last two words. 

34. Conway no. 110, v. PL no. 142. 

Viriium \ Vesuliais \ deivinais. Verriorum Vesulliis divinis. 

Other Capuan Inscriptions 

35. Painted epitaph. Conway no. 134, v. PL no. 156. 
Upfals patir Miinieis. Ofellus pater Minii f. 

36. Painted epitaph. Conway no. 135, v. PL no. 157. 

Upfals Salaviis Minies. Ofellus Salvius Minii f. 


Oscan Inscriptions 

[Nos. 37- 

37. Painted epitaph. Conway no. 136, v. PI. nos. 161-162. 

a. Vibi[s] Smintiis Vibius Smintius 

Vibis Smintiis sum. \ Vibius Smintius sum. 

b. Vibis Smintiis. Vibius Smintius. 

38. Gold finger-ring. Conway no. 133, v. PL no. 165. 
Vibis | Urufiis. Vibius Orfius. 

This was formerly read upside down as Arafiis Vibis. 

39. Small terra-cotta object of uncertain character, v. PI. no. 164 a. 
perkium | puiieh sum . . . cuius sum ? 

See footnote, p. 145. 


40. Cumae (?). Several fragments of a lead plate in the possession of 
the Naples Museum and believed to have come from Cumae. It is evidently of 
the same character as nos. 19-20 from Capua. The portion of the text given 
here is made up of two of the larger fragments. Conway no. 137 c, f, g, v. PI. 
no. 119 V (where the fragments are united). 

[Upis?] Mut[ti]lli[s . . 
[Gnaijvs Fuvfdis Ma . . 
Dekis Buttis, 
Dekis Rahiis Maraheis niir, 


5 .Dkuva Rahiis Upfalleis, 
Marahis Rahiis Papeis, 
Dekis Hereiis Dekkieis Saipinaz, 
Maras Rufriis, Maras Blaisiis 

Dekkieis Rahiieis, Uppiieis 

10 Dekkieis Heriieis akkatus inim 


sullus inim eisunk uhftis 

\0ppius] Mutilius . . . , 
Gnaeus Fufidius . . . , 
Decius Bottius, 
Decius Raius Marae f. princeps, 

culpa (eius est), 

- Raius Ofelli f., 
Marius Raius Papi f., 
Decius Herius Decii f. Saepinas 
Maras Rubrius, Maras Blaesius 

Marae f., 
Decii Raii, Oppii 

Decii Herii advocati et 


omnes et eorum voluntates 
omnium omnes. 

44] Oscan Inscriptions 253 

The akkatus inim trstus, correctly explained by Skutsch (B.B. 23, 100) as 
'advocati et testes', shows that the occasion of this imprecation was a lawsuit. 

Cf. "nee illi hanc litem vincere possint sic nee advocati eorom eo[s 

defjendere (non) possint," from a Latin curse (Rh. M, 55, 241 ff.). 

41. Herculaneum. On a marble table intended for offerings. Now in 
the Naples Museum. Conway no. 87, v. PI. no. 117. 

a. Herentateis sum. Veneris sum. 

b. L. Slabiis L. Aukil L. Stlabius L. f. Aucilus 
meddiss tiivtiks meddix tuticus 
Herentatei Herukinai Veneri Erycinae 
pniffed. | posuit. 

42. Nola. On a block of stone said to have been found under the ruins 
of a temple. Now in the Naples Museum. Conway no. 93, v. PI. no. 124. 

Nijumsis Heirennis Niumsieis Numerius Herennius Numerii f . 

Ka . . . Perkens Gaaviis Ca . . . , Percennus Gavius 

Perkedneps . . .] | meddiss Percenni f . . . . meddices 

degetasiiis &raget[u6. . . . *decentarii argento .... 

43. Nola. On a block of stone, possibly an altar. Conway no. 94, v. PI. 
no. 125. 

Paakul Mulukiis Marai. Paculus Mulcius Mar. f. 

meddis | degetasis aragetud meddix *decentarius argento 

multaspkud. multaticio. 

44. Suessula. Incised on the inside of a glazed plate. Conway no. 97, 
v. PL no. 175. 

Minis Beriis Anei upsatuh Minius Berius Anei. operati 

sent Tiianei. | sunt Teani. 

The third letter in the second word is a peculiar character which is read 
by some as 1. The third word seems to be an abbreviation for another name, 
making up the plural subject of upsatuh sent, used here with active meaning. 


Oscan Inscriptions 

[No. 45 

45. The Dedicatory Tablet of Agnone 

A small bronze tablet (about 11 by 6^ inches), inscribed on both sides. 
Now in the British Museum. Conway no. 175, v. PL no. 200. 

Status pus set hurtin 
Kerriiin : Vezkei statif 
Evklui statif, Kerri statif 
* Futrei Kerriiai statif 
5 Anterstatai statif 
Ammai Kerriiai statif 
Diumpais Kerriiais statif 
Liganakdikei Entrai statif 
Anafriss Kerriiuis statif 

10 Maatuis Kerriiuis statif 
Diuvei Verehashii statif 
Diiivei Regaturei statif 
Hereklui Kerriiui statif 
Patanai Piistiai statif 

15 Deivai Genetai statif. 
Aasai purasiai 
saahtum tefurum alttrei 
piitereipid akenei 

20 Fiuusasiais az hurtum 

Pernai Kerriiai statif 
Ammai Kerriiai statif 
Fluusai Kerriiai statif 

25 Evklui Paterei statif. 

(Di) qui erecti sunt in luco 
Cereali: Vetusci statua, 
Euclo statua, Cereri statua, 
Genetrici Cereali statua, 
Interstitae statua, 
Ammae Cereali statua, 
Lumpis Cerealibus statua, 
Leg . . dici Interae statua, 
Imbribus Cerealibus statua, 
Matis Cerealibus statua, 
lovi Versori statua, 
lovi Rectori statua, 
Herculi Cereali statua, 
Pandae Fidiae statua, 
Divae Genitae statua. 
In ara igniaria 
crematio sancta in altero 
quoque anno 
Floralibus ad lucum 

Pernae Cereali statua, 
Ammae Cereali statua, 
Florae Cereali statua, 
Euclo Patri statua. 

No. 45] 

Oscan Inscriptions 


Aasas ekask eestint 



30 Fuutrei 




35 Liganakdikei Entrai 




Diuvei Verehasiu 
40 Diiivei Piihiui Regaturei 

Herekliii Kerriiui 

Patanai Piistiai 

Deivai Genetai. 

Aasai purasiai 
45 saahtum tefiirum 

alttrei piitereipid 


Hiirz Dekmanniuis stait. 


Arae hae exstant 









Leg . . dici Interae 




lovi Versori, 

lovi Pio Rectori, 

Herculi Cereali, 

Pandae Fidiae, 

Divae Genitae. 

In ara igniaria 

crematio sancta 

in alter o quoque 


Lucus *Decumaniis stat. 

Cf. especially Mommsen, Unterit. Dial., 128 ff. 

The inscription contains an inventory of the statues (A) and altars (B) in 
a sacred grove devoted to the worship of rural divinities. Kerriiu-, which is 
used as an epithet of several of the divinities and of the grove itself, does not 
mean simply 'pertaining to Ceres', though it is translated 'Cerealis' for con- 
venience. It must have a wider sense, 'pertaining to the powers of generation', 
such as were Ceres and Cerrus, and might also be translated (with Mommsen) 
'Genialis', since Genius was originally, like Cerrus, a personification of the 
power of generation. 

Corresponding to the Floralia mentioned in 1. 20, we probably have in 
Dekmanniuis of 1. 48 the name of a December festival, like the Eoman Consualia 
or Saturnalia. The phrase alttrei putereipid akenei, in case akenei is 'year' 
(159, a), must mean 'in every other year' (see 200, 2, a). Otherwise it is 

256 Oscan Inscriptions [Nos. 45- 

'at each of the two festivals', referring to the Floralia and the Decumania. In 
L 1 status piis set means '(the gods) who are set up, i.e. honored with statues'. 
Cf. Hor. Odes 4, 1, 20. 

This is the earliest carefully written inscription of any size in the fully 
developed alphabet and, judging from the style of the letters, tnust be at least 
a century earlier than the Cippus Abellanus. We may take 250 B.C. as a con- 
servative date. 

46. Bovianum Vetus. Conway no. 171, v. PL no. 189. 

Nv. Vesullia is Tr. m. t. | Nv. Vesullieius Tr. f . meddix tuticus 
ekik sakarakliim hoc tern plum 

Buva[ianud aikdafed. ad Bovianum decrevit. 

On the last line, see 61, 3, and 264, 3. 

47. Bovianum Vetus. On fragments of a cornice. Conway no. 174, v. PL 
no. 190. 

Gn. Staiis Mh. Tafidins , Cn. Staius Mh. f. Tafidinus 

metd. t. dadikatted. | meddix tuticus dedicavit. 

48. Bovianum Vetus. Conway no. 170, v. PL no. 192. 

Ste meddiss Stenius . . . meddix 

tiiv[tik]s upsannam tuticus faciendam 

deded im'm /niifatted. dedit et probavit. 

49. Bovianum Vetus. Conway no. 173, v. PL no. 193. 

. . d Staatiis L. Klar . . ... Statius L. f. Clar . . . 

. . d pestlum upsann[um] . . . templum faciendum . . . 

50. Bovianum Vetus. Conway no. 169, v. PL no. 188. 
. . . p?]*/rtam liis .... ... portam . . . 

. . . d Safinim sak .... ... Samnium sac . . 

. . upam iak uin .... ... earn un . . 

injim keenzstur .... et censor(es?) 

5 Mjaiieis Maraiieis .... Maii Mareii 

p]aam essuf umb quam ipse . . . 

a]vt ptistiris esidu ... at posterius idem . . 

djuunated fiis ..... donavit fan . . 

ijnim leigiiss sami ... et - 

10 l?]ufrikunuss fif liberigenos . . . 

So much is lost that no certain restoration can be .made. 

58] Oscan Inscriptions 257 

51. Molise. Conway no. 163, v. PL no. 185. 

Bn. Betitis Bn. Bn. Betitius Bn. f. 

meddiss pruffed. meddix posuit. 

52. Aesernia. On a gold ring. Conway no. 167, v. PL no. 187. 
Stenis Kalaviis Stenius Calvius 
Anagtiai Diiviiai Angitiae Diae 

dunum deded. donum dedit. 

53. Near Agnone. About the neck of a round pedestal. Conway no. 176, 
v. PL no. 201. 

Mz. Hurtiis Km. Mz. Hortius Cm. f. 

Her. dunum. Her culi donum. 

Her. for Herekliif or Herentatei ? 

54. Macchia di Valfortore. Conway no. 162, v. PL 180. 
sakara]lum Maatreis templum Matris 

. . . ras Futrefis . . . Genetricis 

Known only from a copy. The last word appears as Futre . e. 

55. Saepinum. Conway no. 164, v. PL no. 182. 
pis tiu Quis tu?' 
iiv kuru glans 
piiiiu Baiteis cuia? Baeti 
Aadiieis A/ifineis. Adii Aedini. 

This is on an oval stone and is possibly an inscribed missile like the Eoman 
glandes plumbeae. We have then a question ' ' Who art thou and whose missile ? ' ' 
and the answer "(I am the missile) of Baetus Adius." But iiv is hopeless and 
kuru is without known connection. 

56. Aufidena. Conway no. 177, v. PL no. 199. 

Pk. De. Pk. suvad PC. Deems PC. f. sua 

eitiv. upsed. pecunia fecit. 

57. Conway no. 181, v. PL no. 203. 

Mill. Me|tiis Mb, \ Mitulus Mettius Mh. f. 

Fiml. ups. Fimulus fecit. 

258 Oscan Inscriptions [Nos. 59- 

58. Near Histoniura. Conway no. 190, v. PI. no. 204. 
Kaal. Husidiis Gaav . . . Cal. Hosidius Gavii f. 
Viibis tfhtavis tff . . . Vibius Octavius Of. f. 
kenzsur pa# . . . censores patraverunt. 

59. Near Histonium. On the bottom of a bronze head. Conway no. 191, 
v. PL no. 206. 

Iiiveis | Liivfreis. lovis Liberi. 

60. Conway no. 194, v. PI. no. 208. 

Pakis Tintiriis. Pacius Tintirius. 

61. Anxanum ? On a bronze tablet of peculiar shape. Conway no. 193, 
v. PI. no. 209. 

Vereks Luvkanateis luventutis Lucanatis 

aapas kaias Palaniid. Pallano. 

The evidence for a town called Pallanum and a district called Lucania in 
the territory of the Frentani is given by Mommsen, Unterit. Dial. p. 169, Con- 
way p. 210. The first two words of 1. 2 are wholly obscure. 


62. Messana. Conway no. 1, v. PI. no. 1. 

KaXm? SraTTt?;t9 Stenius Calinius Statii f. 

Mapa? IIo/iTrTte? Niu/xo-&77t9 Maras Pontius Numerii f. 

fieSSeit; ovTrcrevs meddices fecerunt 

eivei/ji rw pro Mafjieprivo et civitas Mamertina. 

A7T7re\\ovvrjL cra/copo. Apollini sacra (est). 

The text is made up from two fragments, and an early copy from which 
are supplied the letters at the beginning of the lines. The Mamertines were of 
Campanian origin. The last word is probably Nom. Sg. F. or Nom. PI. N., 'is' 
or 'are' being understood. But possibly it is Nom. Sg. F. agreeing with 

63. On bricks in the museum at Messana. Conway no. 2, v. PI. no. 2. 


64. Bronze plate found in Monteleone (Bruttium). Conway no. 5, v. PI. 
no. 4. 

Fepaopei ravpo/ji. lovi Versori taurum. 

80] Oscan Inscriptions 259 

65. Bronze helmet of unknown provenance, now in the museum of 
Palermo. Conway no. 6, v. PI. no. 19. 

2. Secrrte? SeSer. Trebius S. f. .Festius dedit. 

66. Bronze helmet of unknown provenance, now at Vienna. Conway 
no. 7, v. PI. no. 18. 

Ma/jieperaes Spedius MamerciUs 

avaSa/cer. Saepinus dedicavit. 

For the value of the character S in these last two inscriptions, see 24, &. 


Of the numerous examples of coin-legends the following may serve as 

67. Aquilonia(?). Akudunniad. 

68. Atella. Aderl. 

69. Ausculum. a) avt-va-/c\t., b) avcnc\iv.., c] ava- 


70. Capua. Kapv. 

71. "Compulteria. a) Kupelternum, b) Kupelternum. 

72. Fistelia. a) Fistelu, b) Fistluis, c) ^tcrreXia, 

reverse Fistluis. 

73. Frentrum. Frentrei. 

74. Messana. Ma/JLeprivovfj,. 

75. Lucania. A.ov/cavo/Ji. 

76. Nuceria Alfaterna. Nuvkrinum Alafaternum. 

77. Teanum Sidicinum. Tianud Sidikinud. 

78. Teate. Tiiatium. 

79. Italia (coins of the Social War). 

a) G. Paapii G. Mutil, reverse G. Papius G. f . Mutilus Italia. 


b) G. Paapi G., reverse Mutil G. Papius G. f. Mutilus 

embratur. imperator. 

80. Samnium (coins of the Social War). 

G. Mutil, reverse Safinim. G. Mutilus Samnium. 


Iguvinian Tables 




Seven bronze tablets, varying from about 16 by 12 inches to 25 by 15 inches, 
found at Gubbio, the ancient Iguvium, in 1444. Tables I-IV and Va-Vb 7 are 
in the native alphabet, Vb 7-18 and VI, VII, in the Latin alphabet. See also 
8, 9, and below, p. 309 ; for the bibliography, see pp. xiii-xvi. 

A Esuk frater Atiief iur 

plenasier urnasier uhtretie | 

3 T.T.Kastruciie. Arferturpisi 

4 pumpe | fust eikvasese Atiie- 

5 Her, ere ri esune I kuraia, pre- 
habia pife uraku ri esuna | 

6 si herte, et pure esune 

7 sis. Sakreu perakneu 
upetu, revestu, pure terte, | 

8 eru emantur herte, 

9 et pihaklu pune | tribficu fu- 

10 iest, akrutu revestu | emantu 
herte. Arfertur pisi pumpe | 

11 fust, erek esunesku vepurus 

12 felsva | afputrati fratru Atiie- 

13 fiu prehubia, | et nufpener 
prever pusti kastruvuf. | 

14 Frater Atiiefiur esu eitipes 

15 plenasier | urnasier uhtretie 
K. T. Kluviier. Kumnah kle 

VA, B 

eitipes Ita fratres Atiedii decreverunt 
plenariis *urnariis *auctura 
T. Castrucii T. f. Flamen qui- 
cumque erit collegis Atiediis, 
is rem sacram curet, praebeat 
quidquid ad illam rem sacram 
sit oportet, et qui in sacrificiis 
sint (oportet). Hostias sollemnis 
deligito, revisito, cum datur, (ali- 
quae)earum accipiantur oportetne, 
et cum piaculorum ternio fiet, 
ex agro revisito accipiantur 
oportetne. Flamen quicumque 
erit, is ad sacrificia sine igne 
Tiolera arbitratu fratrum Atie- 
diorum praebeat, et - pondiis 
singulis in capita. 

Fratres Atiedii ita decreverunt 
plenariis *urnariis *auctura 
C. Cluvii T. f. In conventu 

1 Table V is given first, as a convenient starting-point for the beginner ; then 
VI, VII, and with these are given at the bottom of the page the parallel passages 
of I, which is an earlier and shorter version of the same material ; then I in a 
continuous text, for the sake of greater convenience for reference ; lastly II-IV. 
These last, especially III and IV, are so difficult that they might be omitted in a 
work of this kind, were it not for the convenience of having the complete texts for 

The translation is in the main that of Biicheler, but with not a few departures 
in the rendering of certain words. 

Vb 12] 

Iguvinian Tables 


16 Atiiefie ukre eikvasese Ati- 

17 iefier, | ape apelust, muneklu 

18 habia numer | prever pusti 
kastruvuf, et ape purtitu | 

19 fust, muneklu habia numer 

20 tupler | pusti kastruvu, et ape 

21 subra spafu fust, muneklu 
habia numer tripler pusti | 

22 kastruvu. Et ape frater cers- 

23 natur furent, 1 | ehvelklu feia 

24 fratreks ute kvestur, | sve 
rehte kuratu si. Sve mestru 

25 karu | fratru Atiief iu, pure ulu 

26 benurent, | prusikurent rehte 

27 kuratu eru, efek | prufesi. Sve 
mestru karu fratru Atiief iu, 

28 pure ulu benurent, prusiku- 

29 rent kuratu rehte neip eru, 
B enuk fratru II ehvelklu feia 

2 fratreks I ute kvestur, panta 

3 muta | arferture si. Panta 

4 muta fratru I Atiieriu mestru 

5 karu, pure ulu | benurent, af- 

6 ferture eru pepurkurjent he- 

7 rifi, etantu mutu arferture si. | 

8 Clauerniur dirsas Tierti 
fratrus Atiersir posti 

9 acnu | farer opeter p. IIII 
agre Tlatie PiquierMartier 

10 et sesna \ homonus duir, 

Atiedio in arce, collegia Ati- 
ediis, ubi impendent, sportulam 
habeat nummis singulis in 
capita, et ubi porrectum 
erit, sportulam habeat nummis 
binis in capita, et ubi 
superiectum erit, sportulam 
habeat nummis trinis in 
capita. Et ubi fratres ce- 
nati eruiit, sententiam roget 
magister aut quaestor, si 
recte curatum sit. Si maior 
pars fratrum Atiediorum,qui illuc 
venerint, pronuntiaverint recte 
curatum esse, id probe sit. Si 
maior pars fratrum Atiediorum, 
qui illuc venerint, pronuntiave- 
rint curatum recte non esse, 
turn fratrum sententiam roget 
magister aut quaestor, quanta 
multa flammi sit. Quantam 
multam fratrum Atiediorum maior 
pars, qui illuc venerint, fla- 
mini esse oportuerit poposcerint, 
tanta multa flamini sit. 

Clavernii dent oportet 
fratribus Atiediis in singulos 
annos farris lecti pondo IIII 
agri Latii Piquii Martii, 

et cenam hominibus duobus, 
purifareiscurent,otea.VL qui far arcessierint, aut asses VI. 

11 Clauerni \ dirsans herti Claverniis dent oportet 
frater 2 Atiersiur sehmenier fratres Atiedii sementivis 

12 dequrier \ pelmner sorser decuriis pulpamenti suilli 

1 Aes furenf . 

2 A.QSfrateer with first e erased. 

262 Iguvinian Tables rvbi2- 

L I a 1-2 

posti acnu uef X cabri- in singulos #?m0s partes X, capri- 

13 ner uef V, pretra \ toco ni partes V, priores sale (condi- 

postra fahe, et sesna tas), posteriores , et cenam 

ote a. VI. Casilos dirsa her- aut asses VI. Casilas det oportet 

14 ti fratrus \ Atiersir posti fratribus Atiediis in singulos 
acnu farer opeter p. Vlagre annos farris lecti pondo VI agri 

15 Casiler Piquier \ Martier et Casili Piquii Martii, et 
sesna homonus duir, puri cenam hominibus duobus, qui 
far eiscurent, ote a. VI. \ far arcessierint, aut asses VI. 

16 Casilate dirsans hertifrateer Casilati dent oportet fratres 
Atiersiur sehmenier dequ- Atiedii sementivis decuriis 

17 rier \pelmner sorser posti pulpamenti suilli in singulos 
acnu uef XV cabriner uef annos partes XV, caprini partes 

18 VII s., et | sesna ote VII semissem, et cenam aut 
a. VI. asses VI. 


1 ^Este persclo aueis aser- Istud sacrificium avibus obser- 
iater enetu, parfa curnase vatis inito, parra cornice 
dersua, peiqu peica merstu. prospera, pico pica iusto. 

2 Poei angla aseriato \ eest, Qui oscines observatum ibit, 
eso tremnu serse arsfer- sic in tabernaculo sedens flami- 
ture ehueltu: l stiplo aser- nem iubeto : 'stipulare ut obser- 
iaia parfa dersua, curnaco vem parram prosperam, cornicem 

3 dersua, \ peico mersto, peica prosperam, picum iustum, picam 
mersta, mersta auuei, mersta iustam, iustos avis, iustas 
angla esona\ Arfertur eso oscines divinas'. Flamen sic 

4 anstiplatu: \ 'ef aserio instipulator : 'turn ibi observa 
parfa dersua, curnaco ders- parram prosperam, cornicem pros- 
ua, peico mersto, peica mers- peram, picum iustum, picam ius- 
ta, mersta aueif, merstaf \ tarn, iustas avis, iustas 


1 f Este persklum aves anzer- Istud sacrificium avibus obser- 

2 iates enetu | pernaies pusnaes. vatis inito anticis posticis. 



Iguvinian Tables 


6 anglaf esona mehe, tote lio- 
ueine, esmei stahmei stah- 
meitei\ Sersi pirsi sesust, 

6 poi angla \ aseriato est, erse 
neip mugatu nep arsir ander- 
sistu, nersa courtust porsi 

7 angla anseriato \ iust. Sue 
muieto fust ote pisi arsir 
ander sesust, 1 disleralinsust. \ 

8 Uerfale pufe arsfertur 
trebeit ocrer peihaner, erse 
stahmito eso tuderato est: 

9 angluto \ hondomu, porsei 
nesimei asa deueia est, 
anglome somo, porsei 
nesimei uapersus auiehcleir \ 

10 est, eine angluto somo 
uapefe auiehclu todcome 
tuder, angluto hondomu 
asame deueia todcome \ 

11 tuder. Eine todceir 
tuderus seipodruhpei se- 
ritu. | 

12 Tuder or tot cor : uapersus- 
to auieclir ebetrafe, ooser- 
clome, presoliafe Nurpier, 

13 uasirslome, \ smursime, tet- 
tome Miletinar, tertiamepra- 
co pracatarum; uapersusto 

14 auieclir carsome \ Uestisier, 
randeme Rufrer, tettome No- 
niar, tettome Salier, carsome 
Hoier, pertome Padellar. \ 

15 Hondra esto tuder o porsei 

oscines divinas mihi, civitati Igu- 
vinae, huic statui sta- 
tute'. In sede cum sederit 
qui oscines observatum ibit, turn 
nee muttito nee alius *inter- 
sidito, donee revorterit qui 
oscines observatum ierit. Si 
muttitum erit aut quis alius 
*intersederit, inritum fecerit. 

Templum ubi flam en 
versatur arcis piandae, id 
statutum sic nnitum est: 
ab angulo imo qui 
proxume ab ara divina est, 
usque ad angulum summum qui 
proxume ab sellis auguralibus 
est, deinde ab angulo summo 
iuxta sellas auguralis usque ad 
urbicum finem, ab angulo imo 
iuxta aram divinam usque ad 
urbicum finem. Turn in urbicis 
finibus seorsum utroque ser- 

Fines urbici: ab sellis 
auguralibus ad exitus, ad *obser- 

vaculum, ad Nurpii, 

ad , ad , ad 

Miletinae, ad tertiam sae- 
pium saeptarum ; ab sellis 
auguralibus ad Vesticii, 
ad Rubri, ad No- 

niae, ad 
Hoii, ad 
Infra istos 

Salii, ad 

finis qui 

1 Aes andersesusp. 

264 Iquvinian Tables [VI a l- r >- 


subra screihtor sent, parfa supra script! sunt, parram 

dersua, curnaco dersua prosperam, cornicem prosperam 

16 seritu. Subra esto \ tudero servato. Supra istos finis 
peico mersto, peica mersta picum iustum, picam iustam 
seritu. servato. 

Sue anclar procanurent, Si oscines cecinerint, 

17 eso tremnu serse \ combifiatu, sic in tabernaculo sedens nuntiato, 
arsferturo nomne car situ: flaminem nomine appellate : 
* par/a dersua, curnaco 'parram prosperam, cornicem 
dersua, peico mersto, peica prosperam, picum iustum, picam 

18 meersta, \ mersta aueif,mers- iustam, iustas avis, iustas 
ta ancla eesona tefe, tote oscines sacras tibi, civitati 
liouine, esmei stahmei stah- Iguvinae, huic statui sta- 
mitei\ Esisco esoneir seueir \ tuto'. Ad haec sacra omnia 

\Qpopleranfereneretocrerpi- populi lustrandi et arcis pi- 

haner perca arsmatia habitu. andae virgam ritualem habeto. 

Uasor uerisco Treblanir Vasa ad portam Trebulanam 

20 porsi ocrer \pehaner paca quae arcis piandae causa 
ostensendi, eo iso ostendu, ostendentur, ea sic ostendito, 
pusi pir pureto cehefi dia. ut ignis abigneaccensussitiaciak. 
Surur uerisco Tesonocir. \ Item ad portam Tesenacam. 

21 Surur uerisco UeTiieir. \ Item ad portam Veiam. 

22 \Pre uereir Treblaneir Ante portam Trebulanam 
luue G-ra bouei buf treiffetu. lovi Grabovio boves tris facito. 
Esonaratuuesteis: '-teiosub- Sic narrato libans : 'te in- 

23 ocau suboco \ Dei Grra- voco invocationes lovem Gra- 
boui, ocriper -Fisiu, totaper boviumproarceFisia,procivitate 
liouina, erer nomne^er, Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, 
erar nomneper; fos sei, pro civitatis nomine ; favens sis, 

24 pacer sei ocre Fisei, \ tote propitius sis arci Fisiae, civitati 
liouine, erer nomne, erar Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis 
nomne. Arsie, tio subocau nomini. Sancte, te invoco 


3 fPreveres Treplanes | luve Ante portam Trebulanam lovi 

Krapuvi tre buf fetu. Grabovio tris boves facito. 



Iguvinian Tables 


suboco Dei Graboue, 

25 arsier frite tio subocau \ 
suboco Dei Graboue. 
Di Grabouie, tio esu bue 
peracrei pihdclu ocreper Fi- 
siu, totaper louina, irer 

26 nomneper, \ erar nomneper. 
Dei Grabouie, orer 

invocationes lovem Grabovium, 
sancti fiducia te invoco 
invocationes lovem Grabovium. 
luppiter Grabovi, te hoc bove 
opimo piaculo pro arce Fi- 
sia, pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis 
nomine, pro civitatis nomine. 

luppiter Grabovi, huius (piaculi) 
ose, persei ocre Fisiepir orto opere, si in arce Fisia ignis ortus 
est, toteme louine arsmor est, in civitate Iguvina ritus 
27 dersecor \ subator sent,pusei debiti omissi sunt, (facito) quasi 
neip heritu. Dei Orabouie, non consulto. luppiter Grabovi, 

persei tuer perscler uaseto 

est,pesetom est,peretom est, \ 

28 frosetom est, daetom est, 

tuer perscler uirseto auirseto 

si tui sacrificii (quid) vitiatum 
est, peccatum est, peritum est, 
fraudatum est, delictum est, 
tui sacrificii visum invisum 

uas est, Di Grabouie, persei vitium est, luppiter Grabovi, si 

29 mersei, esu bue \peracrei 
pihaclu pihafei. Di Gra- 
bouie, pihatu ocre Fisei, 
pihatu tota louina. Di 
Grabouie, pihatu ocrer 

30 Fisier, totar louinar nome, 
nerf, arsmo, ueiro, pequo 

ius sit, hoc bove opimo 
piaculo piatum sit. luppiter Gra- 
bovi, piato arcem Fisiam, 
piato civitatem Iguvinam. lup- 
piter Grabovi, piato arcis 
Fisiae, civitatis Iguvinae nomen, 
principes, ritus, viros, pecnum 
castruo, fri pihatu ; futuf os capita, fruges piato ; esto favens 
pacer pase tua ocre Fisi, \ propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, 

civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini, 
civitatis nomini. luppiter Gra- 
bovi, salvam servato arcem Fisiam, 
salvam servato civitatem Iguvi- 
nam. luppiter Grabovi, salvum 
servato arcis Fisiae, civitatis 
Iguvinae nomen, principes, ritus, 
viros, pecuum capita, fruges 

31 tote liouine, erer 1 nomne, 
erar nomne. Di Grabo- 
uie, saluo seritu ocre Fisi, 
salua seritu tota lioui- 

32 na. Di \ Grabouie, saluo 
seritu ocrer Fisier, totar 
liouinar nome, nerf, arsmo, 
ueiro, pequo castruo, fri 

1 Aes erlr. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[VI a 32- 

33 salua seritu; futuf os pacer 
pase tua ocre Fisi, tote 
louine, erer nomne, erar 
nomne. Di G-rabouie, tio 

34 esu bue \ peracri pihaclu 
ocreper Fisiu, totaper 
louina, erer nomneper, 
erar nomneper, Di 
G-rabouie, tio subocauS \ 

35 'Di G-rabouie, tio esu bue 
peracri pihaclu etru ocreper 
Fisiu, totaper louina, erer 
nomneper, erar nomneper. 

36 Di | Gf-rabouie, orer 
ose,persei ocre Fisiepir orto 
est, tote louine arsmor 
dersecor subator sent, pusei 

37 neip | hereitu. Di Crabouie, 
persi tuer perscler uasetom 
est, pesetom est, peretomest, 
frosetomest, daetomest, 

38 tuer \perscler uirseto aui- 
rseto uas est, Di G-rabouie, 
persi mersi, esu bue peracri 
pihaclu etru pihafi. Di 

39 G-rabouie, \ pihatu ocre Fisi, 
pihatu tota louina. Di 
Grabouie, pihatu ocrer 
Fisier, totar liouinar nome, 

40 nerf, arsmo, ueiro, \ pequo 
castruo, fri pihatu; futufos 
pacer pase tua ocre Fisie, 
tote liouine, erer nomne, 

41 erar nomne. Di \ Gra- 
bouie, saluo seritu ocre 

salvas servato ; esto favens pro- 
pi tius pace tua arci Fisiae, civitati 
Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis 
nomini. luppiter Grabovi, te 
hoc bove opimo piaculo 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate 
Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, 
pro civitatis nomine, luppiter 
Grabovi, te invoco.' 

'luppiter Grabovi, te hoc bove 
opimo piaculo altero pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, pro 
arcis nomine, pro civitatis nomine, 
luppiter Grabovi, huius (piaculi) 
opere, si in arce Fisia ignis ortus 
est, in civitate Iguvina ritus 
debiti omissi sunt, (facito) quasi 
non consulto. luppiter Grabovi, 
si tui sacrificii (quid) vitiatum 
est, peccatum est, peritum est, 
fraudatum est, delictum est, 
tui sacrificii visum invisum 
vitium est, luppiter Grabovi, 
si ius sit, hoc bove opimo 
piaculo altero piatum sit. luppi- 
ter Grabovi, piato arcem Fisiam, 
piato civitatem Iguvinam. lup- 
piter Grabovi, piato arcis 
Fisiae, civitatis Iguvinae nomen, 
principes, ritus, viros, pecuum 
capita, fruges piato ; esto favens 
propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, 
civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini, 
civitatis nomini. luppiter Gra- 
bovi, salvam servato arcem 

VI a 49] 

Iguvinian Tables 


Fisim, salua seritu totam 
liouina. Di G-rabouie, salu- 
uom seritu ocrer Fisier, to- 

42 tar \ liouinar nome, nerf, 
arsmo, uiro, pequo castruo, 
frifsaluua seritu; futufons 
pacer pase tuna ocre Fisi, 

43 tote | liouine, erer nomne, 
erar nomne. Di Gra- 
bouie, tiom essu bue peracri 
pihaclu etru ocriper Fissiu, 

44 totaper louina, erer \ nom- 
neper, erar nomneper, 
Di Grabouie, tiom subocau.'l 

45 l Di G-rabouie, tiom esu bue 
peracri pihaclu tertiu ocri- 
per Fisiu, totaper liouina, 
erer nomneper, erar nom- 

46 neper. Di \ G-rabouie, 
orer ose, pirse ocrem 
Fisiem pir ortom est, toteme 
louinem arsmor dersecor 
subator sent, pusi neip \ 

47 heritu. Di Crrabouie, 
perse tuer pescler uasetom 

est, pesetom est, peretom est, 
frosetom' est, daetom est, 

48 tuer \ pescler uirseto aui- 
rseto uas est, Di Crrabouie, 
pir si mersi, esu bue peracri 
pihaclu tertiu pihafi. Di 

49 Grabouie, \ pihatu ocrem 
Fisim, pihatu totam lio- 
uinam. Di G-rabouie, pi- 
hatu ocrer Fisier, totar 

Fisiam, salvam servato civitatem 
Iguvinam. IuppiterGrabovi,sal- 
vum servato arcis Fisiae, civi- 
tatis Iguvinae nomen, principes, 
ritus, viros, pecuum capita, 
f ruges salvas servato ; esto favens 
propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, 
civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini, 
civitatis nomini. luppiter Gra- 
bovi, te hoc bove opimo 
piaculo altero pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis 
nomine, pro civitatis nomine, 
luppiter Grabovi, te invoco.' 

'luppiter Grabovi, te hoc bove 
opimo piaculo tertio pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine. luppiter Grabovi, 
huius (piaculi) opere, si in arce 
Fisia ignis ortus est, in civi- 
tate Iguvina ritus debiti 
omissi sunt, (facito) quasi non 
consulto. luppiter Grabovi, 
si tui sacrificii (quid) vitiatum 
est, peccatum est, peritum est, 
frau datum est, delictum est, 
tui sacrificii visum invisum 
vitium est, luppiter Grabovi, 
si ius sit, hoc bove opimo 
piaculo tertio piatum sit. lup- 
piter Grabovi, piato arcem 
Fisiam, piato civitatem Igu- 
vinam. luppiter Grabovi, pi- 
ato arcis Fisiae, civitatis 


Iguvinian Tables 

[VI a 49- 
L I a 3- 

liouinar nome, nerf, asmo, \ 
60 uiro, pequo castruo, fri 
pihatu; futu fans pacer 
pase tua ocre Fisi, tote 
liouine, erer nomne, erar 

51 nomne. Di \ Grabouie, sal- 
uo seritu ocrem Fisim, 
saluam seritu totam lio- 
uinam. Di G-rabouie, sal- 
uom seritu ocrer Fisier, \ 

52 totar liouinar nome, nerf, 
arsmo, uiro, pequo castruo, 
frif salua seritu; futufons 
pacer pase tua ocre Fisi, \ 

63 tote liouine, erer nomne, 
erar nomne. Di Gra- 
bouie, tiom esu bue peracri 
pihaclu tertiu ocriper Fisiu, 

54 totaper \ liouina, erer nom- 
neper, erar nomneper. 
Di Grabouie, tio comohota 
tribrisine buo peracrio 1 pi- 

55 haclo | ocriper Fisiu, totaper 
liouina, erer nomneper, 




Grabouie, tiom subocau.' 
56 f Tases persnimu \ seuom. 
Surur purdouitu, proseseto 

Iguvinae nomen, principes, ritus, 
viros, pecuwm capita, fruges 
piato ; esto favens propitius 
pace tua arci Fisiae, civitati 
Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis 
nomini. luppiter Grabovi, sal- 
vam servato arcem Fisiam, 
salvam servato civitatem Igu- 
vinam. luppiter Grabovi, sal- 
vum servato arcis Fisiae, 
civitatis Iguvinae nomen, prin- 
cipes, ritus, viros, pecuwm capita, 
fruges salvas servato ; esto favens 
propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, 
civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini, 
civitatis nomini. luppiter Gra- 
bovi, te hoc bove opimo 
piaculo tertio pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis 
nomine, pro civitatis nomine, 
luppiter Grabovi, te commoto 
ternione bourn opimorum pi- 
aculorum pro arce Fisia, pro civi- 
tate Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, 
pro civitatis nomine, luppiter 
Grabovi, te invoco.' 

Tacitus precator totum. 
Item porricito, prosecta 

4 fArvia ustentu, | vatuva fe- Frumenta ostendito, exta in 
rinefeitu, hens vinu heri puni, | ferculo facito, vel vino vel posca, 

pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Igu- 
vina facito. Totum murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

6 ukriper Fisiu, tu taper Iku- 
6 vina feitu. Sevum | kutef 
pesnimu afepes arves. | 

1 Aes peracnio. 

VI b 2] 
la 13 J 

Iguvinian Tables 


naratu, prosesetir mefa spe- 
fa, ficla arsueitu, aruio 

57 fetu. Este \ esono heri 
uinu heri ponifetu. Uatuo 
ferine fetu. \ 

58 -\Post uerir Treblanir 
si gomia trif fetu Trebo 
louie ocriper Fisiu, tota- 
per liouina. Persae 
fetu, aruio fetu, \ 

59 pone fetu, tases persnimu. 
Surur naratu puse pre uerir 
Treblanir. Prosesetir strusla, 
fida arsueitu. \ 

narrate, prosectis libum spar- 
sum, offam addito, frumenta 
facito. Istud sacrificium vel 
vino vel posca facito. Exta 
inferculo facito. 

Post portam Trebulanam 
sues gravidas tris facito Trebo 
lovio pro arce Fisia, pro civi- 
tate Iguvina. (Sacrificium) humi 
stratum facito, frumenta facito, 
posca facito, tacitus precator. 
Item narrato ut ante portam 
Trebulanam. Prosectis struem, 
offam addito. 


1 \Pre uerir Tesenocir buf Ante portam Tesenacam bo ves 
trif fetu Marie G-rabouei tris facito Marti Grabovio pro 
ocriper Fisiu, totaper lioui- arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. 
na. Aruio fetu, uatuo ferine Frumenta facito, exta in ferculo 

2 fetu,poni \ fetu,tases persni- facito, posca facito, tacitus pre- 

Prosesetir farsio, ficla cator. Prosectis farrea, offam 


7 fPusveres Treplanes tref 

8 sif kumiaf feitu | Trebe luvie 
ukriper Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvi- 

9 na. | Supa sumtu, arvia usten- 

10 tu, puni fetu, | kutef 
pesnimu afepes J arves. 1 | 

11 ^Preveres Tesenakes tre 

12 buf fetu, Matte Krapuvi I fetu 
ukripe Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina. 

13 Arviu ustentu, | vatuva ferine 
fetu, puni fetu, kutef 
pesnimu afpes arves. | 

Post portam Trebulanam tris 
sues gravidas facito Trebo lovio 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvi- 
na. Suppa sumito, frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito, murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

Ante portam Tesenacam tris 
boves facito, Marti Grabovio faci- 
to pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Igu- 
vina. Frumenta ostendito, exta in 
ferculo f acito,posca f acito,murmu- 
rans precator adipibus frumentis. 

1 Aes afe*arv*es. 


Iguvinian Tables 

L la 14-17 

arsueitu. Surur naratu puse 
pre uerir Treblanir. \ 

3 f Post uerir Tesenocir sif 
filiu trif fetu Fiso Sansie 
ocriper 1 Fisiu, totaper lio- 
uina. Poni feitu, persae 
fetu, aruio fetu. \ 

4 Surur naratu pusi pre uerir 
Treblanir. Tases persnimu. 
Mandraclo difue desire habi- 

5 tu. Prosesetir ficla, \ strusla 
arsueitu. Ape sopo postro pe- 
perscust,uestisia et me/a spefa 
scalsie conegos* fetu Fisoui 

6 Sansi\ ocriper Fisiu, totaper 
louina.Eso persnimu uestisia 
uestis: 'tio subocau suboco 
Fisoui Sansi, ocriper Fisiu, \ 

7 totaper liouina, erer nom- 
neper, erar nomneper, 
fons sir, pacer sir ocre 
Fisi, tote liouine, erer 

8 nomne, \ erarnomne. Arsie, 
tiom subocau suboco Fisoui 
Sansi, asier frite tiom sub- 
ocau suboco Fisoui tSansi.' 

addito. Item narrate ut 
ante portam Trebulanam. 

Post portam Tesenacam sues 
lactentes tris facito Fiso Sancio 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Igu- 
vina. Posca facito, (sacrificium) 
humi stratum facito, f rumenta fa- 
cito. Item narrate ut ante portam 
Trebulanam. Tacitus precator. 
Mantele bifidum in dextra habe- 
to. Prosectis offam, struem 
addito. Ubi suppa retro po- 
suerit, libamento et libo sparso 
patera genu nixus facito Fisovio 
Sancio pro arce Fisia, pro civitate 
Iguvina. Sicprecatorlibamentum 
libans : 4 te invoco invocationes 
Fisovium Sancium, pro arce Fi- 
sia, pro civitate Iguvina, pro ar- 
cis nomine, pro civitatis nomine, 
favens sis, propitius sis arci 
Fisiae, civitati Iguvinae, arcis 
nomini, civitatis nomini. Sancte, 
te invoco invocationes Fisovium 
Sancium, sancti fiducia te invoco 
invocationes Fisovium Sancium.' 

14 fPusveres Tesenakes tref 

15 sif feliuf fetu | Fise Sa$i 
ukriper Fisiu, tutaper Iku- 

16 vina. | Puni fetu, supa sumtu, 

17 arviu ustentu. Mefa, | ves- 
ti$a ustetu, Fisuvi 3 fetu, 
ukriper Fisiu fetu, | 

Post portam Tesenacam tris 
sues lactentis facito Fisio Sancio 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvi- 
na. Posca facito, suppa sumito, 
f rumenta ostendito. Libum,liba- 
mentum ostendito,Fisovio facito, 
pro arce Fisia facito, 

1 Acs ocrifer. 

2 Aes confgos. 

8 Aes fiiuvi. 

VIbl6] Iguvinian Tables 271 

9 Suront\ponipesnimu. Mefa Item posca precator. Libo 

spefa eso persnimu: '-Fiso- spar so sic precator: 4 Fisovi 

uie Sansie, tiom esa mefa Sanci, te hoc libo 

spefa Fisouina ocriper sparso Fisovino pro arce 

Fisiu, totaper liouina, \ Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, 

10 erer nomneper, erar nom- pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis 
neper. Fisouie Sarnie, nomine. Fisovi Sanci, 
ditu ocre Fisi, tote dato arci Fisiae, civitati 
louine, ocrer Fisie, totar Iguvinae, arcis Fisiae, civitatis 

11 louinar dupursus \ petur- Iguvinae bipedibus quadru- 
pursus fato fito, perne post- pedibus factum fitum, ante post, 
ne, sepse sarsite, uouse auie sane sarte, voto augurio 
esone; futu fons, pacer sacrificio ; esto favens propitius 
pase tua ocre Fisi, tote pace tua arci Fisiae, civitati 

12 liouine, \ erer nomne, erar Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis 
nomne. Fisouie Sansie, sal- nomini. Fisovi Sanci, sal- 
uo seritu ocrem Fisi, vain servato arcem Fisiam, 
totam louinam. Fisouie civitatem Iguvinam. Fisovi 

13 Sansie, saluo seritu \ ocrer Sanci, salvum servato arcis 
Fisier, totar louinar nome, Fisiae, civitatis Iguvinae nomen, 
nerf, arsmo, uiro, pequo principes, ritus, viros, pecuum 
castruo, frif salua seritu; capita, fruges salvas servato ; 

14 futu fons, pacer pase \ tua esto favens propitius pace tua 
ocre Fisi, tote liouine, erer arci Fisiae, civitati Iguvinae, arc is 
nomne, erar nomne. Fisouie nomini, civitatis nomini. Fisovi 
Sansie, tiom esa mefa spefa Sanci, te hoc libo sparso 
Fisouina ocriper Fisiu, \ Fisovino pro arce Fisia, 

15 totaper liouina, erer nom- pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis 
neper, erar nomneper. nomine, pro civitatis nomine. 
Fisouie Sansie, tiom subocau, Fisovi Sanci, te invoco, 
Fisouie f rite 1 tiom subocau.' Fisovii fiducia te invoco.' 

16 Pesclu | semu uesticatu, atri- In precatione media libato, tri- 
pursatu. Ape earn pur- podato. Ubi id (libum) por- 
dinsust, proseseto erus rexerit, prosectorum magmentum 

1 Acs erite. 


Iguvinian Tables 

rvi b 10- 
L I a 18- 

ditu. Eno scalseto uestisiar 

17 erus conegos \ dirstu. 
Eno mefa, uestisia sopa 
purome efurfatu, subra spah- 
mu. Eno serse comoltu, co- 

18 matir persnihimu. \ f Capif 
purdita dupla aitu, sacra 
dupla aitu. \ 

19 \Pre uerir Ueliier buf 
trif calersu fetu 
Uofione Grabouie ocriper 
Fisiu, totaper liouina. 
Uatuo ferine fetu. Herie 

20 uinu | herie ponifetu, aruio 
fetu, tases persnimu. Pro- 
seseter mefa spefa, ficla 
arsueitu. Suront naratupusi 

21 pre uerir \ Treblanir. \ 

22 Post uerir Uehier habina 
trif fetu Tefrei loui ocriper 

dato. Turn ex patera libamenti 
magmentum genu nixus dato. 
Turn libum, libamentum sub 
ignem expurgato, superiacito. 
Turn sedens commolito, com- 
molitis precator. Capides 
porrectas binas agito, sacras 
binas agito. 

Ante portam Veiam boves 
tris f rontem albam habentis facito 
Voviono Grabovio pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Exta in ferculo facito. Vel 
vino vel posca facito, f rumen ta 
facito, tacitus precator. Pro- 
sectis libum sparsum, offam 
addito. Item narrato ut 
ante portam Trebulanam. 

Post portam Veiam agnas 
tris facito Tefro lovio pro arce 

18 fkapif purtitaf sakref, etraf 

19 purtitaf, etraf | sakref, tu- 
taper Ikuvina. Kutef pes- 
nimu afepes arves. | 

20 JPreveres Vehiies tref buf 
kaleruf fetu Vufiune | 

21 Krapuvi ukriper Fisiu, 

22 tutaper Ikuvina. | Vatuva ferine 
fetu, heri vinu heri puni, | 

23 arviu ustentu, kutef 
pesnimu afepes arves. | 

24 Pusveres Vehiies tref hapi- 

25 naf fetu Tefre luvie | ukriper 

capides porrectas sacras, alteras 
porrectas, alteras sacras, pro civi- 
tate Iguvina. Murmurans pre- 
cator adipibus frumentis. 

Ante portam Veiam tris boves 
f rontem albam habentis facito Vo- 
viono Grabovio pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina. Exta in fer- 
culo facito, vel vino vel posca, 
frumenta ostendito, murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

Post portam Veiam tris ag- 
nas facito Tefro lovio pro arce 

VI b 271 
I a 29 J 

Jyuvinian Tables 


Fisiu, totaper liouina. 
Serse fetu, pehana fetu, 

23 aruio feitu, poni \ fetu, 
tasis pesnimu. Prosesetir 
strusla, ficla arueitu. Suront 
naratu puse uerisco Tre- 
blanir. Ape habina pur- 

24 dinsus, | eront poi habina 
purdinsust, destruco persi 
uestisia et pesondro sorsom 
fetu. Capirse perso osatu, 

25 earn mani \ nertru tenitu, 
arnipo uestisia uesticos. 
Oapirso subotu, isec perstico 1 
erus ditu. Esoc persnimu 

26 uestis: ^Tiom \ subocau sub- 
oco Tefro loui, ocriper 
Fisiu, totaper liouina, 
erer nomneper, erar nom- 
neper; fonsir pacer si 

27 ocre Fisi, tote \ louine, erer 
nomne, erar nomne. Arsie, 
tiom subocau suboco Tefro 

Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Sedens facito, sepeliendas facito, 
framenta facito, posca facito, 
tacitus precator. Prosectis 
struem, offam addito. Item 
narrato ut ad portam Tre- 
bulanam. Ubi agnas por- 
rexerit, idem qui agnas 
porrexerit, ad dextrum pedem 
libamentum etfymentum suillum 
facito. Capidi fossam facito, 
earn manu sinistra teneto, 
donee libamentum libaverit. 
Capidem deponito,item ad pedem 
magmentum dato. Sic precator 
libans : ' Te invoco invoca- 
tiones Tefrum lovium, pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine ; favens sis propitius sis 
arciFisiae,civitati!guvinae, arcis 
nomini, civitatis nomini. Sancte, 
te invoco invocationes Tefrum 

Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina. Puste Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Post 
26 asiane fetu, zefef fetu, pelsana 

fetu, arvia ustentu, puni 

27 fetu, tacez pesnim'u afiper 
arvis. Api habina purtiius, 

28 sufum pesuntru | fetu, esmik 
vesticam preve fiktu, 

29 Tefri luvi fetu ukri|per Fisiu, 
tutaper Ikuvina, testruku 
pefi kapife pefum feit|u. 

facito, frumenta ostendito, posca 
facito, tacitus precator adipibus 
fru mentis. Ubi agnas porrexeris, 
figmentum suillum facito, ei 
libamentum singillatim figito, 
Tefro lovio facito pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina, ad dextrum 
pedem capidi fossam facito. 

Probably persico. 

'274 Iguvinian Tables [VIb27- 

loui, arsier frite tiom subo- lovium, sancti fiducia te invoco 

cau suboco Tefro loui. invocationes Tefrum lovium. 

28 Tefre \ Ionic, tiom em sorsu Tefer lovi, te hoc smllo 
persontru Tefrali pihaclu jigmento, Tefrali piaculo, 
ocriper Fisiu, totaper pro arce Fisia, pro civitate 
liouina, erer nomneper, Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, 
erar nomneper. Tefre \ pro civitatis nomine. Tefer 

29 louie, orer ose perse lovi, huius (piaculi) opere si in 
acre Fisie pir orto est, tote arce Fisia ignis ortus est, in civi- 
liouine arsmor dersecor sub- tate Iguvina ritus debiti omissi 
ator sent, pusi neip heritu. sunt, (facito) quasi non con- 

30 Tefre louie, \ perse toner sulto. Tefer lovi, si tui 
pesder uasetomest, 1 pesetom- sacrificii (quid) vitiatum est, pec- 
est, peretomest, frosetom- catum est, peri turn est, fraudatum 
est, daetomest, touer pesder est, * delictum est, tui sacrificii 
uirseto auirseto uas est, visum invisum vitium est, 

31 Tefre louie, perse mers est, Tefer lovi, si ius est, 
esu sorsu persondru pihaclu hoc suillo figmento piaculo 
pihafi. Tefre louie, pihatu piatum sit. Tefer lovi, piato 
ocre Fisi, tota liouina. arcem Fisiam, civitatem Iguvi- 

32 Tefre louie, pihatu \ ocrer nam. Tefer lovi, piato arcis 
Fisier, totar liouinar nome, Fisiae, civitatis Iguvinae nomen, 
nerf, arsmo, uiro, peqao 2 principes, ritus, viros, pecuim 
castruo, fri pihatu; futu capita, fruges piato ; esto 
fons pacer pase tua ocre favens propitius pace tua arci 

33 Fisi, tote \ liouine, erer Fisiae, civitati Iguvinae, arcis 
nomne, erar nomne. Tefre nomini, civitatis nomini. Tefer 
louie, saluo seritu ocre Fisi, lovi, sal vamserva to arcem Fisiam, 
totam liouinam. Tefre louie, civitatem Iguvinam. Tefer lovi, 
saluom seritu ocrer Fisier, \ salvum servato arcis Fisiae, 

34 totar louinar nome, nerf, civitatis Iguvinae nomen, prin- 
arsmo, uiro, pequo castruo, cipes, ritus, viros, pecuwm capita, 
fri salua seritu; futu fons fruges salvas servato ; esto favens 
pacer pase tua ocre Fisi, propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, 

1 Aes uasetomesf. z Aes pfquo. 

Vlb40] Iquvinian Tables 275 
I a 30-34 J 

35 tote liouine, erer \ nomne, civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini, 
erar nomne. Tefre liouie, civitatis nomini. Tefer lovi, 
tiom esu sorm persondru te hoc suillo figmento 
Tefrali pihaclu ocriper Tefrali piaculo pro arce 
Fi&iu, totaper liouina, Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, 

36 erer nomneper, erar \ nom- pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis 
neper. Tefre louie, tiom nomine. Tefer lovi, te 
subocau? Persclu sehemu invoco.' In precatione media 
atropusatu. \ tripodato. 

37 ^Pesondro staflare ner- Figmentum ovillum ad sinis- 
truco persi fetu. Suront trum pedem facito. Item 
capirse perso osatu, suror capidi fossam facito, itidem 
persnimu puse sorsu. Ape precator ut cum suillo. Ubi 

38 pesondro purdinsus, \ pro- figmenta porrexerit, prosecto- 
seseto erus dirstu. Enom rum magmentum dato. Turn 
uestisiar sorsalir destruco libamenti suilli ad dextrum 
persi persome erus dirs- pedem in fossam magmentum da- 
tu, pue sorso purdin- to, ubi (figmentum) suillum por- 

39 sus. Enom \ uestisiam rexerit. Turn libamentum 
staftarem nertruco persi, ovillum ad sinistrum pedem, 
sururont erus dirstu. Enom itidem magmentum dato. Turn 
pesondro sorsalem persome, figmejitum suillum in fossam 

40 puepersnis fust, ife \ enden- ubi precatus erit ibi impo- 
du,pelsatu. Enom pesondro nito, sepelito. Turn figmentum 

30 fApi efek 1 purtiius, enuk Ubi id porrexeris, tune 
sufum pesuntrum feitu staf |lii 2 figmentum facito ovillum, 

31 uve, esmik 2 vestica afiktu, ukri- ei libamentum infigito, pro arce 

32 per Fisiu, tu taper Ikuvin|a 3 fei- Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina facito, 
tu, nertruku peri kapifeperum ad sinistrum pedem capidi fossam 

33 feitu. Puni feitu. | Api su- facito. Posca facito. Ubi fig- 
rut purtiius, 4 enuk hapinaru menta porrexeris, turn agnarum 

34 erus titu, zefef | kumultu, magmentum dato, sedens commo- 
zefef kumates 5 pesnimu. | lito, sedens commolitis precator. 

1 Aes erel. 2 Aes stafli iuvesmik. 3 Aes ikuvinp|a. * Aes purtitius, 5 Aes kumats. 


Iguvinian Tables 

rvi b 40- 
L Ib 1- 

staflare persome, pue pesnis 
fus, ife endendu, pelsatu. 
Enom uaso porsepesondrisco 

41 habus, | serse subra spahatu. 
Anderuomu sersitu, arnipo 
comatir pesnis fust. Serse 
pisher comoltu, serse comatir 

42 persnimu. \ Purditofust. \ 

43 f Uocucom louiu, ponne 
oui furfant, uitlu torn trif 
fetu. Marte Horse fetu 
popluper totar liouinar, 
totaper liouina. Uatuo 

44 ferine \ fetu, poni fetu, 
aruio fetu, tases persnimu. 
Prosesetir fasio, ficla ars- 
ueitu. Suront naratu puse 
uerisco Treblanir. \ 

45 \Uocucom Coredier uitlu 
torn trif fetu. Honde Serfi 
fetu popluper totar lio- 
uinar, totaper liouina. 1 

ovillum in fossam, ubi precatus 
erit, ibi imponito, sepelito. 
Turn vasa quae ad figmenta 
habuerit, sedens superiacito. 
Inter sedeto, donicum 

commolitis precatus erit. Sedens 
quilibet commolito, sedens com- 
molitis precator. Porrectum erit. 

Ad aedem loviam, cum 
ovis purgant, vitulos tauros tris 
facito. Marti Hodio facito 
pro populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
pro civitate Iguvina. Exta 
in ferculo facito, posca facito, 
frumenta facito, tacitus precator. 
Prosectis farrea, offam ad- 
dito. Item narrate ut 
ad portam Trebulanam. 

Ad aedem Coredii vitulos 
tauros tris facito. Honto Cerrio 
facito pro populo civitatis Igu- 
vinae, pro civitate Iguvina. 

I B 

1 f Vukukum luviu, pune uvef 

2 furfaG, tref vitluf turuf | Marte 
Hufie fetu pupluper tutas 
liuvinas, tutaper Ikuvina. | 

3 Vatuva ferine fetu, puni 
fetu, arvia ustentu, kutep 

4 pesnimu | afepes arves. 

J Vukukum Kureties tref vitlup 

5 turup Hunte Cefi feitu pu- 
pluper tutas liuvinas, tutaper 

Ad aedem loviam, cum ovis 
purgant,tris vitulos tauros Marti 
Hodio facito pro populo civitatis 
Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Exta in ferculo facito, posca 
f acito,f rumenta ostendito,murmu- 
rans precator adipibus frumentis. 

Ad aedem Coredii tris vitulos 
tauros Honto Cerrio facito pro 
populo civitatis Iguvinae, pro 

1 Aes lioiiinnr. 

VI b 41)1 
Ib 11 

Iguvinian Tables 


Uatuo 1 ferine fetu, aruio \ 

46 fetu, heri uinu heri poni 
fetu, tases persnimu. Pro- 
sesetir tesedi, field arsueitu. 2 
Suront naratu puse uerisco 

47 ^Eno ocar \ pihos fust. 
Suepo esome esono ander- 
uacose, uasetome fust ; 
auif aseriatu, uerofe Tre- 
blano couertu, reste esono 
feitu. | 

48 \Pom poplo afero heries, 
auif aseriato etu. Sururo 
stiplatu pusi ocrer pihaner. 
Sururont combifiatu. Erir- 

49 ont tuderus auif \ seritu. 
Ape angla combifiansiust, 
perca arsmatiam anouihimu. 

Exta in ferculo facito, frumenta 
facito, vel vino vel posca 
facito, tacitus precator. Pro- 
sectis , offam addito. 

Item narrato ut ad portam 

Turn arx piata erit. 
Sive \\orum sacrificiorwm inter- 
vacatio sit, in vitiatum erit; 
avis observato, ad portam Tre- 
bulanam revertito, instaurans sa- 
crificium facito. 

Cum populum lustrare volet, 
avis observatum ito. Itidem 
stipulator ut arcis piandae. 
Itidem nuntiato. Isdem 
finibus avis servato. 

Ubi oscines nuntiaverit, 
virgam ritualem induitor. 

6 liuvina. Vatuva | ferine 
fetu, arvia ustentu, tenzitim 

7 arveitu, hens vinu hens | puni 
feitu, kutef persnimu ari- 
pes arvis. 

8 flnukukarpihazfust. | Svepu 
esumek esunu antervakaze, 
vacetumi se ; 3 avif azeriatu, | 

9 verufe Treplanu kuvertu, 
restef esunu feitu. | 

1 JPune puplum af erum heries , 
avef anzeriatu 4 etu pernaiaf 

11 pustnaiaf. Pune kuvurtus, 

civitate Iguvina. Exta in ferculo 
facito, frumenta ostendito, - 
addito, vel vino vel posca 
facito, murmurans precator adi- 
pibus frumentis. 

Tune arx piata erit. Sive 
\\orum sacrifici0rww intervacatio 
sit, in vitiatum sit ; avis observa- 
to, ad portam Trebulanam reverti- 
to, instaurans sacrificium facito. 

Cum populum lustrare voles, 
avis observatum ito anticas 
posticas. Cum reverteris, 

1 Aes Uatue. 

~ Aesjiclmrsueitu. 

3 Aes vakazevasetumiseavif . 

4 Aes anzvriatu. 


Iguvinian Tables 

rvi b 49- 
L ibll- 

I Cringatro hatu, destrame 
scapla anouihimu. Pir en- 

60 dendu. Pone \ esonome 1 
ferar, 1 pufe pir entelust, 
ere fertu poe perca ars- 
matiam habiest. Erihont aso 
destre onse fertu. Erucom 

51 prinuatur dur \ etuto, perca 
ponisiater Jidbituto. Ennom 
stiplatu par/a desua seso, 
tote liouine. Sururont com- 
bifiatu uapefe auieclu. Neip \ 

62 amboltu, prepa desua 
combifiansi. Ape desua 
oombifiansiust, uia auieda 
esonome etuto com peracris 
sacris. \Ape Acesoniame \ 

63 hebetafe benust, enom term- 
nuco stahituto. Poi per cam 
arsmatia habiest, eturstahmu. 
Eso eturstahmu: 'pisest 

64 totar | Tarsinater, trifor 

Cinctum capito, in dextram 
scapulam induitor. Ignem im- 
ponito. Cum in sacrificium 
feratur, id in quo ignem impo- 
suerit, is ferto qui virgam ritu- 
alem habebit. Idem arsum 
in dextro umero ferto. Cum 
eo legati duo eunto, virgas 
calatoris habento. Turn 

stipulator parram prosperam sibi, 
civitati Iguvinae. Itidem nun- 
tiato ad sellas auguralis. Neve 
ambulato, priusquam prosperam 
nuntiaverit. Ubi prosperam 
nuntiaverit, via augurali 
in sacrificium eunto cum opimis 
hostiis. Ubi in Acedoniam 
ad exitus venerit, turn ad ter- 
minum stanto. Qui virgam 
ritualem habebit, exterminate. 
Sic exterminate : 'quisquis est 
civitatis Tadinatis, tribus 

f krenkatrum hatu. Enumek | 

12 pir ahtimem ententu. 
Pune pir entelus ahtimem, | 

13 enumek steplatu parfam 

14 tesvam tefe, tute Ikuvine. | Va- 
pefem aviekluf e kumpifiatu. Vea 

15 avieklaesunumeetu. iPrinuvatu 
etutu, perkaf habetutu punicate. 

16. JPune menes | Akefuniamem, 

enumek etufstamu tuta 

17 Tafinate, trifu | Tafinate, 

cinctum capito. Tune 

ignem ad caerimonium imponito. 
Cum ignem imposueris ad caeri- 
monium, tune stipulator parram 
prosperam tibi, civitati Iguvinae. 
Ad sellas auguralis nun tiato. Via 
augurali in sacrificium ito. Lega- 
ti eunto, virgas habento calatoris. 
Cum venies in Acedoniam, 
tune exterminato civitatem 
Tadinatem, tribum Tadinatem, 

!Aes esonomf ffrar . 

Iguvinian Tables 


Tarsinater, Tuscer Naharcer 
labuscer nomner, eetu ehesu 
poplu. Nosue ier eke esupo- 

55 plu, sopir habe \ esme 1 
pople, portatu ulo pue 
mersest, fetu uru pirse mers 
est.' Trioper eheturstahamu. 
Ifont termnuco com prinu- 

56 atir | stahitu, eno deitu: 
^arsmahamo cater ahamo lo- 
uinur\ Eno com prinuatir 
peracris sacris ambretuto. 

57 Ape ambrefurent, \ termnome 
benurent, termnuco com 
prinuatir eso persnimumo 
tasetur : ^Serfe Martie, Pre- 

58 stota Serfia Serfer \ Martier, 
Tursa Serfia Serf er Martier, 
totam Tarsinatem, trifo 
Tarsinatem, Tuscom NaTiar- 

59 com labuscom nome, \ totar 

Tadinatis, Tusci Narci 
lapudici nominis, ito ex hoc 
populo. Nisi itum sit ex hoc po- 
pulo, siquis restat in hoc 
populo, (eum) portato illuc quo 
ius est, facito illo quod ius 
est.' Ter exterminato. 

Ibidem ad terminum cum lega- 
tis stato, turn dicito : 
'ordinamini *catervamini Igu- 
vini'. Turn cum" legatis 
opimis sacris ambiunto. 
Ubi ambierint, ad terminum 
venerint, apud terminum cum 
legatis sic precantor 

taciti: 'Cerre Martie, Prae- 
stita Cerria Cerri Martii, 
Torra Cerria Cerri Martii, 
civitatem Tadinatem, tribum 
Tadinatem, Tuscum Narcum 
lapudicum nomen, civitatis 

Turskum, Naharkum numem, 

18 lapuzkum numem : | ' svepis 
habe, purtatulu pue mefs 
est, feitu uru pefe mers est'. | 

19 Pune prinuvatus staheren term- 
nesku, enumek 'armamu 2 | 

20 kateramu Ikuvinu'. Enumek 
apretu tures et pure. Puni 

21 amprefu|us,persnimu. Enumek 
* etatu Ikuvinus'. Triiuper am- 

22 prehtu, | triiuperpesnimujtriiu- 
per * etatu Ikuvinus ' . Enumek | 

Tuscum, Narcum nomen, 
lapudicum nomen : 'siquis 
restat, (eum) portato illuc quo ius 
est, facito illo quod ius est'. 
Cum legati stabunt ad ter- 
minos, tune 'ordinamini 
*catervamini, Iguvini'. Tune 
ambito tauris et igne. Cum 
ambieris, precator. Tune 

4 itatote, Iguvini'. Ter am- 
bito, ter precator, ter 
'itatote, Iguvini'. Tune 



2 Aes armanu. 

Iguvinian Tables 

[VI b 59- 

Tarsinater, trifor Tarsinater, 

Tuscer Naharcer Tabuscer 
nomner nerf sihitu ansihi- 

60 tu, iouie hostatu \ anhos- 
tatu tursitu tremitu, hondu 
holtu, ninctu nepitu, sonitu 
sauitu, preplotatu preui- 

61 latu. | Serfe Martie, Pre- 
stota Serjia Serfer Martier, 
Tursa Serjia Serfer Martier, 
fututo foner pacrer pase 
uestrapopletotarliouinar, \ 

62 tote liouine, ero nerus 
sihitir ansihitir, iouies 
hostatir anostatir, ero 
nomne, erar nomne.' Ape 

63 este dersieurent, eno \ deitu 
'etato Iiouinur\ porse perca 
arsmatia habiest. Ape este 
dersicust, duti ambretuto 

64 euront. Ape termnome \ couor- 
tuso, sururont pesnimumo. 
Sururont deitu, etaians dei- 
tu. Enom tertim ambretuto. 
Ape termnome bemiso, 

65 sururont pesnimumo, surur- 
ont deitu etaias. ^Eno pri- 
nuatur simo etuto erafont 
uia, pora benuso. \ 

Tadiiiatis, tribus Tadinatis, 
Tusci Narci lapudici 

nominis principes cinctos incinc- 
tos, iuvenes hastatos inhastatos 
terreto tremefacito, pessumdato 
aboleto, ninguito inundato, sonato 
sauciato, *praeplauditato *prae- 
vinculato. Cerre Martie, Prae- 
stita Cerria Cerri Martii, 
Torra Cerria Cerri Martii, 
estote faventes propitii pace 
vestra populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
civitati Iguvinae, eoriim prin- 
cipibus cinctis incinctis, iuveni- 
bus hastatis inhastatis, eorum 
nomini, eius nomini.' Ubi 
istud dixerint, turn dicito 
'itatote Iguvini', qui virgam 
ritualem habebit. Ubi istud 
dixerit, iterum ambiunto 
iidem. Ubi ad terminum rever- 
sum erit, itidem precantor. 
Itidem dicito, ut eant di- 
cito. Turn tertium ambiunto. 
Ubi ad terminum ventum erit, 
itidem precantor, itidem 
dicito ut eant. Turn le- 
gati retro eunto eadem 
via, qua ventum erit. 


1 /Sururont pesnimumo, su- Itidem precantor, itidem 
ruront deitu etaias. Eno dicito ut eant. Turn 

23 |prinuvatuscimuetutu,erahunt legati retro eunto, eadem 
vea cimu etutu prinuvatus. | via retro eunto legati. 

VIIa7 ] Iguvinian Tables 281 

prinuatur Umo etuto erafont legati retro eunto eadem 

2 uia, pora \ benuso. 1 \ via, qua ventum erit. 

3 ^Fondlire air of triffetu In Fontulis apros tris facito 
heriei rofu heriei peiu. vel rufos vel piceos. 
$erfe*Martiefeitupopluper Cerro Martio facito pro populo 
totar Houinar, totaper \ civitatis Iguvinae, pro civitate 

4 liouina. Uatuoferinefeitu, Iguvina. Exta in ferculo facito, 
poni fetu, aruio fetu, posca facito, frumenta facito, 
tases persnimu. Prosesetir tacitus precator. Prosectis 
mefa spefa, ficla arsueitu. \ libum spar sum, off am addito. 

5 Suront naratu puse uerisco Item narrato ut ad portam 
TreUanir. Ape traha Saha- Trebulanam. Ubi trans Sanc- 
ta combifianSust, enom erus tam nuntiaverit, turn magmentum 
dirstu. | dato. 

6 $Rubine porca trifrofa ote In Rubinia porcas tris ruf as aut 
peia fetu Pr estate Serfie piceas facito Praestitae Cerriae 
Serfer Martier popluper to- Cerri Martii pro populo civitatis 

7 tar liouinar, totaper \ louina. Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Persaia fetu, poni fetu, Humi stratas facito, posca facito, 
aruio fetu. Suront naratu arvia facito. Item narrato 
pusi pre uerir Treblanir. ut ante portam Trebulanam. 

24 f Funtlere trif apruf rufru In Fontulis tris apros rubros 
ute peiu feitu Cerfe Marti. | aut piceos facito Cerro Martio. 

25 Vatuvu ferine 3 fetu, arviu Exta in ferculo facito, frumenta 

26 ustentu, puni fetu, 4 | tacez ostendito, posca facito, tacitus 
pesnimu afepe arves. | precator adipibus frumentis. 

27 jRupinie e tre purka rufra In Rubinia tris porcas rubras 

28 ute peia fetu Prestate Cer- aut piceas facito Praestitae Cerri- 
fie Cerfe Marties. Pefaia fei- ae Cerri Martii. Humi stratas fa- 


29 tu, arviu ustentu, | kapi cito, frumenta ostendito, capides 
sakra aitu, vesklu vetu atru sacras agito, vascula dividito atra 

30 alfu, puni fetu, | tacez pesnimu alba, posca facito, tacitus precator 
afeper arves. | adipibus frumentis. 

1 Repetition of last sentence of VI b to show connection of VII with VI. 

2 Aes Seree. 3 Aes ferime. 4 Acs feiu. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[VII a 7- 

8 Tases persnimu. \ Prosesetir 
strusla, ficla arsueitu. Ape 
supo postro pepescus, enom 
pesclu ruseme uesticatu 

9 Prestote Serfie \ Serf er Mar- 
tier popluper totar louinar, 
to taper louina. Enomuesclir 
adrir ruseme esopersnihimu: 

10 'Prestota \ Serfia Serfer 
Martier, tiom esir uesclir ad- 
rir popluper totar liouinar, 
totaper liouina, erer nom- 

11 neper, \ erar nomneper. 
Prestota Serfia Serfer Mar- 
tier, preuendu uia ecla atero 
tote Tarsinate, trifo Tarsina- 

12 te, | Tursce Naliarce labusce 
nomne, totar Tarsinater, 
trifor Tarsinater, Tuscer 
Naharcer labuscer nomner \ 

13 nerus sitir ansihitir, iouies 
hostatir anostatir, ero nom- 
ne. Prestota Serfia Serfer 

14 Martier, futufons \pacerpase 
tua pople totar liouinar, 
tote liouine, erom nomne, 
erar nomne, erar nerus sihi- 

16 tir ansihitir, iouies \ hostatir 
anostatir. Prestota Serfia 
Serf er Martier, saluomseritu 
poplom totar liouinar, salua 

16 serituu \ totam Tiouinam. 
Prestota Serfia Serfer Mar- 
tier, saluo seritupopler totar 
liouinar, totar liouinar \ 

Tacitus precator. Prosectis 
struem, offam addito. Ubi 
suppa retro posuerit, turn 
precatione in libatp 

Praestitae Cerriae Cerri Mar- 
tii pro populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
pro civitate Iguvina. Turn vas- 

culis atris in sic precator: 

'Praestita Cerria Cerri Mar- 
tii, te his vasculis atris 
pro populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
pro civitate Iguvina, pro populi 
nomine, pro civitatis nomine. 
Praestita Cerria Cerri Martii, 
advertito via omni malum 
civitati Tadinati, tribui Tadi- 
nati, Tusco Narco lapudico 
nomini, civitatis Tadinatis, 
tribus Tadinatis, Tusci 
Narci lapudici nominis 
principibus cinctis incinctis, iuve- 
nibus hastatis inhastatis, eorum 
nomini. Praestita Cerria Cerri 
Martii, esto favens propitia pace 
tua populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
civitati Iguvinae, eorum nomini, 
eius nomini, eius principibus cinc- 
tis incinctis, iuvenibus hastatis 
inhastatis. Praestita Cerria 
Cerri Martii, salvum servato 
populum civitatis Iguvinae, sal- 
vam servato civitatem Iguvinam. 
Praestita Cerria Cerri Martii, 
salvum servato populi civitatis 
Iguvinae, civitatis Iguvinae 

VII a 26] 

Iguvinian Tables 


17 nome, nerf, arsmo, uiro, 
pequo eastruo, frif salua 
seritu; f utu fons pacer pase 
tua pople totar liouinar, \ 

18 tote liouine, erer nomne, 
erar nomne. Prestota Ser- 
fia Serf er Martier, tiom esir 

19 uesclir adrer popluper \ totar 
liouinar, totaper lorn-no, 
erer nomneper, erar nomne- 
per. Prestota Serfia $er- 

20 fer Martier, tiom \ subocauu, 
Prestotar Serfiar Serfer 
Martier f oner f rite tiom sub- 
ocauu.' Ennom persclu eso 

21 deitu : \ ^Prestota Serfia Ser- 
fer Martier, tiom isir uesclir 
adrir, tiom plener popluper 
totar liouinar, totaper \ 

22 liouina, erer nomneper, 
erar nomneper. Prestota 
Serfia 1 Serfer Martier, tiom 

23 subocauu. Prestotar \ Serfiar 
Serfer Martier foner frite 
tiom subocauu. Enomuesti- 
catu, ahatripursatu. Enom 

24 ruseme \ persclu uesticatu 
Pr estate Serfie Serfer Marti- 
er popluper totar liouinar, 
totaper louina. Ennom ues- 

25 clir\ alfir persnimu, superne 
adro trahuorfi andendu, eso 
persnimu: 'Prestota Serfia 

26 Serfer Martier, tiom \ esir 

nomen, principes, ritus, viros, 
pecuwm capita, fruges salvas 
servato; estofavenspropitiapace 
tua populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
civitati Iguvinae, populi nomini, 
civitatis nomini. Praestita Cer- 
ria Cerri Martii, te his 
vasculis atris pro populo civitatis 
Tguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro populi nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine. Praestita Cerria Cer- 
ri Martii, te invoco, 
Praestitae Cerriae Cerri 
Martii faventis fiducia te in- 
voco.' Turn precatione sic 
dicito: 'Praestita Cerria Cerri 
Martii, te his vasculis 
atris, te plenis pro populo 
civitatis Iguvinae, pro civitate 
Iguvina, pro populi nomine, 
pro civitatis nomine. Praestita 
Cerria Cerri Martii, te 
invoco. Praestitae Cerriae 
Cerri Martii faventis fiducia 
te invoco. Turn li- 

bato, tripodato. Turn 

in precatione libato 

Praestitae Cerriae Cerri Martii 
pro populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
pro civitate Iguvina. Turn vas- 
culis albis precator, super 
atra transverse imponito, sic 
precator: 'Praestita Cerria 
Cerri Martii, te his 

1 Aes Serfiar. 


Iguvinian Tables 



uesclir alfir popluper totar 
liouinar, totaper liouina, 
erer nomneper, erar nomne- 

27 per. Prestota \ Serfia $erfer 
Martier, ahauendu uia ecla 
atero pople totar liouinar, 
tote liouine, popler totar 

28 louinar, \ totar liouinar 
nerus sihitir anihitir, io- 
uies hostatir anhostatir, era 
nomne, erar nomne. Prestota 

29 Serfia Serfer Martier, sal- 
uom seritu poplo totar lio- 
uinar, salua seritu totam 
liouinam. Prestota Serfia 

30 Serfer\Martier,saluom seritu 
popler totar liouinar, totar 
liouinar nome, nerf, arsmo, 
uiro, pequo castruo, frif \ 

31 salua seritu, futu fans pacer 
pase tua pople totar lio- 
uinar, tote liouine, erer 
nomne, erar nomne. Pre- 
32 stota | Serfia Serf er Martier, 

tiom esir uesclir alfer poplu- 
per totar liouinar, totaper 
liouina, erernomneper, erar \ 

33 nomneper. Prestota Serfia 
Serf er Martier, tiom subocauu, 

34 tier f oner f rite tiom\subocauul 
JSnnom persclu eso persni- 
mu: ''Prestota Serfia feerfer 
Martier, tiom isir uesclir al- 

35 fer, tiomplener \ popluper to- 

vasculis albispro populo civitatis 
Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro populi nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine. Praestita Cerria Cerri 
Martii, avertito via omni 
malum populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
civitati Iguvinae, populi civita- 
tis Iguvinae, civitatis Iguvinae 
principibus cinctis incinctis, iu- 
venibus hastatis inhastatis, eorum 
nomini, eius nomini. Praestita 
Cerria Cerri Martii, salvum 
servato populum civitatis Igu- 
vinae, salvam servato civitatem 
Iguvinam. Praestita Cerria 
Cerri Martii, salvum servato 
populi civitatis Iguvinae,civitatis 
Iguvinae nomen, principes, ritus, 
viros, pecuum capita, fruges 
salvas servato, esto favens propi- 
tia pace tua populo civitatis Igu- 
vinae, civitati Iguvinae, populi 
nomini, civitatis nomini. Prae- 
stita Cerria Cerri Martii, 
te his vasculis albis pro popu- 
lo civitatis Iguvinae, pro civitate 
Iguvina, pro populi nomine, pro 
civitatis nomine. Praestita Cerria 
Cerri Martii, te invoco, 
Praestitae Cerriae Cerri Mar- 
tii faventis fiducia te invoco.' 
Turn precatione sic preca- 
tor : 'Praestita Cerria Cerri 
Martii, te his vasculis albis, 
te plenis pro populo civitatis 

VII a 421 
I b 31-33 J 

Iguvinian Table* 


tar lion inar, totaper ]'> n in a, 
erer nomneper, erar nomne- 
per. Prestota Serfia Serfer 
30 Martier,tiom \subocauu,Pre- 
stotar Serfiar Serfer Martier 
foner frite tiom subocauu*. 
JEnom uesticatu,ahatripursa- 

37 tu. | Uestisa et mefa spefa 
scalsie conegos fetu Fisoui 
Sansii popluper totar 
liouinar, totaper liouina. 

38 Suront naratu puse post ue- 
rir Tesonocir. Uestisiar 
erus ditu. Enno uestisia 
mefa spefa sopam purome 

39 efurfatu, \ subra spahamu, 
traf Sahatam etu. Ape traha 
Sahata couortus, ennom co- 
moltu, comatir persnihimu. 

40 Capif | sacra aitu. \ 

41 f Trahaf Sahate uitla trif 
feetu Turse Serfie Serfer 
Martier popluper totar lio- 
uinar, totaper liouina. 

42 Persaea fetu, poni \fetu, 
aruio fetu, tases persnimu. 
Prosesetir strusla, ficlam 
arsueitu. Suront naratu pu- 
se uerisco Treblaneir. Ape \ 

Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina, 
pro populi nomine, pro civitatis 
nomine. Praestita Cerria Cerri 
Martii, te invoco, Prae- 
stitae Cerriae Cerri Martii 
faventis fiducia te invoco'. 
Turn libato, tripodato. 
Libamentum et libum spar sum 
in patera genu nixus facito Fiso- 
vio Sancio pro populo civitatis 
Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Item narrate ut post por- 
tam Tesenacam. Libamenti 
magmentum dato. Turn libamen- 
tum, libum sparsum sub ig- 
nem expurgato, superiacito, 
trans Sanctam ito. Ubi trans 
Sanctam reverterit, turn com- 
molito, commolitis precator. 
Capides sacras agito. 

Trans Sanctam vitulas tris 
facito Torrae Cerriae Cerri 
Martii pro populo civitatis Igu- 
vinae, pro civitate Iguvina. 
, Humi stratas facito, posca facito, 
frumenta facito, tacitus precator. 
Prosectis struem, offam 
addito. Item narrato ut 
ad portam Trebulanam. Ubi 

31 fTra Sate tref vitlaf feitu 
Tuse Cerfie Cerfe Marties. | 

32 Pefaia feitu, arviu us- 
tetu, puni fetu, tacez pes- 

33 nimu | afeper arves. Pune 

Trans Sanctam tris vitulas faci- 
to Torrae Cerriae Cerri Martii. 
Humi stratas facito, frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito, tacitus pre- 
cator adipibus frumentis. Cum 


Iguvinian Tables 


43 \purdinsiust, carsitu, pufe 
dbrons facurent, puse erus 
dersa. Ape erus dirsust,pos- 
tro combifiatu Rubiname, 

44 erus dersa. Enem traha 
Sahatam combifiatu, erus 
dersa. Enem Rubiname pos- 
tro couertu, comoltu, comatir 

45 persnimuet \ capif sacra aitu. 
Enom traha Sahatam couer- 
tu, comoltu, comatir persnihi- 
mu. Enom pur ditom fust. \ 

46 Postertio pane poplo 
andirsafust, parse perca ars- 
matia habiest et prinuatur 
durtefruto Tursaresotasetur\ 

47 persnihimumo^Tursalouia, 
tot am Tarsinatem, trifo Ta- 
rsinatem, Tuscom Naharcom 

48 lapusco nome, totar \ Tarsi- 
nater, trifor Tarsinater, 
Tuscer Naharcer lapuscer 
nomner nerf sihitu ansihitu, 

porrexerit, vocato, quo loco 
apros fecerint, ut magmentum 
det. Ubi magmentum dederit, 
retro nuntiato in Rubiniam, 
ut magmentum det. Turn trans 
Sanctam nuntiato, magmentum 
det. Turn in Rubiniam retro 
revertito, commolito, commolitis 
precator et capides sacras agito. 
Turn trans Sanctam revertito, 
commolito, commolitis precator. 
Turn porrectum erit. 

Postquam tertium populum 
lustraverit, qui virgam ritu- 
alem habebit et legati 
duo ex rogo Torrae sic taciti 
precantor: 4 Torra lovia, 
civitatem Tadinatem, tribumTa- 
dinatem, Tuscum Narcum 
lapudicum nomen, civitatis Ta- 
dinatis, tribus Tadinatis, 
Tusci Narci lapudici 

nominis principes cinctos incinc- 

fpurtincus, kafetUjpufeapruf | 

34 fakurent, puze erus tefa. Ape 

35 erus terust, pustru | kupifia- 
tu Rupiname, erus tefa. 
Ene tra Sahta kupifiaia, | 

36 erus tefa. Enu Rupiname 

37 pustru kuvertu, antakre | ku- 
mate pesnimu. Enu kapi 
sakra aitu, vesklu vetu. | 

38 Enu Satame kuvertu, anta- 
kre kumate pesnimu. Enu 

39 esunu | purtitu fust. | 

porrexeris, vocato, ubi apros 
fecerint, ut magmentum det. Ubi 
magmentum dederit, retro nuntia- 
to in Rubiniam, magmentum det. 
Turn trans Sanctam nunties, 
magmentum det. Turn in Rubi- 
niam retro revertito, integris com- 
molitis precator. Turn capides 
sacras agito, vascula dividito. 
Turn in Sanctam revertito, inte- 
gris commolitis precator. Turn 
sacrificium porrectum erit. 

VII a 54] 

Iguvinian Tables 


iouie hostatu anostatu \ 

49 tursitu tremitu, hondu 
holtu, ninctu nepitu, sunitu 
sauitu, preploliotatu pre- 
uislatu. Tursa louia, futu 

50 fons | pacer pase tua pople 
totar louinar, tote loui- 
ne, erar nerus sihitir 
ansihitir, iouies hostatir an- 

51 hostatir, erom \ nomne, erar 
nomne.' Este trioper deitu. 
\JEnom iuenga peracrio tur- 
situtOj parse perca arsmatia 

te habiestet \prinuatur. Hon- 
dra furo sehemeniar hatuto 
totar pisi heriest. Pafe 
trif promom haburent, eaf 

53 Acersoniem \fetu Turse Io- 
uie popluper totar liouinar, 
totaper louina. Suront na- 
ratu puse uerisco Treblanir. 

54 Aruio fetu, \persaea fetu, 
strusla,ficla prosesetir arsuei- 
tu, tases persnimu^ponifetu.\ 

tos, iuvenes hastatos inhastatos 
terreto tremefacito, pessumdato 
aboleto, ninguito inundato,sou&to 
sauciato, *praeplauditato *prae- 
vinculato. Torra lovia, esto 
favens propitia pace tua populo 
civitatis Iguvinae, civitati Igu- 
vinae, eius principibus cinctis 
incinctis, iuvenibus hastatis in- 
hastatis, eorum nomini, eius 
nomini.' Istud ter dicito. 
Turn iuvencas ex opimis. fugan- 
to, qui virgam ritualem 
habebit et legati. Infra 
forum seminarium capiunto 
civitatis quisquis volet. Quas 
tris primum ceperint, eas 
in Acedonia facito Torrae loviae 
pro populo civitatis Iguvinae, 
pro civitate Iguvina. Item nar- 
rafo ut ad portam Trebulanam. 
Frumenta facito, humi stratas fa- 
cito, struem, offamprosectis addi- 
to, tacitus precator, posca facito. 

40 fPustertiu pane puplu 
atefafust, iveka perakre tusetu 1 ) 

41 super kumne affertur, prinuva- 

42 tu tuf tusetutu, | hutra furu 
sehmeniar hatutu. Eaf iveka | 

43 tre Akefunie fetu Tuse 

44 luvie. Arviu ustetu, | puni 
fetu, pefaia fetu, tacez 
pesnimu afepe arves. | 

45 Kvestretieusaie svesu Vuvcis 
Titis Teteies. 

Postquam tertium populum 
lustra verit, iuvencam opimam f u- 
gato super comitio flamen, lega- 
ti duas fuganto, infra forum 
seminarium capiunto. Eas iuven- 
cas tris Acedoniae facito Torrae 
loviae. Frumenta ostendito, pos- 
ca facito, humi stratas facito, taci- 
tus precator adipibus frumentis. 

Quaestura sua Lucius 

Tetteius Titif. 

1 Aes tuseiu. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[VII b 1-4 
la 1- 


1 Pisipanupeifratrexfra- 
trusAtiersierfust, erec sueso 

fratrecate portaia seuacne 

2 fratrom \ Atiersio desenduf, 
pifi reper fratreca parsest 
erom ehiato, ponne iuengar 

3 tursiandu hertei, \ appei ar- 
fertur Atiersir poplom an- 
dersafust. Sue neip portust 
issocpusei subrascrehto est, 

4/ratreci motar sins a. CCO. 

Quisquis quandoque magister 
fratribus Atiediis erit, is suo 
magisterio portet hostias 
fratrura Atiedium duodecim, 
quas pro re collegii par est 
esse emissas, cum iuvencae 
fugentur oportet, ubi flamen 
Atiediis populum lustrave- 
rit. Si non portaverit 

ita, uti supra scriptum est, 
magistro multae sint asses CCC. 

I A 

1 Este persklum aves anzer- Istud sacrincium avibus obser- 

vatis inito anticis posticis. 

Ante portam Trebulanam lovi 
Grabovio tris boves facito. 

Frumenta ostendito, exta in 
ferculo facito, vel vino vel posca, 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Igu- 
vina facito. Totum murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

Post portam Trebulanam tris 
sues gravidas facito Trebo lovio 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvi- 
na. Suppa sumito, frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito, murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

Ante portam Tesenacam tris 
boves facito, Marti Grabovio faci- 
to pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Igu- 
vina. Frumenta ostendito, exta in 

2 iates enetu | pernaies pusnaes. 

3 Preveres Treplanes | luve 
Krapuvi tre buf fetu. 

4 Arvia ustentu, | vatuva fe- 
rinefeitu, heris vinu heri puni, | 

5 ukriper Fisiu, tutaper Iku- 

6 vina feitu. Sevum | kutef 
pesnimu afepes arves. | 

7 Pusveres Treplanes tref 

8 sif kumiaf feitu | Trebe luvie 
ukriper Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvi- 

9 na. | Supa sumtu, arvia usten- 

10 tu, puni fetu, | kutef 
pesnimu afepes * arves. 1 | 

11 Preveres Tesenakes tre 

12 buf fetu, Marte Krapuvi I fetu 
ukripe Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina. 

13 Arviu ustentu, | vatuva ferine 

1 Aes afe*arv*es. 

I a 30] 

fetu, puni fetu, kutef 
pesnimu afpes arves. | 

14 Pusveres Tesenakes tref 

15 sif feliuf fetu Fise Sa$i 
ukriper Fisiu, tutaper Iku- 

16 vina. | Puni fetu, supa sumtu, 

17 arviu ustentu. Mefa, ves- 
ti$a ustetu, Fisuvi 1 fetu, 

18 ukriper Fisiu fetu, | kapif 
purtitaf sakref, etraf pur- 

19 titaf, etraf sakref, tutaper 
Ikuvina. Kutef pesnimu 
afepes arves. | 

20 Preveres Vehiies tref buf 
kalefuf fetu Vufiune | 

21 Krapuvi ukriper Fisiu, 

22 tutaper Ikuvina. | Vatuva ferine 
fetu, heri vym heri puni, | 

23 arviu ustentu, kutef 
pesnimu afepes arves. | 

24 Pusveres Vehiies tref hapi- 

25 naf fetu Tefre luvie | ukriper 
Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina. Puste 

26 asiane fetu, zefef fetu, | pelsana 
fetu, arvia ustentu, puni 

27 fetu, tacez pesnimlu afiper 
arvis. Api habina purtiius, 

28 sufum pesuntru | fetu, esmik 
vesticam preve fiktu, 

29 Tefri luvi fetu ukrilper Fisiu, 
tutaper Ikuvina, testruku 
pefi kapife pefum feitlu. 

30 Api efek 2 purtiius, enuk 
sufum pesuntrum feitu staf|lii 

1 Acs fiiuvi. 

Iguvinian Tables 


ferculo f acito,posca f acito,murmu- 
rans precator adipibus fru mentis. 

Post portam Tesenacam tris 
sues lactentis facito Fisio Sancio 
pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvi- 
na. Posca facito, suppa sumito, 
frumenta ostendito. Libum,liba- 
mentum ostendito, Fisovio facito, 
pro arce Fisia facito, capides 
porrectas sacras, alteras porrec- 
tas, alteras sacras, pro civitate 
Iguvina. Murmurans precator 
adipibus frumentis. 

Ante portam Veiam tris boves 
f rontem albam habentis facito Vo- 
viono Grabovio pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina. Exta in fer- 
culo facito, vel vino vel posca, 
frumenta ostendito, murmurans 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

Post portam Veiam tris ag- 
nas facito Tefro lovio pro arce 
Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Post 

facito, frumenta ostendito, posca 
facito, tacitus precator adipibus 
frumentis. Ubi agnas porrexeris, 
figmentum suillum facito, ei 
libamentum singillatim figito, 
Tefro lovio facito pro arce Fisia, 
pro civitate Iguvina, ad dextrum 
pedem capidi fossam facito. 

Ubi id porrexeris, tune 
figmentum facito ovillum, 
2 Aes efel. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[I a 31- 

31 uve, esmik 1 vestica afiktu, ukri- ei libamentum infigito, pro arce 

32 per Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvin a 2 fei- Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina facito, 

ad sinistrum pedem capidi f ossam 
facito. Posca facito. Ubi fiy- 
menta porrexeris, turn agnarutn, 
magmentum dato, sedens commo- 

tu, nertruku peri kapifeperum 

33 feitu. Puni feitu. | Api su- 
ruf purtiius, 3 enuk hapinaru 

34 erus titu, zefef | kumultu, 
zefef kumates 4 pesnimu. | 

lito, sedens coinmolitis precator. 

I B 

1 Vukukum luviu, pune uvef 

2 furfaO, tref vitluf turuf | Marte 
Hufie fetu pupluper tutas 
liuvinas, tutaper Ikuvina. | 

3 Vatuva ferine fetu, puni 
fetu, arvia ustentu, kutep 

4 pesnimu | afepes arves. 

Vukukum Kureties tref vitlup 

5 turup Hunte ^e|fi feitu pu- 
pluper tutas liuvinas, tutaper 

6 liuvina. Vatuva | ferine 
fetu, arvia ustentu, tenzitim 

7 arveitu, heris vinu heris | puni 
feitu, kutef persnimu afi- 
pes arvis. 

8 Inuk ukar pihaz fust. Svepu 
esumek esunu antervakaze, 
vacetumi se ; 6 avif azeriatu, | 

9 verufe Treplanu kuvertu, 
restef esunu feitu. | 

10 Pune puplum aferum heries, 
avef anzeriatu 6 etu pernaia f 

11 pustnaiaf. Pune kuvurtus, 
krenkatrum hatu. Enumek I 

Ad aedem loviam, cum ovis 
purgant,tris vitulos tauros Marti 
Hodio facito pro populo civitatis 
Iguviiiae, pro civitate Iguvina. 
Exta in ferculo facito, posca 
rans precator adipibus frumentis. 

Ad aedem Coredii tris vitulos 
tauros Honto Cerrio facito pro 
populo civitatis Iguvinae, pro 
civitate Iguvina. Exta in ferculo 
facito, frumenta ostendito, - 
addito, vel vino vel posca 
facito, murmurans precator adi- 
pibus frumentis. 

Tune arx piata erit. Sive 
liorum sacrinciorww intervacatio 
sit, in vitiatum sit ; avis observa- 
to, adportamTrebulanamreverti- 
to, instaurans sacrificium facito. 

Cum populum lustrare voles, 
avis observatum ito anticas 
posticas. Cum reverteris, 

cinctum capito. Tune 

1 Aes stafli iuvesmik. 

2 Aes ikuvinp|a. 

3 Aes purtitius. 

4 Aes kumats. 

6 Aes vakazevacjetumiseavif . 
6 Aes anzvriatu. 


Iguvinian Tables 


12 pir ahtimem ententu. 
Pune pir entelus ahtimem, | 

13 enumek steplatu parfam 

14 tesvam tefe, tute Ikuvine. | Va- 
pefem avieklufe kumpifiatu. Vea 

15 avieklaesunumeetu. Prinuvatu 
etutu, perkaf habetutu punicate. 

16 Pune menes Akehmiamem, 
enumek etufstamu tuta 

17 Tafinate, trifu | Tafinate, 
Turskum, Naharkum numem, 

18 lapuzkum numem : | ' svepis 
babe, purtatulu pue mefs 
est, feitu uru pefe mers est'. | 

19 Pune prinuvatus staheren term- 
nesku, enumek 'armamu 1 | 

20 kateramu IkuvinuV Enumek 
apretu tures et pure. Puni 

21 amprefu|us,persnimu. Enumek 
4 etatu Ikuvinus'. Triiuper am- 

22 prehtu, | triiuperpesnimujtriiu- 
per 'etatu Ikuvinus'. Enumek] 

23 prinuvatus cimu etutu, erahunt 
vea cimu etutu prinuvatus. 

24 Funtlere trif apruf rufru 
ute peiu feitu Cerfe Marti. | 

25 Vatuvu ferine 2 fetu, arviu 

26 ustentu, puni fetu, 3 | tacez 
pesnimu afepe arves. | 

27 Rupinie e tre purka rufra 

28 ute peia fetu Prestate | Cer- 
fie Cerfe Marties. Pefaia fei- 

29 tu, arviu ustentu, | kapi 
sakra aitu, vesklu vetu atru 

ignem ad caerimonium imponito. 
Cum ignem imposueris ad caeri- 
monium, tune stipulator parram 
prosperam tibi, civitati Iguvinae. 
Ad sellas auguralis nuntiato. Via 
augurali in sacrificium ito. Lega- 
ti eunto, virgas habento calatoris. 
Cum venies in Acedoniam, 
tune exterminate- civitatem 
Tadinatem, tribum Tadinatem, 
Tuscum, Narcum nomen, 
lapudicum nomen : 'siquis 
restat, (eum) portato illuc quo ius 
est, facito illo quod ius est'. 
Cum legati stabunt ad ter- 
minos, tune . 'ordinammi 
*catervamini, Tguvini'. Tune 
ambito tauris et igne. Cum 
ambieris, precator. Tune 

'itatote, Iguvini'. Ter am- 
bito, ter precator, ter 
'itatote, Iguvini'. Tune 

legati retro eunto, eadem 
via retro eunto legati. 

In Fontulis tris apros rubros 
aut piceos facito Cerro Martio. 
Exta in ferculo facito, frumenta 
ostendito, posca facito, tacitus 
precator adipibus frumentis. 

In Rubinia tris porcas rubras 
aut piceas facito Praestitae Cerri- 
ae Cerri Martii. Humi stratas fa- 
cito, frumenta ostendito, capides 
sacras agito,vascula dividito atra 

1 Aes armanu. 

2 Aes f crime. 

3 Aes feiu. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[I b 29-45 

30 alfu, puni fetu, tacez pesnimu 
afeper arves. | 

31 Tra Sate tref vitlaf feitu 
Tuse Cerfie erfe Marties. | 

32 Pefaia feitu, arviu us- 
tetu, puni fetu, tacez pes- 

33 nimu | afeper arves. Pune 
purtingus, kafetu, pufe apruf | 

34 fakurent, puze erus tefa. Ape 

35 erus tefust, pustru | kupifia- 
tu Rupiname, erus tefa. 
Ene tra Santa kupifiaia, | 

36 erus tefa. Enu Rupiname 

37 pustru kuvertu, antakre | ku- 
mate pesnimu. Enu kapi 
sakra aitu, vesklu vetu. | 

38 Enu Satame kuvertu, anta- 
kre kumate pesnimu. Enu 

39 esunu | purtitu fust. | 

40 Pustertiu pane puplu 
atefafust, iveka perakre tusetu 1 

41 super kumne affertur, prinuva- 

42 tu tuf tusetutu, | hutra furu 
sehmeniar hatutu. Eaf iveka | 

43 tre Akefunie fetu Tuse 

44 luvie. Arviu ustetu, | puni 
fetu, pefaia fetu, tacez 
pesnimu afepe arves. I 

45 Kvestretieusaie svesu Vuvgis 
Titis Teteies. 

alba, posca f acito,tacitus precator 
adipibus frumentis. 

Trans Sanctam tris vitulas f aci- 
to Torrae Cerriae Cerri Martii. 
Humi stratas facito, frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito, tacitus pre- 
cator adipibus frumentis. Cum 
porrexeris, vocato, ubi apros 
fecerint, ut magmentum det. Ubi 
magmentum dederit, retro nuntia- 
to in Rubiniam, magmentum det. 
Turn trans Sanctam nunties, 
magmentum det. Turn in Rubi- 
niam retro revertito, integris com- 
molitis precator. Turn capides 
sacras agito, vascula dividito. 
Turn in Sanctam revertito, inte- 
gris commolitis precator. Turn 
sacrincium porrectum erit. 

Postquam tertium populum 
lustra verit,iuvencam opimam fu- 
gato super comitio flamen, lega- 
ti duas fuganto, infra forum 
seminarium capiunto. Easiuven- 
cas tris Acedoniae facito Torrae 
loviae. Frumenta ostendito, pos- 
ca facito, Tiumi stratas facito, taci- 
tus precator adipibus frumentis. 

Quaestura - sua Lucius 
Tetteius Titif. 

1 Acs tuseiu. 

II a 1-17] 

Iguvinian Tables 


1 Pune karne speturie Atiiefie 

2 aviekate naraklum | vurtus, 
estu esunu fetu fratrusper 

3 Atiiefie. Eu esunu | esu 
naratu : 'pefe karne spetu- 

4 tie Atiiefie aviekate | aiu 
urtu fefure, fetu puze neip 

5 eretu'. Vesti9e Sace | sa- 
kre, luvepatre bum perakne, 
Speture perakne restatu. | 

6 luvie unu erietu sakre 
pelsanu fetu. Arviu usten- 

7 tu, | puni fetu, tacez pes- 
nimu afepe arves. Pune 

8 purtiius, I unu sufu pesu- 
tru fetu tikamne luvie, 

9 kapife | pefu preve fetu. 
Ape purtiius sufu, 1 erus 

10 tetu. Enu kumaltu, ku- 

mate pesnimu. Ahtu luvip. 

11 uve peraknem | pefaem 
fetu, arviu ustentu, puni 
fetu. Ahtu Marti abrunu | 

12 perakne fetu, arviu uste- 
tu, fasiu prusecete afveitu, | 

13 pefae fetu, puni 
fetu, tra ekvine fetu. | 

14 Acetus perakne fetu. ) 

15 Huntia katle ticel stakaz 

16 est sume ustite | anter- 
menzaru cersiaru. Heriiei 

17 faiu affertur, avis | anzeriates 
menzne kurclasiu facia ticit. 


Cum carni*spectoriae Atiediae 
auspicatae nuntiatio mutaverit, 
ista sacrificia facito pro fratri- 
bus Atiediis. Ea sacrificia sic 
nuntiato: 'si carni *spectoriae 
Atiediae auspicatae agitationes 
ortae fuerint, facito quasi non 
consul to'. Vesticio Sancio hosti- 
am, lovi patri bovem sollemnem, 
Spectori hostiam instaurato. 
lovio unum arietem sacrificum 
sepeliendum facito. Frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito, tacitus pre- 
cator adipibus frumentis. Cum 
porrexeris, unum suillum jigmen- 
tum facito dedicatione lovio, 
capidi fossam singillatim facito. 
Ubi porrexeris suillum, magmen- 
tum dato. Turn commolito, com- 
molitis precator. Actui lovi patri 
ovem sollemnem humi stratum 
facito, frumenta ostendito, posca 
facito. Actui Marti aprum 
sollemnem f acito,f rumenta osten- 
dito, farrea prosectis addito, (sac- 
rificium) humi stratum facito, pos- 
ca facito, trans equinum facito. 
Ancitibus hostiam facito. 

Hontia catuli dedicatio statuta 
est summa tempestate intermen- 
struarum *cenariarum. Voluerit 
facere flamen, avibus observatis 
mense ultimo faciat decet. 

1 Aes purtiiusuru. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[II a 17- 

18 Huntia fertu | katlu, ar- 
via, struhcla, fikla, pune, 

19 vinu, salu 1 maletu, | mantrah- 
klu, veskla snata asnata, 

20 umen fertu, Pir ase | an- 
tentu. Esunu puni feitu. 

Hunte luvie ampentu ka- 

21 tlu, sakre sevakne, Petrunia- 
per natine fratru Atiiefiu. 

22 Esunu | pefae futu. 
Katies supa hahtu, sufafiaf 

23 supaf hahtu. | Berus aplenies 
prusecia kartu, krematra 

24 aplenia sutentu. Peru seri- 
tu. 1 Arvia puni purtuvitu vesti- 

25"katu ahtrepufatu, pustin ancif 
vinu. Nuvis ahtrepufatu, *tiu 

26 puni tiu vinu' | teitu, berva 
frehtef fertu. Pure nuvime 

27 ferest, krematruf | sumel fertu. 
Vesticia pefume persnihmu. 

28 Katies tuva tefra, | terti 
erus prusekatu. Isunt 
krematru prusektu. Struhcla | 

29 fikla afveitu. Katlu purtuvitu, 
ampefia persnihmu, aseceta | 

30 karne persnihmu, venpersun- 
tra 2 persnihmu. Supa spantea 

31 pertentu. Veskles vufetes 
persnihmu vestikatu ahtrepu- 

32 fatu | arpeltu statitatu. Supa 
pustra perstu. lepru erus 
mani kuveitu. 

Hontia ferto catulum, fru- 
menta, struem, offam, poscam, 
vinum, salem molitum, mante- 
le, vascula umecta non umecta, 
unguen ferto. Ignem arae im- 
ponito. Sacrificium posca f acito. 

Honto lovio impendito catu- 
lum, hostiam sollemnem, proPe- 
tronia natione fratrum Atiedium. 
Sacrificium humi stratum esto. 
Catuli suppa capito, partis ex ser- 
tassuppascapito. Veribus iriiple- 
tis prosicias distribuito,*crematra 
impleta supponito. Pedem serva- 
to. Frumenta posca porricito, li- 
bato, tripodato, in vices 
vino. Noviens tripodato, 'te 
posca te vino' dicito, verua, 
fricta ferto. Cum nonum 
feret, *crematra simul ferto. 
Libamento in fossam precator. 
Catuli duo carnes cremandas, ter- 
tmmmagmentumproseczio. Item 
*crematra prosecato. Struem, 
offam addito. Catulum porricito, 
precator, non secta 
carne precator, (carne) fic- 
ticia precator. Suppa lateralia 
protendito. Vasculis votis 
precator, libato, tripoda- 
to, admoveto, statuito. Suppa 
retro ponito. - magmen- 

tum manu congerito. 

1 8 expressed by the san (25, a). 

2 Aes eenpersuntra. 

II b 3] 

Iguvinian Tables 


33 Spinamaf etu. Tuvere 
kapifus pune fertu. Berva, 

34 klavlaf ajanfehtaf, vesklu sna- 
tu asnatu, umen fertu. 

35 Kapife Hunte | luvie vesti- 
katu Petruniaper 1 natine f ratru 

36 Atiiefiu. Berus | sevaknis 
persnihmu pert spinia. Isunt 

37 klavles persnihmu. | Veskles 
snate asnates sevaknis 
spiniama persnihmu vestikatu | 

38 ahtrepufatu. Spina umtu, 
umne sevakni persnihmu. 

39 Manf easa | vutu. 

Asama kuvertu. Asaku 
vinu sevakni tacez persnihmu. | 

40 Esuf pusme herter, erus 
kuveitu teftu. Vinu, pune 

41 teftu. | Struhclas, fiklas, sufa- 
fias kumaltu. Kapife punes 

42 vepuratu. | Antakres kuma- 
tes persnihmu. 2 Amparihmu, 
statita subahtu. Esunu | 

43 purtitu futu. Katel asaku 
pelsans futu. I 

44 Kvestretie usace svesu Vuv- 
cis Ti Teteies. 

Ad columnam ito. Duabus in 
capidibus poscam ferto. Verua, 
clunis non coctas, vascula umec- 
ta non umecta, unguen ferto. 

Capide Honto lovio libato 
pro Petronia natione fratrum 
Atiedium. Veribus sollemnibus 
precator trans columnam. Item 
clunibus precator. Vasculis 
umectis non umectis sollemni- 
bus ad columnam precator, libato, 
tripodato. Columnam unguito, 
unguine sollemni precator. 
Manus ex ara lavito. 

Adaramrevertito. Apudaram 
vino sollemni tacitus precator. 
Ipse quem oportet, magmentum 
congerito, dato. Vinum, poscam 
dato. Struis, offae, partis exser- 
tae commolito. Capide poscae 
(ignem)restinguito. Integris com- 
molitis precator. Surgito, 

statuta deponito. Sacrificium 
porrectum esto. Catulus apud 
aram sepeliendus esto. 

Quaestura sua Lucius 

Tetteius Ti. f. 


1 Semenies tekuries sim ka- Sementivis decuriis suem, ca- 

2 prum upetu. Tekvias | famefi- prum deligito. Decuriales fami- 
as pumpefias XII. 'Atiiefiate, liae *quincuriaeXII. 'Atiediati, 

alter! Atiediati, Claverniis, 
alteris Claverniis, Curiati, alteri 

3 etre Atiiefiate, | Klaverniie, 
etre Klaverniie, Kureiate, etre 

1 Aes petruniapert. 

2 Aes persmhniu. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[II b 3- 

4 Kureiate, | Satanes, etre Satane, 
Peiefiate, etre Peiefiate, Tale- 

5 nate, | etre Talenate, Museiate, 

6 etre Museiate, luieskane, | etre 
luieskanes, Kaselate, etre Kase- 

7 late, tertie Kaselate, | Peraz- 
nanie' teitu. 

Afmune luve patre fetu. 

8 Si pera|kne, sevakne upetu 
eveietu. Sevakne naratu. 

9 Arviu | ustetu, eu naratu 
puze fa^efele 1 sevakne. Heri 

10 puni | heri vinu fetu. Va- 
putu Saci ampetu. Kapru 

11 perakne, sevajkne upetu, eve- 
ietu, naratu. ive ampetu, 

12 fesnere purtuetu. Ife fertu, 
tafle e pir fertu, kapres pru- 

13 sec,etu | ife afveitu. Persutru 
vaputis, mefa, visti^a feta 

14 fertu. | Sviseve fertu pune, 
etre sviseve vinu fertu, tertie 

15 sviseve utur fertu. Pistu 
niru fertu, vepesutra fertu, | 

16 mantraklu fertu, pune fertu. 

17 Pune fesnafe benus, | kabru 
purtuvetu. Vaputu Saci luve- 

18 patre prepesnimu. | Vepesu- 
tra pesnimu, veskles pesnimu, 

19 atrepufatu, | afpeltu,statitatu. 
Vesklu pustru pestu, ranu | 

20 pesnimu, puni pesnimu, vinu 

21 pesnimu, une pesni'mu. Enu 
eras tetu. 

Curiati, Satanis, alteris Satanis, 
Peiediati, alter! Peiediati, Tale- 
nati, alter! Talenati, Musiati, 
alter! Musiati, luiescanis, alteris 
luiescanis, Casilati, alter! Casi- 
lati, tertiae Casilati, Peras- 
naniis' dicito. 

Admoni lovi patri facito. 
Suem sollemnem, hostiam deli- 
gito, voveto. Hostiam nuntiato. 
Frumenta ostendito, ea nuntiato 
quasi *sacrificabilem hostiam. Vel 
posca vel vino facito. Ture (su- 
em) Sancio impend! to. Caprum 
sollemnem, hostiam deligito, vo- 
veto, nuntiato. Citra impendito, 
in fano porricito. Eo ferto, 
in tabula ignem ferto, capri pro- 
secta eo addito. Figmentum 
turibus, libo, libamento facto 
ferto. In sino ferto poscam, 
in altero sino vinum ferto, in ter- 
tio sino aquam ferto. Pistum 
- ferto, (carnem) ficticiam ferto, 
mantele ferto, poscam ferto. 
Cum in fanum veneris, caprum 
porricito. Ture Sancio Jovi 
patri praefator. (Carne) ficticia 
precator, vasculis precator, 
tripodato, admoveto, statuito. 
Vascula retro ponito, 
precator, posca precator, vino 
precator, aqua precator. Turn 
magmentum dato. 

1 Acs facefete. 

Ill 14] 

Iguvinian Tables 


Vitlu vufru pune heries | 

22 fagu, eruhu ticlu sestu 

23 luvepatre. Pane seste, urfeta 
manure habetu. Estu iuku 

24 habetu : | ' lupater Sace, tef e 
estu vitlu vufru sestu'. | 

25 Purtifele triiuper teitu, triiu- 

26 per vufru naratu, | fetu 1 lu- 
vepatre Vuciiaper natine fratru 

27 Atiiefiu. Pune anpenes, kri- 
katru testre e uze habetu. 

28 Ape apelus, mefe atentu. 
Ape purtuvies, testre e uze 

29 habetu krikatru. Arviu us- 

tetu, puni fetu. 

Vitulum votivum cum voles 
facere, eadem dedicatione sistito 
lovi patri. Cum sistis, orbitam 
in maim habeto. Istas pieces 
habeto: 'luppiter Sanci, tibi 
istum vitulum votivum sisto'. 
*Porricibilem ter dicito, ter 
votivum nuntiato, facito lovi 
patri pro Lucia natione fratrum 
Atiedium. Cum impendes, cinc- 
tum in dextro umero habeto. 
Ubi impenderis, libo imponito. 
Ubi porricies, in dextro umero 
habeto cinctum. Frumenta os- 
tendito, posca facito. 

Ill, IV 

III Esunu fuia herter sume | 

2 ustite sestentasiaru | urna- 

siaru. Huntak vuke prumu 

4 pehatu. | Inuk uhturu urtes 

5 puntis | frater ustentu- 

6 ta, pure | fratru mersus 

7 fust | kumnakle. Inuk 

8 uhtur vapefe kumnakle sistu. 

9 Sakre, uvem uhtur | teitu, 
puntes terkantur. Inumek 

10 sakre, | uvem urtas puntes 

11 fratrum upetuta. | Inumek 
via mersuva arvamen etuta. | 

12 Erak pir persklu ufetu. 

13 Sakre, uvem | kletra fertuta 
aituta. Arven kletram | 

14 amparitu. Eruk esunu futu. 

Sacrificium fiat oportet summa 
tempestate sextantariarum*urna- 
riarum. Puteum in aede primum 
piato. Turn auctorem, surgenti- 
bus quinionibus, fratres osten- 
dunto, quomodo fratrum ex 
moribus erit in conventu. Turn 
auctor in sella in conventu con- 
sidito. Hostiam, ovem auctor di- 
cito, quimonessuffragentur. Tune 
hostiam, ovem surgentes quini- 
ones fratrum deligunto. Tune 
via solita in arvum eunto. 
Ea ignem cum precatione ado- 
leto. Hostiam, ovem lectica fe- 
runto, agunto. In arvo lecticam 
conlocato. Illic sacrincium esto. 

1 Aes feiu. 


Iguvinian Tables 

[III 14- 

15 Kletre tuplak | prumum an- 
tentu, inuk cihcefa ententu, | 

16 inukkaziferimeantentu. Isunt 

17 fefehtru | antentu, isunt sufe- 

18 faklu antentu. Seples | ahesnes 
tris kazi astintu, fefehtru 

19 etres tris | ahesnes astintu, 

20 sufefaklu tuves ahesnes | an- 
stintu. Inenek vukumen esu- 

21 numenetu. Ap | vuku kukehes, 
iepi persklumaf kafitu. Vuke 

22 pir | ase antentu. Sakre 
sevakne upetu. luvepatre | 

23 prumu ampentu testru sese 

24 asa fratrusper | Atiiefies, 
ahtisper eikvasatis, tutape 

25 liuvina, | trefiper liuvina. 
Ti$lu sevakni teitu. | 

26 Inumek uvem sevakni upetu. 

27 Puemune | Pupfike apentu. 
Ticlu sevakni naratu. | 

28 luka mersuva uvikum habetu 

29 fratruspe | Atiiefie, ahtisper 

30 eikvasatis, tu taper | liu- 
vina, trefiper liuvina. Sakre | 

31 vatra ferine feitu, eruku 

32 aruvia feitu. Uvem | pe- 
faem pelsanu feitu. Ererek 

33 tuva tefra | spantimaf 
prusekatUf efek pefume purtu- 

34 vitu, | stru^la afveitu. Inumek 
etrama spanti tuva tefra | 

35 prusekatu, efek ere9luma 
IV Puemune Pupfike || purtuvitu, 

erarunt struh^las eskamitu 

Lecticae furcam primum im- 
ponito, turn cancellos imponito, 
turn - imponito. Item 

imponito, item 
imponito. Simpulis ahenis 

tribus distinguito, 

alteris tribus ahenis distinguito, 

duobus ahenis distin- 
guito. Turn in aedem in sacri- 
ficium ito. Ubi aedem incendet, 
Hi ad precationem vocato. In 
aede ignem arae imponito. Hos- 
tiam sollemnem deligito. lovi pa- 
tri primum impendito dextrorsus 
ab ara pro fratribus Atiediis, pro 
caerimoniis collegialibus, pro civi- 
tate Iguvina, pro tribu Iguvina. 
Dedicationem sollemnem dicito. 
Tune ovem sollemnem deligito. 
Pomono Publico impendito. De- 
dicationem sollemnem narrate. 
Preces solitas apud ovem habeto 
pro fratribus Atiediis, pro caeri- 
moniis collegialibus, pro civitate 
Iguvina, pro tribu Iguvina. Hos- 
tiam in extari ferculo facito, cum 
ea frumenta facito. Ovem humi 
stratum sepeliendum facito. Eius 
duo carnes cremandas ad latus 
prosecato, turn in fossam por- 
ricito, struem addito. Tune 
alterum ad latus duo carnes 
cremandas prosecato, turn ad 
sacrarium Pomono Publico por- 
ricito, eiusdem struis 

IV 22] 

Iguvinian Tables 


2 aveitu. | Inumek tertiama 
spanti triia tefra prusekatu, | 

3 efek supru sese erecluma 

4 Vesune Puemunes | Pupfices 
purtuvitu, struhcla petenata 

5 isek | afveitu. Ererunt l ka- 

6 pifus Puemune, | Vesune pur- 
tuvitu. Asamaf ereclumaf 2 ] 

7 asecetes karnus, iseceles et 

8 vempesuntres, | supes sanes per- 

9 tentu, persnimu, afpeltu, | sta- 
titatu. Veskles snates asnates 

10 sevakne | erecluma persnimu 
Puemune Pupfike, Vesune | 

11 Puemunes Pupfikes. Klavles 

12 persnihmu | Puemune Pupfike 3 

13 et Vesune Puemunes | Pupfikes 
pustin ereclu. Inuk ere- 

14 9lu umtu, | putrespe erus. 
Inuk vesticia, mefa 

15 Purtupite | skalgeta kunikaz 

16 apehtre esuf testru sese | asa 
asama purtuvitu, sevakne 

17 sukatu. | Inumek veste$a, 4 
persuntru supu eresle Hule | 

18 sevakne skalceta kunikaz 

19 purtuviOu. Inumek 5 vesticia 
persuntru Turse super erecle 

20 sevakne skalceta kunikaz 
purtuvitu. Inumek tehtefim | 

21 etu veltu, efek persuntre an- 

22 tentu. Inumek | arclataf vasus 
ufestne sevaknef purtuvitu. | 

addito. Tune tertium ad 
latus tils carnes cremandas pro- 
secato, turn sursus ad sacrarium 
Vesonae Pomoni Public! 
porricito, struem pectinatam 
item addito. Isdem capidibus 
Pomono, Vesonae porricito. 
Ad aram ad sacrarium 
non sectis carnibus, insectis et 
ficticiis, suppis sanis protendito, 
supplicato, admoveto, statuito. 
Vasculis umectis non umec- 
tis sollemnibus ad sacrarium pre- 
cator Pomono Publico, Vesonae 
Pomoni Publici. Clunibus 
precator Pomono Publico et 
Vesonae Pomoni Publici in sin- 
gulis sacrariis. Tune sacrarium 
unguito, utriusque magmentum 
(dato). Tune libamentum, libum 
Porricienti ex patera genu nixus 
extrinsecus ipse dextrorsus ab 
ara ad aram porricito, sollemne 
declarato. Tune libamentum, 
figmentum sub sacrario Hulae 
sollemne ex patera genu nixus 
porricito. Tune libamentum, 
figmentum Torrae super sacrario 
sollemne ex patera genu nixus 
porricito. Tune tegumentum 
ito deligito, turn figmentum im- 
ponito. Tune arculatas vasis 
operculatis sollemnis porricito. 

1 Aes erererunt. 2 Aes ere9lamaf . 8 Acs pupfikes. 4 Aes vesveca. 5 Aes inuntek. 


Iguvinian Tables 


23 Inumk pruzufe kebu sevakne 

24 persnihmu | Puemune Pupfice. 

25 Inumek kletra, veskles | vufetes 

26 sevaknis, persnihmu 1 | Vesune 
Puemunes Pupfces. Inumek 

27 svepis heri, | ezariaf antentu. 

28 Inumek erus tacez | tertu. 
Inumek kumaltu, afkani | 

29 kanetu, kumates persnihmu. 

30 Esuku | esunu ufetu, tapis- 

31 tenu habetu, pune | frehtu 
habetu. Ap itek fakust, 

32 purtitu | futu. Huntak pifi 

33 prupehast, efek | ures punes 

Tune praestante cibo sollemni 
precator Pomono Publico. 
Tune lectica, vasculis votis 
sollemnibus, precator Veso- 
nae Pomoni Public!. Tune 
siquis vult, escas imponito. 
Tune magmentum tacitus dato. 
Tune commolito, cantum 
canito, commolitis precator. 
Cum hoc sacrificium adoleto, cal- 
dariolam habeto, poscam calidam 
habeto. Ubi ita fecerit, 
porrectum esto. Puteum cum 
ante piabit, turn illis poscis 
ne adhibeant. 

1 Aes persihmu. 

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 301 


V a 1-13. First Decree. The flamen is to provide what- 
ever is essential for the ceremony, and select the victims. 

Va2. urnasier. Probably 'Festival of the Urns'. The plenasier urnasier 
are distinguished from the sestentasiaru urnasiaru (III 2). But it is not certain 
whether the adjectives refer to the capacity of the vessels used, or to the time 
of year at which the festivals were held. In the latter case plenasier would refer 
to those occurring at the end of the year, and sestentasiaru to those occurring 
at the end of one sixth of the year, that is two months from the beginning. 

V a 2-3. uhtretie etc. The uhtur, as appears from III 4-8, was not a 
regular official like the kvestur or fratreks, but one selected for a special occasion, 
perhaps a sort of chairman. 

Va4. eikvasese, perhaps related to L. aequus (29, a), but of obscure 
suffix-formation, probably means ' members of the brotherhood', equivalent to 
fratrus, or else, taken as Gen. Sg., denotes the brotherhood itself. In the Acta 
Arvalium we find both magister fratrurn Arvalium and magister conlegi fratrum 
Arvalium. Cf. also eikvasatis III 24, 29. 

Va 7 ff. "Let him select the sacrificial victims, and when they are 
given over let him inspect them to see if (see 316) they (lit. any of them ; 
see 266) are to be accepted, and in case of a triple offering let him inspect them 
in the country to see if they are to be accepted. ' ' pure tef te is best taken as an 
impersonal construction, pure being the conjunction 'quod, cum' (202, 1). 

Vail, felsva, if connected with L. holus (149, 6), might denote the 
'garlands', or, more probably, the vegetables used in the case of 'fireless offer- 
ings' (263, 2), that is those which were not burnt-offerings. 

Va 13. See 263, 1, 299, 7, footnote p. 236. 

V a 14-b 7. Second Decree. Statement of the fees for the 
performance of certain rites (cf . CIL. VI 820). When the banquet 
of the brotherhood takes place (cf. the banquets of the Arval 
Brothers), the magister (fratreks) or quaestor (cf. magister collegi 
and quaestores collegi, CIL. Ill, p. 925) is to take a vote as to 
whether the banquet has been properly arranged, and, in case 
the majority of those present declare that it has not been 
properly arranged, a further vote must be taken to determine 
the penalty for the flamen. 

1 Hardly more than a summary of contents. For most points the student must 
rely on the translation and the glossary, with the references there given. 

302 Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 

Va 15-16. kumnahkle and ukre may be Loc. Sg., or Dat. Sg. with the 
following verbs ; eikvasese is Dat. PI. with the following verbs, or Gen. Sg. 
(see note to 1. 4) with ukre. 

V a 17. apelust. This verb, as is clear from the succession of events here 
and in II b 27, is used of the initial ceremony in the sacrifice, preceding the lay- 
ing of the victim upon the altar (purtitu 1. 18). But it is not clear precisely 
what the ceremony referred to is, whether the formal devotion of the victim 
to the god, or its preparation, or even the actual slaughter (cf . inter caesa et 
porrecta, Cic. Att. 5, 18, 1), though this last gets no support from the use of 
L. impendo. The object expressed or understood is always an animal. 1 

V a 20. subra spafu, see 308, b. 

V a 23 ff. See 312, 316 ; on prufe si 1. 27, see 307 ; on pepurkurent herifi 
b 5, 6, see 315. 

V. b 8-18. Statement of contributions to be made regularly 
by certain gentes to the Atiedian brothers, and of portions of 
flesh to be awarded them by the brothers on the occasion of the 
decurial festivals. The two gentes mentioned here are among 
the ten (making up the decuria) enumerated in II b, and this 
passage is doubtless only the conclusion of a decree fixing the 
contributions and allotments of flesh for all ten, the main part 
being on one of the lost tables. 

VI, Vila, and I 

Purification of the Sacred Mount 
VI a 1 VI b 47 = I a 1 I b 9 

VI a 1-21 (I a 1-2). Introductory Auspices. The sacrifice 
is to be preceded by the taking of auspices (so in I and VI). 
Further details (only in VI) : the formulae passed between the 
augur and flamen ; warning against interruption ; boundaries of 
the ' templum' ; formula of announcement of the auspices ; some 
general prescriptions applicable to all the following sacrifices. 

Via 6-7. It is quite possible that arsir is not 'alius', but Dat.-Abl. PI. 
of arsie 'sancte', meaning 'ceremonies'. In this case the subject of mugatu as 
well as of andersistu is indefinite, and the use of pisi in 1. 7 and not in 1. 6 is due 
to the change from the passive impersonal construction. The meaning would 

1 In II b 10 vaputu is commonly regarded as the object of ampetu, but it is 
better to understand si ' suem' and take vaputu as Abl. Sg. used like vaputis II b 13 (293). 

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 303 

then be " One shall not make a noise or interrupt the ceremonies until the augur 
returns. If there is a noise or any one interrupts the ceremonies, it will make 
the sacrifice void". 

VI a 8-11. In spite of the most exhaustive discussion and comparison of 
passages in Latin authors bearing on the same subject, as Livy 1, 18, 6-9, there 
is the widest divergence of opinion as to the relations of the points mentioned. 
It seems clear however that 1. 10 means not 'from the uppermost corner to the 
augural seats (and further) to the city limits', but 'from the uppermost corner 
at the aiigural seats to the city limits'. For 1. 11, see 288. 

VI a 12-14. The words designate buildings and localities in the city and, 
naturally, are for the most part obscure. 

VI a 20. See 315. 

VI a 22-57 (I a 2-6). First Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
oxen to Jupiter Grabovius in front of the Trebulan gate. A 
sort of preamble or opening prayer is followed by three long 
prayers in identical words for each of the three offerings, and 
these again by a brief general prayer in conclusion. All these 
prayers are given only in VI. Then come prescriptions for 
various rites connected with the sacrifice (also in I). For the 
phraseology of the prayers compare those given by Cato, De 
Agric. 132, 134, 139, 141 ; e.g. luppiter, te hoc ferto ommovendo 
bonas preces precor, uti sies volens propitius mihi, domo, liberisque 
meis, familiaeque meae mactus hocferto. 

Via 22. sobocau suboco. The interpretation 'invoco invocationes' (279) 
is, in spite of the unusual order, far more probable than 'invocavi invoco', which 
involves various grammatical difficulties. 

Via 26. orer ose. The interpretation is very doubtful. It has been 
taken as 'his (donis) macte', going with the preceding, as 'illius anni' going 
with the following, and as 'cuiuspiam opere' 'by any one's work'. This last 
suggestion gives the easiest solution for ose (cf. osatu 'operator') and suits well 
the context (if, by any one's doings, through any one's fault, etc.). But one 
hesitates to separate orer from the pronominal forms uru, ures, etc., for which 
the meaning 'any' cannot be maintained. The translation given in the text 
adopts the comparison of ose with opere, but retains for orer the meaning ' illius' 
or in this case better 'hums'. This could only refer to the piaculum, and the 
phrase would be an anticipation of what is given at the close of the sentence, 
esu bue etc. But no great confidence in this view is entertained. 

pir orto est. The Arval Brothers institute a piaculum if the trees of the 
sacred grove are struck by lightning. 

VI a 27. pusei neip heritu. See 294, a. 

304 Brief Commentary on the Ignrintau 

Via 30. For castruo the usual translation 'fundos' is in this passage 
more attractive than 'capita', but see footnote, p. 236 f. 

VI a 32. See 322. 

VI a 54. See 17, 17. 

Via 56. The mefa spefa (see 110, 3 with a), for which mefa alone is 
used in the older tables, may mean simply 'libation cake,' but more probably 
'cake besprinkled (with salt ?)'. Cf. L. mola salsa. 

VI a 67. The meaning of the frequently recurring uatuo ferine fetu is 
very uncertain, the translation given representing only one of several possi- 
bilities (for ferine see 178, 6, note). Where the phrase is used, the victims are 
oxen, bull-calves, or boars. 

VI a 58-59 (I a 7-10). Second Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
pregnant sows to Trebus lovius behind the Trebulan gate. The 
prayers used in the first sacrifice are to be repeated. 

The sacrifice is to be made persae, a word which probably means ' stretched 
on the ground ' (cf . persom ' solum, fossam'), referring to the manner in which the 
victims were slain. It is used of sows, sucking pigs, heifers, and heifer-calves, 
also of a sheep, a boar, and a dog. An accompanying operation in such cases 
was the removal of the sopo 'under parts' (Grk. virna), the mention of which 
is nearly always preceded by the statement that the sacrifice is to be persae (pefae 
etc.). Cf. especially II a 22-32. But one act implies the other, and VI a 58-59 
has only persae fetu, while the parallel I a 7-10 has only supa sumtu. 

VI b 1-2 (I a 11-13). Third Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
oxen to Mars Grabovius in front of the Tesenacan gate. The 
prayers used in the first sacrifice are to be repeated. 

VI b 3-18 (I a 14-19). Fourth Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
sucking pigs to Fisus Sancius behind the Tesenacan gate. 
Prayers of the first sacrifice to be repeated. Then comes an 
offering of cakes etc. to Fisovius Sancius, accompanied by a 
prayer differing in some phrases from those used before. This 
is followed by some further special ceremonies. 

VI b 4. mandraclo etc. At Rome the flamen sacrificed to Fides with 
the right hand wrapped in white cloth (Livy 1, 21, 4 ; Serv. ad Aen. 1, 292). 
Some Umbrian coins of Tuder bear the device of a right hand wrapped with a band 
about the wrist and base of fingers, crossing on the back (see Lepsius, Insc. Um- 
bricae et Oscae, table xxix). The difue doubtless refers to the manner of binding. 

VI b 6. For sopo, see above, on VI a 58 ; for the use of postro, see 306. 

VI b 11. See 325. 

VI b 16. erus. This denotes a supplementary offering by which the cere- 
mony was completed. Sometimes it is used alone, sometimes with a Genitive 

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 305 

designating the kind of offering to which it forms the complement, as here. 
Cf . especially VI b 38 ff . and VII a 43 ff . with notes. The word is probably 
from *aisws, related to 0. aisusis 'sacrifices', U. escmo-, etc. See 112, a. The 
lack of rhotacism in the final may be attributed to the dissimilating influence of 
the preceding r. 

VI b 17. uestisia sopa purome. See 306. The meaning of efurfatu (and 
furfant VI b 43) is uncertain, but some such sense as 'purify' or 'consecrate ' 
is probable. There is no plausible etymology. 

VI b 19-21 (I a 20-23). Fifth Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
oxen with white foreheads to Vovionus Grabovius in front of 
the Veian gate. Prayers of the first sacrifice to be repeated. 

VI b 22-42 (la 24-34). Sixth Sacrifice. Sacrifice of 
three lambs (?) to Tefer lovius behind the Veian gate. Prayers 
of the first sacrifice to be repeated. Then follow supplementary 
offerings, consisting probably of cakes made in the form of 
animals, with the usual prayers and various accompanying 
rites with the cups, the trench, etc. 

VI b 22. pelsana. The most probable explanation is that this word refers 
to the burial of the remains of the victims. It is used also of a ram (II a 6), 
a dog (II a 43), and a sheep (III 32). And in VI b 40 the offerings called 
pesondro are to be put in the trench and buried. For the form see 262, 1, a. 

VI b 24 ff. pesondro sorsom. The first word, the etymology of which is 
wholly obscure, is most plausibly explained as referring to a symbolic offering, 
a sort of 'animal cracker' offered as a substitute for the animal itself. Cf. 
l Et sciendum, in sacris simulata pro veris accipi. Unde cum de animations, 
quae difficile inveniuntur, est sacrificandum, de pane vel cerafiunt et pro veris 
accipiuntur, Serv. ad Aen. 2, 116 ; Tauri verbenaeque in commentdrio sacrorum 
significant ficta farinacea, Festus ed. Thewrewk, p. 548. 

sorsom (sufum) is probably the same word as sorser 'suilli', V b 12, 17, while 
the contrasting staflare (VI b 37) refers to some animal kept in a stall, probably 
a sheep (cf. staflii uve I a 30 *). But the ' gingerbread pig' was the favorite form 
of the symbolic offering, so much so that in I a 30 sufum pesuntrum is used as a 
generic term equivalent to the simple pesondro of VI b 40, the kind of animal to be 
represented, in this case not a pig, being shown by the following adjectives. 
Similarly Ace. PI. sufuf la 33 is used substantively, equivalent to pesondro 
VI b 37, of the two kinds of cakes which had been mentioned, only one of 
which, was in the form of a pig. The term sorsom is also found in its specific 
sense, as in VI b 37, 38; but in VI b 38, 39, we find also the extended form 
sorsalir, sorsalem, contrasted with staflarem. 

1 Aes stafli iuvesmik. To correct this to staflare esmik is entirely unnecessary, 
for staflii can be Ace. Sg. of a stem *stafliio-, like tertim, terti, from *tertio- (91 , 1 , 172) . 

30G Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 

The order of events in this, the most complicated series of 
ceremonies, is as follows. 

Sacrifice of the lambs with the usual prayers. 

Offering of the pesondro sorsom at the right foot, with accompanying libation. 

Making trench for the cup. 

Offering of the libation and the erus. 

Prayer to Tefer lovius. 

Offering of the pesondro stqflare at the left foot. 

Making trench for the cup. 

Prayer repeated. 

Offering of the erus of the prosecta (of the lambs). 

Offering of the erus of the libation accompanying the pesondro sorso, in the 
trench at the right foot, where the pesondro sorso was offered. 

Offering of the libation accompanying the pesondro staflare at the left 
foot, and offering of its erus. 

Placing the pesondro sorsalem in the trench. 

Placing the pesondro staflare in the trench. 

Throwing on the vessels used in connection with the pesondro. 

Breaking of cakes with prayers. 

VI b 43-44 (Ibl-4). Seventh Sacrifice. Sacrifice of 
three bull-calves to Mars Hodius at the Jovian temple (?). 
Prayers of the first sacrifice repeated. 

VI b 45-46 (I b 4-7). Eighth Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three 
bull-calves to Hontus Cerrius at the temple (?) of Coredius. 
Prayers of the first sacrifice repeated. 

VI b 47 (I b 7-9). Conclusion. Then shall the Mount 
be purified. In case of any omission the ceremony is vitiated 
and one must return to the Trebulan gate and begin anew. 

The sentence suepo esome etc. is perfectly clear in its general meaning, 
but the exact construction is difficult. The most natural translation would be 
'If this ceremony through any omission is vitiated, take auspices, etc.', taking 
anderuacose as a compound in the ablative. But there is no reasonable explana- 
tion of uacose as an ablative. This is rather to be taken (with Brugmann, Ber. 
sachs. Gesells. 1890, 217 ff.) as uacos-se 'vacatio sit', uacos being Norn. Sg. from 
*uakati-s. uasetom-e will then be an adverbial phrase 'in vitiatum', like L. 
incassum. The corresponding phrase in I b va?etumise is probably to be sepa- 
rated va^etum-i se, the only difference being that the Present Subjunctive instead 
of the Future Indicative is used. But some take ise as a form of the verb ' to go'. 
esome esono (esumek esunu) is probably Gen. PL, ander going with wacos, mak- 
ing a compound ' intervacatio'. But it has also been taken as Ace. Sg. governed 
by the following ander. 

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 307 

Lustration of the People 
VI b 48 VII a 54 = I b 10-45 

Compare the description of the Roman Lustration, Dionys. Hal. Antiq. 
Rom. 4, 22, which we quote here from the Latin translation of the Didot edition 
as follows : Tune igitur Tullius, censu perfecto, postquam iussit omnes cives cum 
armis adesse in carapo, eorum qui sunt ante urbem maxima, et equites in turmas 
scripsit etpedites in acie collocavit, et milites levis armaturae in suis quosque cen- 
turiis, lustrationem instituit tauro, ariete, et hirco. Has hostias postquam ter 
circa exercitum circumagi iussit Marti, cui campus is sacer est, immolavit. 

VI b 48 VII a 2 (I b 10-23). Introductory Ceremonies. 
Expulsion of the Aliens. Circuit of the People. The auspices 
are taken in the same way as for the Purification of the Sacred 
Mount. After assuming the proper paraphernalia, the flamen 
and two assistants march with the victims by the Augural Way 
to the suburb Acedonia. Proclamation is made expelling the 
aliens. The Iguvinians are ordered to form in companies. The 
flamen and assistants march about them three times with the 
victims (bulls) and the fire. At the end of each circuit a 
prayer is made invoking misfortune upon the aliens and blessings 
upon the Iguvinians. 

VI b 49-50. "One shall put on the fire. When it is carried to the cer- 
emony, the one with the official staff shall carry the receptacle for the fire. He 
shall carry it lighted on his right shoulder. " As stated in I b 20 the fire is carried 
about the people. 

VI b 54-55 (I b 18). nosue ier, etc. There are widely different interpreta- 
tions of this passage. Some take habe as meaning ' has possessions' and assume 
a concession to the metics or resident foreigners, who are to remove to a certain 
place and perform separate ceremonies. But in I b the proclamation begins 
with svepis habe, and it is more natural to take this as a threat than as a conces- 
sion. The translation given in the text seems best suited to the two versions. 

VI b 56 (Ib 19-20). arsmahamo caterahamo. Compare the disposition 
of the Roman people in the passage quoted above. 

VI b 60. For the verbs, some of which are obscure, see the Glossary. 

VII a 3-5 (I b 24-26). Sacrifice of three bulls to Cerrus 
Martius at Fontuli, accompanied by the prayers used at the 
Trebulan gate. 

VII a 5. The erus is not to be added until announcement is made of the 
third sacrifice. Cf. 1. 43. 

308 Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 

Vila 6-40 (I b 2T-30). Sacrifice of three sows to Praes- 
tita Cerria at Rubinia, with the prayers used at the Trebulan 
gate. Ceremonies with the black vessels and the white vessels. 
With the former the prayer is to bring misfortune to the aliens, 
with the latter to avert misfortune from the Iguvinians. Offer- 
ing to Fisovius Sancius accompanied by the prayer used behind 
the Tesenacan gate. 

VII a 11, 27. atero clearly means ruin, though of uncertain etymology. 
Perhaps from *ap-terom (by 121), a 'rubbing away' (L. tero), and so 'destruc- 
tion'. Cf. L. deled 'rub off, destroy'. 1 

VII a 41-45 (I b 31-39). Sacrifice of three calves to Torra 
Cerria across the Sacred Way, with the prayers used at the 
Trebulan gate. When this is completed the order is given to 
add the erus at the place where the boars were sacrificed, then 
at Rubinia, then across the Sacred Way. Then they return to 
Rubinia and pray with the broken cakes, after which they come 
back to the Sacred Way and do the same. 

VII a 46-51. Prayer to Torra lovia in the same words 
as that made at the end of each circuit. To be repeated three 

VII a 46. tefru-to. ' From (the place of) the burnt-offering', that is, the 
place where the sacrifice mentioned in 1. 41 took place. 

VII a 51-54 (I b 40-44). Pursuit and sacrifice of the 

In the older version three heifers are let loose, one by the flamen, two by 
the assistants, and then caught and sacrificed. In VII more than three (apparently 
twelve ; cf. VII b) are let loose and the first three caught are sacrificed. 

VII b 

Provision that the magister shall provide the victims. 

VII b 1-2. seuacne . . . desenduf . . . ehiato. The general word for vic- 
tims is used in the masculine (cf. ehiato) in spite of the fact that the heifers 
(iuengar) are meant. ' He shall furnish the twelve victims which are to be let 
out on the occasion of the pursuit of the heifers.' 

f. I.F. 11, 14. 

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 309 


II a 1-14. Sacrifices to be made in case of unfavorable 

II a 1-2. naraklum vurtus. Cf . extorum mutatio, Cic. de div. 2, 35. 
II a 3 f. Parallel with VI a 26 etc. See 128, a. 

II a 15-43. Dog-sacrifice to Hontus lovius. Hontus was 
doubtless a divinity of the lower world and the rite one of 

krematra, krematruf, II a 23, 20, probably denote some sort of vessels used 
in roasting the meat (cf. L. cremo). But in II a 28 krematru as object of 
prusektu must be used of the meat itself. 

II b. Sacrifices at the decurial festivals of the federated 
families. Ten gentes are named, some subdivided, making 
twenty families. 

II b 14-15. sviseve evidently denotes some sort of vessel for holding 
liquids, so that connection with L. slnum is attractive. The latter might be 
from *s(u)it-s-no- (cf. also situld), and the first part of U. sviseve might be from 
*suit-s-, but the suffix is wholly obscure. 


The more private annual ceremonies of the brotherhood, 
like the festival of Dea Dia among the Arval brothers. Owing 
to the great number of technical terms not occurring elsewhere, 
the meaning of a considerable portion of these tables is obscure. 

Relative Chronology of the Tables 

The universally adopted numbering of the Tables is that of 
Lepsius, though opinions vary as to the correctness of this 
order for I-IV. The probability, however, is that these tables 
were actually inscribed in this order. For in the form of the 
letters III and IV occupy a position midway between I and II 
on the one side and V a-b 7 on the other. But, as some or all 
may be copies of older inscriptions, this does not necessarily 
mean the same order of composition. Judging by orthographi- 
cal peculiarities there is some evidence that III and IV are 

310 Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables 

copies of inscriptions earlier than I and II, and that II a 15-end 
(dog-sacrifice) is earlier in composition than II a 1-14. Within 
I and II various divisions are to be noted, corresponding to 
subject-matter, namely I a-b 9 (Purification of Sacred Mount), 
I b 9-end (Lustration of People), II a 1-14 (offering in case of 
bad omens), II a 15-end (dog-sacrifice), II b (ceremonies of the 
Decurial Festivals). The order of composition is possibly, 
though by no means certainly, III-IV, II a 15-end, I a, b, II a 
1-14, II b, V a-b 7, V b 8-end, VI, VII. 


82. Tuder. On a bronze statue of a warrior. Conway no. 352, v. PI. 
no. 292. 

ahaltrutitis dunum dede. Tr. Titius V.f. donum dedit. 

For S = d not f, see 27, 131, c. 

83. On a bronze tablet found at Fossato di Vico, near the ancient 
Helvillum. Conway no. 354, v. PI. no. 295. 

Cubrar Matrer bio eso; Bonae Matris sacellum hoc; 

oseto cisterno n. O^lV facta cisterna n. CLVIIII 

su maronato IIII sub *maronatu 

U. L. Uarie T. C. Fulonie. V. Varii L. f., T. Fullonii C. f. 

84. On a limestone block found near Assisi. Conway no 355, v. PI. 
no. 296. 

Ager emps et Ager emptus et 

termnas oht terminatus auct. 

C. U. Uistinie Ner. T. Babr. C. Vestinii V. f., Ner. Babrii T. f. 

maronatei in *maronatu 

Uois. Ner. Propartie Vols. Propertii Ner. f., 

T. U. Uoisiener. T. Volsieni V. f. 

Sacre stahu. Sacrum sto. 

Cf. CIL. XI 5390 Post. Mimesius C. /., T. Mimesius Sert. /., Ner. 
Capidas C.f. Ruf., Ner. Babrius T. /., C. Capidas T.f.C. n., V. Volsienus T.f., 
marones murum abfornice ad circum etfornicem cisternamq. d. s. s. faciundum 
coiravere. Maron- was an official title among the Umbrians and Etruscans. 



aa-'ab-'. 77,2,264,1. 

Aadiieis 'Adii', gen. sg., gent., no. 55. 


Aadirans '*Adiranus', gent. , no. 4. 81. 
Aadiriis, Aadiriis 'Atrius', gent., nos. 

14,15. 81,174. 
aamanaffed 'mandavit, (faciendum) 

locavit', nos. 5, 6, 8, 9, 11. Cf. 

manafum. 77, 2, 80, 2, 88, 3, 223, 

264, 1, 2. 

aapas, meaning uncertain, no. 61. 
aasai 'in ara', loc. sg., no. 45 16, 44 ; 

nom. pi. aasas, no. 4526. 33. 
Abellanii- 'Abellanus', no. 1. Dat. sg. 

m. -niii, ace. sg. f. -nam, nom. pi. m. 

-niis, gen. pi. m. -nwm, dat. pi. m. 

[-niifs]. 91,2, 103,3, 157,1, 255,4. 
akkatus 'advocati', nom. pi., no. 40, 

89, 3, 102, 3, 139, 1. 
akenei ' in anno' (?), loc. sg., no. 45 is, 47; 

gen. pi. acumm, no. 2ai; abbr. 

akun., no. 13. 81, 159, a. 

akrid ' acriter', no. 19 4. 99, 3, 190, 4. 

actud 'agito', imperat., no. 2 15 ; 32, 1, 
143; infin. acwra, no. 224; 159, 

Akudunniad, name of a Samnite town, 
abl. sg., no. 67. 144, a (nn by 162, 
1). For the question of the identi- 
fication with Aquilonia or modern 
Lacedogna see Conway, I, p. 172. 

acwra, see actud. 

acunwm, akun., see akenei. 

Akviiai ' Aquiae', dat. sg., gent, f., 
no. 19io. 258, 3. 

ad- 'ad-'. 299, 1. 

Aderl. 'Atella' or ' Atellanorum', no. 
68. 91, 2, 103, 3, 157, 2. 

adfust'aderit', no. 29. 299, 1. 

adpiid' quoad', no. 31. 202, 9. 

aeteis 'partis', gen. sg., no. 2 12, 18, etc. ; [ajittium, no. 1 53 ; 162, 1. 
16, 1, 62, 187, 1, a. 

Afaries ' Af arius' , gent. 174. 

1 The references with "no." refer to the numbers of the preceding collection. 
Where no number is given, the form is from some fragment not included in the 
collection. The references in black type are to the sections of the grammar. Where 
several inflectional forms are included under one heading, references for the particular 
forms, when given, are put after each, while the references to the word as a whole are 
put at the end of the article. But it is not intended, of course, to give references for 
each inflectional form, except in special cases. References inclosed in ( ) refer to 
the particular form immediately preceding. Under compounds are sometimes given 
references to sections in which only the simplex is mentioned. And occasionally 
elsewhere reference is made to a section in which the word itself is not mentioned, 
but where parallel examples are given. 

Besides the abbreviations used elsewhere, note praen. = praenomen, and 
gent. = gentile. 

2 Alphabetical order as in Latin, but with k under c. u is given under o ; like- 
wise u = u, o, when forms with u or o also occur, otherwise under u. v is given after 
u, but consonantal u is given with v, and au and av, ou and uv, are treated as identical. 



Glossary and Index Oscan 


aflukad 'deferat, adferat, direct 

against'(?), no. 193; fut. perf. 

2 sg. aflakus, no. 19 10, 11 ; 224. 

97, a, 139, 1. 
Ahvdiu, see Avdiis. 
aikdafed 'decrevit'(?), no. 46; 227. 

264, 3. 
aidil 'aedilis', noin. sg., no. 12; 119, 

2; nom. pi. aldilis, no. 3 ; 178, 7. 

21, 62. 
A//'fiefs'*Aedini', gen. sg., cogn., 

no. 55. 136. 
aisusis 'sacrificiis', no. 19 7. 15, 3, 

Alafaternum 'Alfaternorum', no. 76. 

80, 1, 124. 
allo 'alia, cetera', nom. sg. f., no. 222. 

32, 1, 100, 3, c. 

alttram * alteram', no. 1 53; dat. sg. 
m. altrei, no. 2 13; 187, 1, a; loc. sg. 
alttrei, no. 45 n, 46 ; abl. sg. atrud, 
no. 224; 105, 2, a ;[us, 
no. 1 53. 88, 4, 162, 1, 188, 2, a. 

am-'amb-'. 89, 1, 161, a. 

amfret 'ambiunt', no. 1 32, 45. 161, 
217, 4. 

amiricatud ' *immercato, without re- 
muneration', adv., no. 2 22. 38, 2, 
80, 1, 190, 2. 

Ammal '*Ammae, Matri', no. 45 6, 23, 

33. Cf. Hesych. 'A/j,/j.ds- ij T/>o06s 
' Apr^tSos, Kal i} /j.T?iTi)p. Germ. Amme 
'nurse', also, dialectic, 'mother'. 

amnud 'circuitu', no. 1 17 ; 291; 

amnud 'causa', no. 26; 304. 16,2, 

ftn. p. 70, 161, a, 251, 2. 
ampert 'dumtaxat', no. 2 12, 18. 15, 9, 

269, 299, 5. 
amprufid 'im probe', no. 2 so. 86, 6, 

102, 2, 190, 1, 263, 2. 
ampt 'circum', no. 18. 161, a, 300, 


no. 19 3. 161, a, 

amviannud 'circuitu, detour', abl. sg., 

nos. 15, 18, amvianud, nos. 14, 16, 

17. 161, a, 163, 255, 4, a. 
an- 'in-', negative prefix. 98, 263, 

a^aSaxer, i.e. avafaKfr 'dedicavit', no. 

66. 24,6, 80, 2, 224, 264, 1. 
Anafriss 'Imbribus'(?), no. 45 9, 37. 

80, 2, 98, 6. 
Anagtiai ' Angitiae', dat. sg., no. 52. 

80, 2. 
ancensto 'incensa', no. 2 22. 98, 211, 

244, 1, a, 263, 2. 
Anei, no. 44. Probably abbr. of 

proper name. 
angetuzet 'proposuerint', no. 2 20 ; 

? fut. perf. 3 sg. angitu[st, no. 2 2. 

228, a, 264, 1. 
Anniiei(s) ' Annii', gen. sg., gent., no. 

ant 'usque ad', no. 3 (twice). 17, 6, 

32, 1, 92, 299, 2. 
anfkrt</ujn, no. 19 2. Possibly a cpd. 

connected with L. cado, meaning 

'destruction, ruin', 
anter ' inter' , nos. 1 14, 54, 14, 15; 

an[ter, no. 17. 98, c, 301, 1. 
Anterstatai'*Interstitae', dat. sg., no. 

45 5 V 31. Doubtless a protectress of 

boundaries ; cf. L. Stata, protectress 

of streets and public places. 32, 3. 
Appelluneis 'Apollinis', no. 6; dat. 

ATTTreXXovj/Tjt, no. 62 (24). 21, 162, 3. 
aragetud ' argento', abl. sg., no. 43, 

arag*tf[ud, no. 42. 80, 1, 108, 2. 
Arkiia 'Archias'. 169, 12. 
Arentika[i, Arent[ikai, Aret[ikai, etc. 

'*Arenticae, Ultrici', dat. sg., no. 19. 

21, 108, 2. 
aserum 'adserere', no. 2 24. 137, 2, 

299, 1. 

Atiniis 'Atinius', gent., no. 5. 174. 
Aukil '*Aucilus', cogn., no. 41. 68, 

171, 1. 


Glossary and Index Oscan 


Avdiis 'Audius', gent., no. 10, also 
A/r5etes ; 174 ; Ahvdiu, no. 13, 
probably dat. sg. (-u for -ui; see 
171, 3, a). 61, 2, a. 

AVO-K\LV. 'Ausculinorum', 
. 'Ausculanorum',no. 69. 61, 
2, a. 

auti 'aut', no. 2 (passim). 68, 92, 
202, 17. 

avt 'at, autem', nos. 1 (passim), 29, 31 
(corrected from aet), 50 (a]vt); 
aut ' at, autem', no. 2 20 ; avt ' aut', 
no. 19 (passim). 68, 92, 202, 17. 

az' ad', no. 4520. 137,2,299,1. 

Baiteis 'Baeti', gen. sg., praen., no. 55. 

Bansae 'Bantiae', loc. sg., no. 2 (pas- 
sim). 100, 3, c. 

Bantins ' Bantinus' , no. 2 19. 47, 25 5 , 5. 

Beriis 'Berius', gent., no. 44. 

Betitis'Betitius',gent.,no. 51. 259,1. 

Bivellis 'Bivellius', gent., no. 20. 

bivus'vivi',, no. 199. 101,151. 

Blaisiis 'Blaesius', gent., no. 40. 

Blussii(eis) 'Blossii', gen. sg., gent., 
no. 26. 

Bn., abbr. praen., no. 51. 

Buvaianud 'ad Bovianum', no. 46. 
61, 3 with a and ftn., 253, 1, 298. 

brateis 'gratiae', gen. sg., no. 2 6. See 
p. 235 with ftn. 

Buttis'Bottius', gent., no. 40. 

-c, -k. 201, 1. 

Kaal., abbr. praen., no. 58. 

cadeis 'inimicitiae', gen. sg., no. 2 6. 
See p. 235 with ftn. 

kahad 'capiat', no. 19 6, 8 (in 1. 6 prob- 
ably ' incipiat'). 99, 3, 149, 213, 1, a. 

kaias, meaning uncertain, no. 61. 

kaila 'aedem, templum', ace. sg., no. 3. 
L. caelum(?). 

Kaisilliefs 'Caesilii', gen. sg., gent., 
no. 25 a, b. 

kaispatar 'caedatur, glebis tunda- 
tur'(?), no. 19 5. 238, 2, c. 

Kalaviis ' Calvius' , gent. , no. 52. 80,1, 

KaXim 'Calinius', gent., no. 62. 

Kaluvis '*Calovius, Calvius', gent, 
(fragment) ; gen. sg. Kaluvieis, nos. 
27-28. 258, 4. 

Kamp[aniis] ' Campanius', gent. , no. 6. 

Kapv. , abbr. for Kapv(ad) ' Capua', 
abl., or Kapv(anum) 'Capuanorum', 
no. 70 ; for Kapv(anai) or (anei), loc. 
sg., no. 31; for Kapv(ans) 'Capua- 
nus', no. 29 (but reading not cer- 

karanter 'vescuntur', no. 199. 97. 

caria ' panis' . ' ' Carensis, pistoribus a 
caria quam Oscorum lingua panem 
esse dicunt." Placidus ed. Deuer- 
ling, p. 25. 97. 

carneis 'partis', no. 23, 7. 17,3, 181, c. 

kasit 'decet', no. 31. 17, 1, 78, 3, 112, 
204,7, 212,3. 

casnar 'senex'. " Casnar senex Osco- 
rurn lingua." Festused.Thewrewk, 
p. 33. "Item significat in Atellanis 
aliquot Pappum senem quod Osci 
casnar appellant." Varro L. L. 7, 
29. 114. 

Kastrikiieis ' Castricii', gen. sg., cogn., 
no. 17. 174,256,3. 

castrid 'capite'(P), no. 2 8; 59; gen. 
sg. castrous, no. 2 13; 71. 17, 2, 
32, 1, 138, 184, 248, 4, a, p. 236. 

cebnust ' venerit', no. 2 20. 88, 3, 224, 
264, 1. 

censaum 'censere', infin., no. 220; 
fut. 3 pi. censazet, no. 2 19; 221; 
imperat. pass, censamur, no. 2 19; 
237, 279. 210, 3. 

Kenssurineis 'Censorini', gen. sg., 
cogn., no. 26. 21, 246, 1. 

censtom-en ' in censum', no. 2 20. 244, 
1, a. 


Glossary and Index Oscan 


censtur ' censor', -no. 2 27, 28 ; nom. pi. 
censtur, no. 2 is, 20, kenzsur, no. 58 
(21); 90, 1, 117; nom. sg. or pi. 
keenzstur, no. 50; 162, 2. 41, 6, 
53,73, 110,1, 244, 1, a, 246,1. 

Kerri'Cereri', no. 453,32, Keri, no. 19 
(passim). 115, 2, 186, b. 

Kerrfiii- ' Cerealis, Genialis', no. 45. 
Dat. sg. m. -iiuf , -iiul ; dat. sg. f . 
-iiai; loc. sg. m. -liin; 171, 7; 
dat. pi. m. -fiuls ; dat. pi. f . -iiais. 
61,3, 253,3. 

kersnariavS '*cenariae', nom. pi., no. 
31 b. 253,1. 

kersnu 'cena', nom. sg. (fragment be- 
longing with no. 40); abl. pi. 
kerssnais, no. 29. 114, 116, 2, 
162,2, 251,2, a. 

kersswasias '*cenariae', nom. pi., no. 
27, 116, 2, 162, 2, 254. 

cews'civis', no. 2 19. 64, a. 

Kiipiis'Cipius', gent. 174. 

Kli., abbr. praen. ('Clemens' or 'Cli- 
tus' ?), no. 10. 

Klum., abbr. cogn.(?), probably 'Clu- 
menus', no. 20. 

Kluvatiis ' Clovatius', gent. , no. 19 9 ; 
dat. sg. Kluvatiu/, no. 19 2 (p. 244, 
ftn.); ace. sg. Kluvatiium, no. 19 
10; gen. pi. Kluvatiium, no. 23 a, b. 
174, .259,1. 

Km., abbr. praen. ('Comius'?), no. 63. 

kuiniks 'xom', fragment. 21. 

com, con ' cum', prepos., no. 2 15, 16, 23. 

com-, kiim- 'con-'. 300, 2. 

kumbened 'convenit', no. 1 10. 151, 

kumbennieis ' conventus', gen. sg. , nos. 
4, 5, kumbenn[iefs], no. 6. 162, 1, 
250, 1. 

comono 'comitia', ace. pi. neut., no. 2 
(passim) ; also comonom, 1.17, prob- 
ably mistake for comono, otherwise 

ace. sg. neut.; loc. sg. comewei, 

no. 2 5, 21. 15, 4, 81, 107, 2 with 

ftn., 251,2. 
kujmparakineis 'consilii', gen. sg., no. 

11. 81, a, 97, .1^5,1. 
comparascuster ' consul ta erit', no. 24. 

16, 3, 81, a, 97, 116, 1,145,1,213,5, 

contrud 'contra', no. 2 (passim). 188,2, 

190, 2, 303. 

kuru'glans, missile'(?), no. 55. 
Kerreies ' Cottii', fragment. 64. 
krustatar 'cruentetur'(P), no. 19 5. 

238, 2, c. 

kulupu ' culpa 1 (?), no. 40. 80, 1. 
Kupelternum, -lim 'Compulterinorum' , 

no. 70. 
kvaisstur 'quaestor 1 , nos. 4, 5, 6, 11, 

/c/rcu<r[To/>], [Kf]ai<?Top (fragments); 

dat. sg. kvaisturei, no.l2; nom. 

pi. kvaizstur, no. 10 ; 162,2; abbr. 

q., no. 22,28,29. 21, 53, 62, 162, 


da(d)-'de-'. 163,300,3. 

da[da]d 'dedat, reddat'. pres. subj., 

no. 19 3 ; perf . subj. dadid. no. 19 4 ; 

224. 213,4, a, 300, 3. 
dadikatted 'dedicavit', no. 47. 44, 

163. 210, 3 and 6, 228. 
damia. 'damnum'(?), no. 192. 
damsennias, no. 31 ; damu . . , damu- 

se . . , no. 24. See note, p. 251. 
da'de', no. 2 (passim). 190, 3, a, 

300, 3. 

Z>kuva, praen., no. 40. Form unex- 
Dekkviarim ' Decurialem' , no. 3. 3 1 , a, 

102, 1, 162, 1, 191, 10, a, p. 240. 
deketasiui ' *decentario, ordinario'(?), 

dat. sg., title of the meddix at Nola, 

no. 1 5 ; nom. sg. degetasis, no. 43 ; 

172 ; nom. pi. degetashis, no. 42. 

108, 2, 158. 191, 10, 254, p. 229. 


Glossary and Index Oscan 


Dekis 'Decius', praen., nos. 10, 40 

(passim); gen. sg. Dekkieis, no. 40 

(passim). 162, 1, 174. 
Dekmanniuis '*Decumaniis', probably 

name of a festival, no. 4548. 88, 3, 

162, 1, 191, 10, 9 *5, 4, p. 255. 
deded, see didest. 
degetas-, see deketasnii. 
deicum 'dicere', infin., uo. 2 10, deikum, 

no. 20; pres. subj. 3 pi. deicans, 

no. 29; f ut. perf . 3 sg. dicust, no. 

214; 45, 224. 64, 95. 
Deivai ' Divae', dat. sg., no. 45 15,43. 

deiuatud 'iurato', imperat., no. 25; 

pres. subj. 3 sg. deiuaid, no. 2 11; 

232; fut. 3 sg. deiuast, no. 2s; 

221; perf. pass, partic. nom. pi. 

deiuatuns 'iurati', no. 2 9 ; 244, 2, a, 

308, a. 16, 4, 262, 1. 
deivinais 'divinis', dat. pi. f., no. 34. 

47, 64, 101, 255, 5. 
destrst * dextra est', no. 21. 84, 89, 1, 

145,1, 188,2. 
dicust, see deicum. 
didest 'dabit', fut. 3sg., no. 2 16; 45, 

221, 213, 4; perf. 3 sg. deded, 

nos. 4, 7, 48, 52, 8e5er, no. 65 ; 223. 
djiikulus, see zicolom. 
Difviiai 'Diae', dat. sg., no. 52. 95, a, 

ftn. p. 52. 

Diiivef, Atou/ret, see Iiiveis. 
Diuvia . . , see luviass. 
diuvilam, see iuvilam. 
Diumpais 'Lumpis'. 56. 
dolom 'dolum', ace. sg., no. 2 5, 14, 

dolum, no. 2 21 ; abl. sg. dolud, no. 

2 11, 20. 
duniim 'donum', ace. sg., no. 53, 

dunum, no. 52. 53, 107, 1, 251, 


dunte. . , meaning uncertain, no. 19 4. 
djuunated 'donavit', no. 50. 53, 


ekak 'hanc', nos. 3, 4, 7, abbr. ek., no. 

22; 108, 2, a; ace. sg. n. ekik, 

no. 46; 196, a; nom. pi. f. ekas, 

nos. 25 a, b, 26, ekask, no. 45 26 ; 

ace. pi. f . ekass, no. 3 ; abbr. ek. 

for nom. sg. f., no. 27. 196. 
ekkum 'item', no. 1 27, 41. 139, 1, a, 

201, 5. 

ekss'ita, sic', no. lio, ex, no. 2 7. 196,6. 
eksuk 'hoc', abl. sg. n., nos. 14-18; 

abl. sg. f. exac, no. 2 8,23; loc. sg. 

n. exeic, no. 2 (passim); dat. abl. pi. 

f . exaisc-en, no. 2 25. 145, 3, 196. 
edum'edere', no. 19s. 36, 1. 
ee-, eh- 'e-'. 77, 1, 142, a, 300, 4. 
eehiianasum 'emittendarum', no. 31 a, 

vehiian., no. 31 b (D by mistake 

for 3). 77, 1, 149, 163. 
eestint 'exstant', no. 4526; ee[stit 

'exstat',no. 152. 41,6,77,1,89,2, 

egmo 'res', nom. sg., no. 2 4 ; gen. sg. 

egm[as], no. 2 5 ; abl. sg. egmad, no. 

2 10; gen. pi. egmazum, no. 2 24; 

270. 16,5,251,3. 
ehpeilatas 'erectae, set up', perf. pass. 

partic. nom. pi., no. 26. 64, 142, a, 


ehpreivu/. 142, a. 
ehtrad ' extra', no. 1 31. 142, 188, 2, 

190, 3, 299, 3. 

e/*[truis? ' exterioribus', no. 1 14. 
eidiiis 'idibus', name of a festival, no. 

29, eiduis, no. 21. 171, 14, p. 247. 
etm/i, see inim. 
eiseis 'eius', no. 1 20, eiseis, no. 194, 

eizeis, no. 2 22 ; loc. sg. n. efsei, 

no. 1 46, e[lsei, no. 1 51, esel, mistake 

for eisel, no. 1 49, eizeic, no. 2 7, 21 ; 

loc. sg. f. e]isaf, no. 1 57; abl. sg. n. 

eisiid, no. 1 13, eizuc, no. 2 29, so, 

eizuc-en, no. 2i6; abl. sg. f. eisak, 

no. 4, eizac, no. 2io; gen. pi. m. 

eisunk, no. 40 ; gen. pi. f. eizazunc, 


Glossary and Index Osaut 


no. 2 24 ; abl. pi. m. eizois, no. 
2 23 ; abl. pi. f . eizasc, mistake for 
eizaisc, no. 29. 195. See also 

eitiuvam 'pecuniam', no. 4, eituam, 
no. 2 19 ; gen. sg. eituas, no. 2 (pas- 
sim); abl. sg. eitiuvad, nos. 4, 5, 
eltiu[vad], no. 6, abbr. eitiv., no. 
66 (31, b); ace. pi. eituas, no. 29; 

abbr. ei. for nom. sg., no. 222. 
16, 6, 56. 

eituns 'eunto'(?),nos.!4,17,18,eitu[ns, 

no. 16, abbr. eit., no. 15. 236, 2, 

p. 242. 

eizeis, eizeic, etc., see efseis. 
embratur ' imperator', no. 79 b. 89, 2, 

157, 1, 246, 1. 

en 'in', no. 29, postpos. -en. 301, 2. 
Entrai '*Interae', dat. sg., no. 45s, 35. 

188, 2, 301, 2. 
esei, see efseis. 
esidum, see isfdum. 
essuf ipse', no. 50, esuf, no. 2 19, 21. 

110, 6, 122, 2, 197, 5. 
est, estud, estud, see sum. 
etanto 'tanta', nom. sg. f., no. 2 11, 26. 

201, 7. 
Evkliii, dat. sg., no. 45 3, 25, 29. 21, 


ex, exac, etc., see eks, eksuk. 
ezum, see sum. 

f aamat ' habitat, tendit, holds com- 
mand', nos. 14, 15, (16), 17. 99, 2, 
204, 7, p. 242. 

fakiiad'faciat', no. 31 a ; 44, a ; im- 
perat. Ssg.factud, no. 29; 143, 216; 

perf. subj. 3 sg. fefacid, no. 2io; 
223 ; f ut. perf. 3 sg. fefacust, no. 
2il,n; 223. 32, 1, 99, 1, 136, 
214, 2, 219. 

facus 'factus', no. 2 30. 91, 1, 258, 1. 
Faler. Talerniis', no. 32; nom. pi. 
Falenias, no. 33. 103, 2, a. 

famel 'famulus'. "Famuli origo ab 

Oscis dependet, apud quos servus 

famel nominabatur, unde et familia 

vocata." Festus ed. Thewrewk, 

p. 62. Cf. also Pael. famel inim 

loufir 'famulus et liber'. 36, 2, 91, 

2, a, 119, 2. 
famelo 'familia', no 222. 100, 3, c, 

250, 2. 

far 'far', no. 19s. 117, 182. 
fatium'fari', infin., no. 20. 38, 1, 

99, 2, 212, 1, 262, 2. 
feihuss 'muros', no. 1 31 ; abl. pi. 

fefhufs, no. 1 45. 16, 7, 64, 95, 

136, 149. 
fertalis, ceremonies celebrated with 

sacrificial cakes (L. fertum), nom. 

pi. or dat. pl.(?), no. 26. 178, 7, 

257, 4, p. 249. 
Seo-rtes ' Festius' , no. 65. Also taken 

as 'Sestius'. 24, b. 
fifikus'decreveris'(?), no. 19s. 223 

with a. 

fiiet, filet 'fiunt', no. 31 a, b. 215, 2. 
Fiisiais '*Fisiis', adj., no. 28, Fiisiais, 

no. 27, Fisiais, no. 21. 137, 1, 252, 1. 
fffsnu'fanum', nom. sg., no. 1 so; 

ace. sg. fffsnam, no. 1 32, fisnam, 

no.l45; fil..., no 1 24, fffs..., 

no. 50. 41,99,1,114,136,251,2. 
Fiml. '*Fimulus', no. 57. 91, 2, a. 
Ffsanis '*Fisanius', no. 16. 
Fistelu'*Fistelia', no. 72 a; Fistluis 

'*Fistulis', no. 72 b, c (0tcrreXia, no. 

72 c, Greek, not Oscan). 
Fiuusasials 'Floralibus', name of a 

festival, no. 4520. 105, 1, a, 254. 
Flagiuf '*Flagio', dat. sg., no. 25 a, b. 

See note, p. 249. 
FluusaP Florae', dat. sg., no. 4624. 

53, 105, 1. 
/orfris'potius', no. 2 12. 91, 1, 146, 

188, 1. 
fratrum 'fratrum',nos. 27,28. 33, 124. 


G-lossary and Index Oscan 


Frentrei'*Frentri', loc. sg., no. 73. 
f ruktatiuf ' f ructus' , no. 1 21 . 58,88, 

3, 153, 247, 1. 
fufans, fufens, fvid, fusld, fust, see 

Fuutref 'Genetrici', dat. sg., no. 45 so, 

Futrei, no. 454; gen. sg. Futre[is], 

no. 54. 58, 180, a with ftn. 
Fuvfdis 'Fufidius', gent., no. 40. 

Gaaviis 'Gavins', gent., no. 42, Gaviis, 

no. 20 ; gen. sg. Gaav . . . , praen. , 

no. 58. 
Genetai ' Genitae', dat. sg., no. 45 is, 43. 

Gnaivs ' Gnaeus', praen. (on fragment 

belonging with no. 40), [Gnaijvs, no. 

40; abbr. Gn., no. 47. 147, 2. 

hafiest 'habebit', no. 2 8 (probably for 

hapiest); 218, note ; perf. subj. 3sg. 

hipid, no. 2 (passim) ; 41 , 218, 225 ; 

fut. perf. 3 sg. hipust, no. 2ii; 225. 

99,1, 218. 
Hefrennis ' Herennius'(?), gent., no. 42; 

cf. praen. Heirens. 
Helleviis 'Helvius', gent., no. 20, 

Helevi., no. 32 ; Heleviieis, 

no. 33. 80, 1, 162, 3, 174, 258, 3. 
Her., no. 53, abbr. for Hereklui or 

Herekleis 'Herculis', no. 1 (passim); 

dat. sg. Hereklui, no. 45 13, 41. 21, 

78, a, 80, 1. 
Hereiis ' Herius', gent., no. 40 ; gen. 

sg. Heriieis, no. 40. 176, 5. 
Herentatefs ' Veneris', no. 41 ; dat. 

sg. Herentatei, no. 41. 15,1,251,5. 
herest 'volet', no. 2 (passim). 100, 3, c, 


heriam'vim', no. 19 i. 15, 1, 250, 1. 
heriiad 'capiat', no. 20; 44, a; im- 

perf. subj. 3 pi. hjerrins, no. 154; 

115,2,216,233. 149,214,2. 

Heriieis, see Hereiis. 

Herukinai ' Erycinae', dat. sg., no. 41. 

Epithet of Herentatei. 21, 149, a. 
hipid, hipust, see haftest. 
Hurtiis 'Hortius', gent., no. 53. 
hiirz 'hortus, lucus', no. 45 48; ace. 

sg. hurtiim, no. 45 20 ; dat. sg. 

hurtiii, no. *45 27 ; loc. sg. hurtin, 

no. 45 i; 41, a, 82, 1, 171,7. 49, 

Husidiis 'Hosidius', gent., no. 58. 

260, 2. 
humuns 'homines', nom. pi., no. 199. 

90, 1, 149, 181. 
hu[n]truis 'inferis', no. 19 7. 15, 5, 

149, 188, 2. 
huntrus 'infra'(P), no. 19 11 ; 299, 4, a. 

iak, see izic. 

-ic, -ik, enclitic. 201, 2. 

idle, idik, see izic. 

leiis. 176, 1, 3. 

iiv, no. 55. ? ? 

imad-en'ab imo', no. 3. 47, 114, d, 

189, 1. 
fnim'et', no. 1 (passim), ini, nos. 3, 

14-17, inim, nos. 27, 28, inim, nos. 

19 (passim), 40, inim, no. 2 6, eim/i, 

no. 62 (44), abbr. in., no. 2 (passim). 

16, 8, 202, 16. 
ioc, iuk, see izic. 
iuklei ' the formula of consecration', 

' consecration' (?), loc. sg., no. 31 a, b. 

249, 1. 
Iuvkiiui'*Iovicio', dat. sg., gent., no. 

14. 174,256,3. 
Iiiveis 'lovis', nos. 3, 59; dat. sg. 

luvei, no. 25 a, b, Diiivei, no. 45 

(passim), Aiou/ret, no. 64 (24). 101, 

134, 183 with a. 
Iwviass '*Iovias', ace. pi., name of a 

festival, no. 29; here probably 

Diuvia. ., no. 24 a, b. 
luviia 'loviam', adj., no. 3. 252, 1. 


Glossary and Index 


iiivilam '*iovilam', no. 33, iuvil, no. 32, 
older diuvilam, no. 21, diuvil., no. 
22 ; nom. sg. iuvilu (on two frag- 
ments not included), iuhil., no. 27 
(h by mistake); nom. pi. iiivilas, 
nos. 25 a, 26, iuvilas, no. 25 b, i//vi- 
/as, no. 29, iuvil, no. 50. 134, 
257, 5, p. 247. 

ip'ibi', no. 134. 195,/. 

isidum 'idem', nom. sg. m., no. 4, 
isidu, nos. 7, 8, et<m5o^ (fragment), 
esidum (fragment), esidu[m], no. 50 ; 
44, c; nom. pi. m. iwssu, i#su, 
no. 3; 53, a, 139, 1, a. 44, c, 50, 
195, 201, 5. 

ist, see sum. 

iwssu, see isidum. 

izic'is', no. 2 (passim); nom. sg. f. 
ioc, no. 2 4, iuk, no. 1 37, 42, iiuk, no. 
21; 31, a; nom. ace. sg. n. t'dic, 
no. 2 6, 9, 30, idik, no. 1 17, is, idik, 
no. 19s,5; ace. sg. m. ionc, no. 
2 12, n, 26 ; 49 ; ace. sg. f. iak, no. 
50; 108, 2, a; nom. pi. m. iwsc, 
no. 220; nom. ace. pi. n. ioc, no. 
25. See also eiseis. 195. 

L., see Luvkis. 

lamatir 'caedatur'(?), no. 221, lama- 

tir, no. 194. 228, 238, 2, 239, p. 


AaTrom 'Lamponius'. 108, 2, a. 
leginum ' legionem, cohortem', no. 19s, 

legin[um, no. 19 1 ; dat. sg. leginei, 

no. 194, n, 12. 181. 
lefguss, meaning uncertain, no. 60. 
licitud 'liceto', no. 2 (passim), likitud, 

no. 136. 41, 44, 104, 212, 3. 
Liganakdikei, name of a goddess, dat. 

sg., no. 458,35. 80, 2, 263, 1. 
ligatufs 'legatis', dat. pi., no. 1 6, 7; 

nom. pi. ligat[us], no. 1 9. 41. 
ligud 'lege', abl. sg., no. 2 19, 24; 

loc. pi. ligis, no. 225. 41, 104. 

liimitu[m] 'limitum', gen. pi., no. 129. 


liis.., no. 50. ? ? 
limu 'famem', no. 19s. 21. 
l?]ufrikunuss '*liberigenos'(?), no. 50. 

Formation and meaning uncertain. 
AovKavofj. ' Lucanorum' , no. 75. 24, 71. 
Luvkanateis ' *Lucanatis', no. 61 . 71, 

259, 3. 
luvkei'in luco', loc. sg., no. 26. 71, 

Luvkis 'Lucius', praen., no. 20 (Liivi- 

kis, 1. 5, probably mistake); gen. 

sg. Luvcies; 64, b; abbr. L., nos. 

17, 27-28, 41, 49. 71. 
toM/ir'ver,no. 2s. 16,9,71,96, 104, 

124, 202, 18, 238, 2, 239. 
Luvfreis 'Liberi', gen. sg., no. 59. 71, 

104, 136. 
luisarifs 'lusoriis'(?),no. 21. 124, 138, 

178, 9, 257, 4, p. 248. 

M., abbr. praen. (Mais?), no. 3. 
m., see meddikkiai. 
Ma., abbr. praen. (Mais?), nos. 11, 17. 
Maatiiis '*Matis', dat. pi., no. 45 10, 38. 

Cf. L. Matuta. 

Maatreis'Matris', no. 54. 33, 81. 
Maesius ' mensis Maius'. "Maesius 

lingua Osca mensis Maius. " Festus 

ed. Thewrewk, p. 109. 147, 3, a. 
Magiium 'Magiorum', gent., no. 21. 

174, 176, 1. 

Mahii[s' Maius'. 176,1. 
maimas 'maxirnae', gen. sg., no. 23, 7. 

114, 6, 147, 3, a, 189, 3. 
mats 'magis, plus', adv., no. 2 5, 15, 25. 

91,1, 147,3, 188, 1, 289. 
Mais, Mais 'Maius', praen. (fragments) ; 

dat. sg. Maiiui, no. 1 1,3; gen. 

sg. [MJaiieis ?, no. 50 ; abbr. Mai. , 

no. 1 1, 4/Mh., nos. 47, 57 ; 176, 1. 

Here also perhaps M. and Ma. 61, 

3, 91,1, 147,3, 176, 1,3. 


G-lossary and Index Oscan 


malaks 'malevolos'(?), no. 192. 178, 

10, 256, 6. 
mallom ' malum', ace. sg., no. 2 5, 15, 22 ; 

abl. sg. mallud, no. 2 20, malud, 
no. 2 11. 100, 3, c. 

M.a/j.pKies 'Mamercius', gent., no. 66. 
Cf. praen. Mamercus quoted under 
Mamers. 80, 1, 174. 

Mamers ' Mars'. " Mamers Mamertis 
facit, id est lingua Osca Mars Mar- 
tis, unde et Mamertini in Sicilia 
dicti, qui Messanae habitant. Ma- 
mercus praenomen est Oscum ab eo 
quod hi Martem Mamertem dicunt." 
Festus ed. Thewrewk, pp. 98, 99. 

M.a/j.eprivo 'Mamertina',adj. nom. sg.f., 
no. 62 ; ~M.a/j.epTivovfji ' Mamertino- 
rum', no. 63 (24). 47, 255, 5. . 

Mamerttiais 'Martiis', adj., nos. 27-29. 
162,1, 252, 1, p. 247. 

manafum 'mandavi', no. 19 3. 204, 5, 
223, 264, 2. 

manim 'manum', ace. sg., no. 224. 

Marahis 'Marius'(P), praen., no. 40; 
gen. sg. Marahieis (fragment), abbr. 
Marai. , no. 43 (implying a spelling 
Maraiieis, as Mai. for Maiiefs ; cf. 
foil.). 176, 4. 

Maraies <Marius'(?), gent, (fragment) ; 

gen. sg. Maraiieis, no. 50. 61, 3, 

Maras '*Maras', praen., no. 40, Mapas, 
no. 62 ; ? gen. sg. Maraheis, no. 
40 (and fragments) ; abbr. Mr., 
nos. 4, 14, 15, 17. 169, 12, 176, 

Markas. 169, 12. 

meddikkiai ' *in meddicia, in the med- 
dixship', loc. sg., no. 28, medd/kia/, 
no. 27, medikkiai, no. 33, medikia[i], 

i no. 32 ; <TVTT peSiKMi (fragment), 302 ; 
abbr. medik&., medik., no. 31, m., 
no. 26. 15,6, 162, 1. 

meddiss 'meddix', nos. 41, 48, 51, 

meddis, nos. 29, 43, meddis, no. 2 

(passim); 145,2; gen. sg. medikeis, 

no. 3 ; dat. sg. medikei, no. 1 5 ; 

nom. pi. meddiss, no. 42, ,ue55et, no. 

62 (24); 90, 1,145, 2; abbr.medd., 

no. 30, metd., no. 47, med., nos. 7-9. 

15,6, 44, 163, 263, 1, p. 229. 
medicatinom 'iudicationem', no. 2 16. 

15,6, 163. 
medicatud 'iudicato', abl. sg., no. 2 24. 

15,6, 163. 
medicim ' *rneddicium, magistracy', 

nom. ace. sg., no. 230-33; 172; 

abl. sg. meddixud, no. 2 13, 21; 100, 

3, c; abl. sg. w/edikid, no. 31 b; 

173,5. 15,6,163,250,2. 
Meeilikiieis 'MetXtxfou', no. 3. 21. 
mefi[u] 'media', nom. sg. f.,no. 130; 

loc. sg. f. mefiai, no. 1 57. 36, 1, 136. 
memnim ' monumentum', no. 20. 172, 


Mener. <Minervio'(?), no. 18. 21. 
menvum 'minuere', no. 19 8. 44, c. 
mess/mass 'medioximas, midmost' (?), 

no. 29. 86, 1, 138, a, 189, 1 (with 


Metiis 'Mettius', gent., no. 57. 
Mh., see Mais. 
Mi. , abbr. praen. (cf . the two following), 

no. 26. 
Minaz 'Minatus', praen. (fragment); 

gen. sg. Minateis, no. 25. 259, 1. 
Minis 'Minius', praen., no. 44 ; gen. 

sg. Minnieis, Minieis, no. 25, Mii- 

nieis, no. 35, Minies, no. 36. 
minive, no. 31 b. See note, p. 251. 
min[s] 'minus', adv., no. 2 10. 90, 1, 

minstrels 'minoris', gen. sg. m., no. 

2 12, 27, mistreis, no. 2 18 (108, 2, a). 

89,1, 187,1, a, 188,3. 
Mitl.'Mitulus', praen., no. 57. 91, 2, 



Grlpssary and Index Oscan 


mulniku 'communis', adj., nom. sg. f., 

no. 1 22, abbr. m//inik. , nos. 27-28 ; 

ace. sg. f. muinikam, no. 21; abl. 

sg. f. mufnfkad, no. 1 50 ; nom. sg. 

n. muini[kum] , no. 1 is ; loc. sg. n. 

miiinikei, no. 1 19. 66,187,1,256,2. 
miiltasikad 'multaticia',adj.,abl. sg. f., 

no. 5; abl. sg. n. multas Likud], 

no. 43. 49, 254. 
moltaum 'multare', no. 2 (passim). 

210, 1, 262, 1. 
molto 'multa', nom. sg., no. 2 n, 26; 

gen. sg. moltas, no. 2 13, 27 ; 269 ; 

ace. sg. moltam, no. 2 2. 49, 146. 
Mr., see Maras. 

Mulukiis 'Mulcius', gent., no. 43. 

80, 1. 
Mutil 'Mutilus', cogn., nos. 79-80. 

119,2, 171, 1. 
Mut[ti]lli[s] 'Mutilius', gent, no. 40; 

gen. sg. Muttillieis, no. 40. 171,1. 
Mz. 'Mettus', abbr. praen., nos. 10, 

53. Cf. gent. Metiis. 

N. , see Niumsis. 

n. 'nummi', no. 2 12, 26. 

ne 'ne, nisi 1 , no. 2 14, 25. 202, 20. 

nei 'non', no. 2 20, 28. 202, 20. 

neip 'neque, neve', no. 2 15, neip, 

no. 19 4, 5, 6. 202, 20. 
nep 'neque, neve', no. 2 io,28, nep, nos. 

1 46-47, 20. 92, 202, 20. 
ner., nerum, see niir. 
nessimas 'proximae', nom. pi. f., no. 

2(5 ; gen. pi. nesimum, no. 2 n, 31 ; 

dat.-abl. pi. nesimois, no. 2 25. 
15,8, 86, 1, 138, a, 189,1, ftn. p. 134. 

ni'ne', no. 2 (passim). 202,20. 

Ni., see Niumsis. 

niir ' vir, princeps, procer,' title of rank, 

no. 40 (and fragments) ; gen. pi. 

nerum, no. 2 29, 32 ; abbr. ner. for 

ner(efs), gen. sg., no. 25. 15, 7, 97, 

180, 2, c. 

nip 'neque, neve', no. 19 7, 8. 202., 20. 
nistrus 'propinquos', no. 19 2. 38, 4, 

138, a, 188, 2. 

Niumeriis 'Numerius', gent. 21. 
Nijumsis 'Nurnerius', praen., no. 42; 

gen. sg. Niumsieis, no. 42, Nivfj.- 

O-SITJIS, no. 02 (24, c); abbr. Ni., 

nos. 9, 13 ; abbr. N., no. 3. 21, 56. 
Nuvkrinum 'Nucerinorum 1 , no. 76. 
Nuvellum'Novellum', praen., no. 20. 
Nuvlanu- 'Nolanus', no. 1. Ace. sg. f. 

-nam ; dat. sg. m. -[nui] ; nom. 

pi. m. -niis ; gen. pi. m. -num ; 

dat.-abl. pi. -niiis. 

Uf . . ., see Upfals. 

Uhtavis 'Octavius', gent., nos. 20, 58. 
142, 191, 8. 

liin . . . , no. 50. ? 

uittiuf usus', no. 1 40, 43. 53, 66, 
162, 1. 

ulam 'ollam', no. 20. Perhaps bor- 
rowed from rustic Latin, for we 
should expect O. av (cf. the earlier 
Latin aul(l)a), not vi. 

ultiumam ' ultimam', no. 29. 49, 56, 
86, 1, 189, 1. 

umbn . . . , no. 50. ? 

lip'apud', no. 1 13, op, no. 2 14, 23. 
17, 7, 49, 300, 5. 

Upfals ' Ofellus', praen., nos. 35-36 ; 
gen. sg. Upfalleis, no. 40, Upfaleis, 
no. 22 ; abbr. Upf . , no. 10 ; here 
perhaps Uf . . ., no. 58. 119, 2. 

Upils ' Opillus' (fragment) ; abbr. 
Upil. for Upil(lels), nos. 29, 30. 
119, 2. 

Uppiis 'Oppius', praen., no. 20 ; gen. 
sg. Uppiieis, no. 40; OTrtes, cogn. 

upsannam 'operandam, faciendam', 
nos. 4, 48 ; upsan., no. 7, upsan- 
n[um], no. 49, [iips]annu, no. 6f 
135, 245 ; perf. pass, partic. nom. 
1>1. upsatuh, no. 44; 113. r, 308; 


Glossary and Index Oscan 


perf. indie. 3 sg. upsed, no. 56, ups., 
no. 57, 3 pi. uupsens, no. 3, upsens, 
no. 10, ovirvevs, no. 62 (24); 225 with 
a. 17, 4, 49, 88, 3, 99, 8, 122, 3, 
211, 262, 1, 308. 
osii[ns] 'adsint', no. 24. 122, 2, 232. 

Paakul'*Paculus', praen., no. 43; 

gent. Pakulliis'Paculius'. 119, 2, 

171, 1. 
Paapii, Paapi 'Papius', gent., no. 79. 

113, c. 
Pakis 'Pacius', praen., nos. 199, 60; 

172; dat. sg. Pakiu, no. 192; 

171, 3, a; ace. sg. Pakim, no. 

19 10; 172; abbr. Pak. for Pak- 

(ieis), nos. 29, 30; abbr. Pk., no. 

56. 174. 

' Paqui' , gen. sg. , praen. Cf . 24. 
., no. 31 b. ? 
pai, pae, etc., see under pui. 
Palanud 'Pallano', no. 61. 
pan 'quam', conj., no. 2 6, also in pru- 

terpan. 135,190,6,202,4. 
Papeis 'Papi', gen. sg., praen., no. 40. 

Cf. gent. Paapii. 

passtata 'porticum', no. 7. 21, 162, 2. 
Patanai 'Pandae', dat. sg., no. 45 14, 42. 

patensins 'panderent, aperirent', no. 

1 50, 51. 99, 4, 213, 2, 233. 
patir 'pater', no. 35 ; 78, 2 ; dat. sg. 

Paterei 'Patri', no. 45 25 ; 81. 32, 

1, 97, 246,2. 
pa/..., no. 58, perhaps pa#[rafens 

Pk. , see Pakis. 
?^edu 'pedes', ace. pi. n., no. 1 56. 

See p. 230. 
per-. 299, 5. 

Perkens '*Percennus', praen., no. 42; 

gen. sg. Perkedne[is], no. 42. 

135, a. 
perkium, meaning uncertain, nom. sg. 

n., no. 39. 
perek., per., abbr. for perek(ais) 'per- 

ticis', no. 3. A measure of length, 

probably of about five feet. Cf. 

Umbrian perca ' staff, rod'. 139, 1. 
peremust 'perceperit', fut. perf., no. 

2 15. 224, 299, 5. 
perf[kium ?] 'perficere', no. 19 6. 
Pernai '*Pernae, Prorsae', dat. sg., no. 

45 22. 300, 8, a. 
?pernum, no. 1 29. 304, p. 230. 
pert 'trans', no. 1 33. 15, 9, 299, 5. 
pert-, 299, 5. 
-pert, 192, 2, 299, 5.1 
pertumum ' perimere, prohibere', infin. , 

no. 2 7; 86, 2; fut. 3 sg. perte- 

mest, no. 2 7 ; fut. perf. 3 sg. pert- 

emust, no. 2 4 ; 224. 299, 5, p. 235. 
perwra'sine', prep., no. 25, 14, 21. 201, 

5, 299, 6. 
pestlum 'templum', ace. sg. n., no. 49, 

peessl[um] (fragment). 76, 2, 114, 

116, 3, 139, 2, 162, 2. 
petiropert, petirupert ' quater'., no. 2 14, 

15. 34, 81, 100, 3, c, 150, 192, 2.1 
petora ' quattuor' . ' ' Petoritum et Gal- 

licum veliiculum esse et nomen eius 

dictum esse existimant a numero IIII 

rotarum ; alii Osce, quod hi quoque 

petora quattuor yocent, alii Graece, 

sed cu'o\i/cc3s dictum." Festus ed. 

Thewrewk, p. 250. 191, 4. 
Pettfe/s, Pettieis 'Pettii', gen. sg., 

gent., nos. 27-28. 
pid, pidum, see pis, *pisum. 
-pid '-que', indefinite particle. 201, 4. 

1 Mention should perhaps have been made of another view, which has been revived 
several times in recent years, namely that -pert is not to be compared with L. -per in 
semper etc., but with Skt. -Tcrt in sakrt 'once' etc. We still regard the comparison 
within the Italic as more probable. 


G-lossary and Index Oscan 


Piihiui'Pio', dat. sg., no. 45 40. 48, 
83, a, 102, 2. 

Piistiai 'Fidiae', dat. sg., no. 45 14, 42. 

pis, pid'quis, quid'. Interrogative, 
nom. sg. m. pis, no. 55. Indefi- 
nite, nom. sg. m. pis, no. 2 (passim), 
^is, no. 30 ; ace. sg. m. pirn (phim), 
no. 225; nom. -ace. sg. n. pld, 
no. 1 41, pid, no. 19 6. Indefinite 
Relative, nom. sg. m. pis, no. 2 8, 
]9; dat. sg. m. piei, no. 27. 199. 

pispis ' quisquis' (fragment) ; pitpit 
' quidquid'. " Pitpit Osce quicquid. " 
Festus ed. Thewrewk, p. 263. 200,1. 

*pisum, pidum 'quisquam, quicquam'. 
Ace. sg. n. pidum, no. 1 47, pidum, 
no. 197; gen. sg. m. pieisum, no. 
26. 199,200,1,201,5. 

pi. in tr. pi. 'tribunus plebis', no. 2 29. 

Plasis'Plarius', praen., no. 20. 

pukkapid 'quandoque', no. 1 52, poca- 
pit, no. 2 8 (127, 1, a), [p~\ocapid 
(Avellino fragment). 139, 1, 201, 4, 
202, 13. 

pod, conjunction, in pod . . . min[s] 
'quominus',no. 2io; 315; suae. . . 
pod 'sive', no. 2 23, svai pun 'sive', 
no. 19io, 11(133, a). 190,6,202,1. 

pu/'qui', nom. sg. m., no. 19 1 ; - 
nom. sg. f. pal, no. 1 34, pai, no. 19 1, 
pae, paei, no. 2 22 ; nom. -ace. sg. 
n. pud, no. 1 12, 13, 14, 49, pod, no. 
2 10 ; gen. sg. m. puiieh, no. 39 ; 
61, 3, 64, o, 113, c, 199, 6; ace. 
sg. f. paam, no. 4, p]aam, no. 50, 
pam, no. 1 38 ; abl. sg. f. poizad, 
no. 2 19; 199, d ; nom. pi. m. 
pus, no. 1 8, 45 ; nom. pi. f . pas, 
nos. 27, 28, 31 a, b; nom. pi. f. 
pal, no. 1 is, pai, no. 19 9. 199. 

puiiu ' cuia', nom. sg. f., no. 55. 61, 3, 
199, b. For puiieh see pui. 

poizad, see pui. 

Pumpaiians 'Pompeianus', no. 4; 
gen. sg. m. Pumpaiianeis, no. 3 ; - 
dat. sg. f . Piimpaiianai, no. 4 ; - 
ace. sg. f . Piimpaiiana, no. 3. 61,3, 
253, 1. 

*pompe 'quinque'. 37, 150 with a. 

pumperiais ' *quincuriis', name of a 
festival, loc. pi., no. 30, pumperiais, 
nos. 27-28, abbr. pumpe., no. 32 ; 
nom. pi. (or gen. sg.?) pumperias, 
no. 23 a, b ; nom. pi. pumper(i)as, 
no. 33. 37, 150, 191, 5, 251, 4, p. 

IIo/iTTTies 'Quintius, Pontius', 1 gent., 
no. 62, Puntiis, no. 3. 146, 153, 
174, 191, 5. 

pomtis 'quinquiens', no. 2 15. 37, 
146, 153, 191, 5, 192, 2. 

pun 'cum', conjunction, nos. 1 50, 29, 
30, pun, no. 19 6, 8, pon, no. 2 
(passim). 92, 135, 190, 5, 202, 3. 

pitnttram 'pontem', no. 3. 162,1. 

Piipidiis ' Popidius, Cocidius', nos. 7-8. 
Cf. Pupdiis, fragment. 89, 1, 260, 2. 

?[p]rtam 'portam', no. 50. 

posmom, see pustm[as]. 

pust'post', no. 1 45, pust, no. 19 5, 
post, no. 2 8, 23, 29. 300, 6. 

pusstlst'positumest'(?),no. 1 33. 84, a, 
162,2. Also taken as 'post (ad v.)est'. 

pvistin 'according to', prep., no. 1 34. 
15, 10, 299, 7. 

piistiris ' posterius', adv., no. 50. 44, b, 
81, 88,4, 91, 1, 188, 1, 190,6. 

pustm[as] 'postremae', nom. pi. (or 
gen. sg.?), no. 23 a, b; adv. pos- 
mom, no. 2 16; 190, 5. 114,139.2, 

1 Quintius is the genuine Latin form, while Pontius is the latinized Oscan 
form found on inscriptions of Campania and Samnium. Cf. 246, 1, a. 


Glossary and Index Oscan 


pustrei'in postero', loc. sg., no. 31 a, 

pustrei, no. 22, abbr. piistr., no. 31 b. 

81, 88,4, 188,2. 
piiterefpfd 'in utroque', loc. sg., no. 

45 18, 46 ; nom. pi. piituruspid, no. 

1 9; gen. pi. putwr/i[mpid],no. 1 22. 

81, 88,4, 188,2, a, 200,2. 
piitiad 'possit', no. 20, putiiad, no. 

196, 7, 8 ; piitians 'possint', no. 20, 

putiians, no. 19 7. 38, 1, 262, 2. 
pows, see puz. 
pr., abbr. 'praetor', no. 2 (passim); for 

gen. sg., no. 2 21. 
prae-'prae-', 300, 7. 
praefucus 'praefectus', no. 2 23. 86, 5, 

258, 1. 
praesentid ' praesente', abl. sg., no. 2 21. 

62, 178,5, a. 

prai 'prae', nos. 27-28. 62, 300, 7. 
prebai, meaning uncertain, dat. sg., 

no. 19 3. 
preiuatud 'reo', abl. sg., no. 2 is, 16. 

17, 10, 64. 
prufatted 'probavit', nos. 4, 8, 48, prii- 

fattd, no. 7 (e omitted for want of 

space); prufattens 'probaverunt', 

no. 3, abbr. prufts., no. 33. 102, 2, 

228, 262, 1. 

priiffed ' posuit', nos. 41 b, 51 ; 88, 3, 223 ; 
pniftu 'posita', no. 1 16; 89, 2, 

244, 1. Ftn. p. 170. 
pru 'pro', no. 2 13, 24. 53, 300, 8. 
pru-, 17, 8, 300, 8. 
pruhipid 'prohibuerit', perf.'subj. 3 sg., 

no. 2 25 ; f ut. perf . 3 sg. pruhi- 

pust, no. 2 26. Cf. hipid, hipust. 

prupukid ' ex antepacto, by previous 

agreement', no. 1 2. 17, 8, 86, 5, 

173,5, 250, 2. 
pruter pan (pam) 'priusquam', no. 

2 4, 16. 188, 2, 202, 4. 
Pukalatuf 'Puclato', dat. sg., cogn., 

no. 1 4. 81, 259, 1. 

puklum ' puerum, filium', ace. sg., no. 

19 4 (and so to be read in 11. 10, 12, 

for puklui, puklu) ; (?)dat. sg. 

puklui, no. 19s; abbr. puk., nom. 

sg., no. 19 9. 16, 10, 81, 248, 3. 
puf 'ubi', nos. 14-17. 55, 92, 200, 3, 

202, 5. 
puh, see pod. 
punum'quandoque', no. 196. 201, 5, 

202, 3. 
purasial'in igniaria', loc. sg. f., no. 

4516,44. 15,11,55,99,6. 
puz 'ut', conj., no. 1 n, pous, no. 2 9. 

55 with ftn., 137, 2, 200, 3, 202, 6. 

q., abbr., 'quaestor', no. 2 2, 28-29. 
Cf. kvaisstur. 

Rahiis ' Raius', gent., no. 40; gen. 

sg. Rahiieis, no. 40. 176, 2. 
Regaturei ' Rectori', no. 45 12, 40. 53, 

103, 1, 246, 1. 

r[fhtud] 'recto', abl. sg., no. 1 16. 
Rufriis ' Rubrius', gent., no. 40. 

saahtiim 'sanctum', nom. sg. n., no. 

45 n, 45. 73, 142. 
sakahiter 'sanciatur, sacrificetur', no. 

45 19. 210, 3, 232. 
sakaraklum 'sacellum, templum', nos. 

1 11, 46 ; gen. sg. sakaraklefs, no. 

1 20 ; abl. sg. sakaraklud, no. 1 13. 

81, 248, 3. 
sakarater ' sacratur', no. 45 21 ; pres. 

subj. 3 sg. sakra/tir, no. 31 b ; 238, 

2, b; perf. subj. 3 sg. sakrafir, 

nos. 29, 30 ; 227, 234, note, 238, 2, 

239 ; gerundive nom. pi. f . saA'/'an- 

nas, no. 29, abbr. sa#ran., no. 30. 

<ra/v>o' sacra', nom. sg. f. (?), no. 62. 

81, 257, p. 258. 
sakrasias '*sacrariae', nom. pi. f., no. 

28. 254. 


Glossary and Index Oscan 


sakrim 'hostiam', no. 31 a, sakrim, 

no. 19 11 ; abl. sg. sakrid, no. 30; 

- abl. pi. sakriss, no. 29. 81, 187, 

2, 257, 2. 
sakruvit 'sacrat', no. 22 ; fut. 3 sg. 

sakrvist, no. 21. 31, 6, 214, 3, 221, 

262, 3. 
Sadiriis 'Satrius', gent., no. 12. 81, 

157, 2, 246, 1, a. 
Safinim ' Samnium', nos. 50, 80. Ftn. 

p. 3, 81, 125, 1, a, 172. 
Saidiieis'Saedii', gen. sg., gent., no. 

22. 174. 

Saipinaz 'Saepinas', no. 40. 259, 3. 
SatTrii/s '*Saepinus', cogn., no. 66. 
Salaviis 'Salvius', gent., no. 36 ; 80, 1, 

258, 3; 0-aXa/rs, salavs 'salvus' or 

' Salvus' (fragments). 80, 1, 258, 1. 
Santia. 169, 12. 
Sarinu, Sar/nu '*Sarina', name of a 

gate at Pompeii, ace. pi. n., nos. 14- 

scriftas 'scriptae', nom. pi., no. 2 25. 

Sehsfmbr.s'*Sexembrius', gent., no. 

senateis 'senatus', gen. sg., no. 1 8, 35, 

senateis, no. 2 3, 6. 259, 2. 
Sepis 'Seppius', praen., no. 32;- 

gen. sg. Sepiefs, no. 33. 174. 
Seppiis ' Seppius', gent., no. 10. 174. 
serevkid 'auspicio,' abl. sg., no. 3. 

80, 1, 173, 5, 256, 3. 
Secrnes, see under F. 
set, sent, see sum. 

Sidikinud 'Siclicino', abl. sg., no. 77. 
sffef ' sibi', no. 20 ; 86, 3, 193 with a ; - 

ace. sg. siom, no. 2 5, 6, 9 ; 193 with c. . 
sipus 'sciens', no. 2 5, 14. 90, 1, 6, 

99, 1, 225, 306, p. 235. 
S/r., abbr. cogn., no. 1 1. 
Siuttiis 'Suttius', gent., no. 3. 56. 
siuom 'omnino', no. 222. 15,12,190, 

5, 258, 1. 

Slabiis ' Stlabius, Labius', gent. , no. 41. 

slagim ' regionem, finis', no. 1 34, 54 ; 
abl. sg. [up] slaagid 'ad finem', no. 
1 12; 300, 5. 114, p. 229. 

Smintiis 'Smintius', gent., no. 37 a, b. 

?s]iillad, see sullus. 

sum 'sum', nos. 33, 39, 41 a; 217, 1; 
- pres. indie. 3 sg. est, nos. 27-28, 
1st, no. 1 (passim); 217, 2; pres. 
indie. 3 pi. sent, no. 44, set, nos. 
26-28, 45 1, set, no. 2 25 ; 108, 2 ;- 
imper. 3 sg. estud, no. 1 40, 44, estud, 
no. 2 (passim); 217, 3; irnperf. 
indie. 3 pi. fufans, no. 1 10 ; 102, 
2, 220; imperf. subj. 3 sg. fusid, 
no. 1 19 ; 217, 3, 233 ; fut.3sg. fust, 
nos. 29, 30,/wsZ, no. 2 (passim); 221 ; 

perf. indie. 3 pi. fufens, nos. 27-28 ; 
227 ; perf. subj. 3 sg./uwZ, no. 2 28- 
29 ; fut. perf. 3 sg. fust, no. 2 28-29; 

pres. infin. ezum, no. 2 10. 217, 
1, 2, 3. 

siivad'sua', abl. sg. 1, no. 56; 

ace. sg. f. suvam, no. 19 i ; gen. 

sg. m. suveis, no. 1 9, 35. -194 with 

Sp., abbr. praen., 'Spedius' or 'Spu- 

rius', no. 27. 

27re5ts 'Spedius', praen., no. 66. 
S]^urifs 'Spurius', gent., no. 11; 

gen. sg. Spuriieis, no. 17. 174. 
Staatiis, see Statiis. 
Staf[ii]anam 'Stabianam', no. 3. 
staflatas 'statutae', nom. pi. f., no. 26. 

136, 248, 2. 
Staffs 'Staius', gent., no. 47. 176, 

stait 'stat', no. 45 48 ; 3 pi. stahint, 

stahint, no. 25 a, b, stafet, nos. 1 58, 

2(i. 99, 2, 215, 1, 2. 
staff f 'statua', no. 45 (passim). 99, 2, 

181, a. 


Glossary and Index Oscan 


Statiis 'Statius', praen., no. 20; 
gen. sg. STdTTt^is, no. 62 ; 64 ; 
gent. Staatiis, no. 49. 99, 2. 

status 'stati, erecti', nom. pi., no. 45 i. 
99, 2, p. 256. 

Stenis 'Stenius', praen., no. 52, Srem, 
no. 62, Steni, no. 20, Sten . . . , no. 48. 

sullus'omnes', m., no. 40 n; 
nom. pi. f. [sjullas, no. 40 12; gen. 
pi. sullum, no. 40 12, sulum, no. 21 ; 
adv. suluh 'omnino', no. 199; 133, a, 
190, 2; ?[s]ullad'ubique', no. 156; 
190, 3, p. 230. "Sollum Osce totum 
etsoldum significat. " "Sollo Osce 
dicitur id quod nos totum vocamus. " 
Festus ed. Thewrewk, pp. 412, 426. 

crinr'sub'. 302. 

supruis 'superis', dat.-abl. pi., no. 197; 
supr. 'supra' (?), no. 19 10. 55, 
188, 2. 

suveis, see siivad. 

svai'si', conjunction, no. 1 41, svai, 
no. 19 (passim), suae, no. 2 (passim). 
62, 102, 1, 202, 14. 

sverrunei 'arbitro, spokesman' (?),dat. 
sg., no. 1 2. 37, a, 96, 115, 2, 
247, 2, p. 229. 

T., abbr. praen., ' Titus' (?), no. 16. 

t., see tuvtiks. 

tadait 'censeat', no. 2 10. 127, 1, a, 

Tafidins*'Tafidinus', cogn., no. 47. 

260, 2. 

Tanas. 169, 12. 
tanginom 'sententiam', no. 2 9 ; gen. 

sg. tangineis, no. 2 9; abl. sg. tan- 

giniid, no. 1 (passim), tanginud, 

no. 4, tanginud, no. 2s, 7, abbr. 

tangi[n]., no. 5, [ta]ngin., no. 11. 

16, 11, 98, a, 181, 247, 1. 
Tantrnnaium '*Tanterneiorum', nos. 

29, 30. 61, 3, 91, 2, 253, 1. 

'. no. 64. 61, 2, a, 68. 
teer[um] 'territorium', nom. sg. n., 

no. 1 12, terum, no. 1 18; gen. sg. 

terefs, no. 1 21 ; loc. sg. terei, no. 

1 19, 46, 49. 76, 4, 115, 1. 
tefurum 'burnt-offering', nom. sg. n., 

no. 45 17, 45. 15, 13, 81, 118. 
teras Herrae', gen. sg. (or ace. pi. ?), 

no. 19 n. 115, 2, note. 
teremenniii 'termina', nom. pi. n., no. 

115,57; 162, 1, 178, 12; dat.-abl. 

pi. teremw/ss, no. 1 14 ; 178, 12. 80, 

1, 88, 4, 103, 1, 247, 3. 
teremnattens 'terminaverunt',no.3 ; 

te[r]emnatust 'terminata est', no. 3 ; 

84. 262, 1, p. 240. 
tfei'tibi', no. 19s. 86, 3, 124, 193 

with a. 
thesavrum 'thesaurum', ace. sg. n., 

no. 1 48-49; loc. sg. thesavref, 

no. 1 52. 21, 68. 
Tianud 'Teano', abl. sg., no. 77 ; loc. 

sg. Tiianei, no. 44. 38, 1. 
Tiiatium 'Teatinorum', no. 78. 38, 1. 
tiium'tu', no. 19s, tiu, no. 55. 193 

with c. 
Tintiriis 'Tintirius', gent., no. 60. 

38, 3, 246, 1, a. 
Tirentium 'Terentiorum', praen., no. 

21. 38, 2. 
tiurri'turrim', nos. 14, 15. 21, 56, 

109, 2. 
tuvtiks ' publicus' ('tuticus' in Livy ; 

see 15, 6), no. 41; 145, 2; tuv- 

[tfk]s, no. 48 ; abbr. tiiv., nos. 7-9, 

t. , nos. 46, 47 ; nom. sg. f . toutico, 

no. 2 23; ace. sg. n. touticom, no. 

2 10 ; gen, sg. f . [touti]cas, no. 2 5 ; 

loc. sg. f., abbr. tuvtik., no. 31 a, 

tiiv., no. 33, t, no. 26; abl. sg., 

abbr. tiiv., no. 18, tiivtik.,no.31b(?). 

15, 2, 6, 44, 71, 187, 1, 256, 2. 
touto 'civitas, populus', no. 2 9, is, 
, no. 62; 24, 61, 2, a; ace. 


Glossary and Index Oscan 


sg. toutam, no. 2 19; abl. sg. tou- 

tad, no. 2 14, 21. 15, 2, 71. 
r., abbr., 'tribunus', no. 2 so. 
Trebiis 'Trebius', gent., no. 9. 
T/>e/3ts 'Trebius', praen., no. 65, abbr. 

Tr., nos. 9, 26, 46. 
tribarakkiuf 'aedificium', nom. sg. f., 

no. 137,42. 15,14,53,162,1,247,1, 

263, 1. 
triibarak[avum] 'aedificare', no. 1 28, 

tribarakavwm, no. 1 36; 50, 83; 

perf. subj. 3 pi. tribarakattins, no. 

1 48; 228, 234, note; fut. perf. 

3 pi. tribarakattuset, no. 1 39, 42. 

15, 14, 32, 3, 80, 1, 263, 1. 
triibum 'domum', ace. sg. f., no. 4, 

[trjlibu, no. 17; abl. sg. tribud, 

no. 18. 15, 14, 94, 171, 14. 
tris'tres', nom. pi., no. 26. 41, a, 

82,1, 191,3. 
tristaamentud 'testamento', abl. sg., 

no. 4. 91, 2, 247, 3, 290. 
trstus 'testes', nom. pi., no. 40. 91, 2. 
trutum 'quartum'(?), ace. sg., no. 2 15; 

trutas, case uncertain, no. 19 12. 

191,4, p. 237. 
turumiiad ' torqueatur, suffer torture', 

no. 199. 38, 1, 80, 1, 146, 212, 1, 

tuvai'tuae', dat. sg., no. 19 n. 194. 

ud/. . . , no. 19 7. Possibly for ud/[a- 
kium 'efficere', but very doubtful 
(prefix wd-, Skt. ud-, not otherwise 
known in Italic). 

ufteis 'optati, voluntatis', gen. sg., no. 
19?; nom. pi. uhf tis ' voluntates, 
wishes', no. 40. 121 with note, 247, 

ulas'illius', no. 19 4, 12. 197, 3. 

-wm, enclitic particle. 50, 201, 5. 

ungulus ' anulus'. " Ungulus Oscorum 
lingua anulus." Festus ed. Thew- 
rewk, p. 570. 

Upfals, Upils, see under ii. 

upsed, uupsens, etc., see upsannam. 

Urufiis'Orfius', gent., no. 38. 80, 1, 

urust 'oraverit, egerit', fut. perf. 3 sg., 

no. 2 14, 16. 17, 16, 21, 211, 

uruvu'curva, flexa'(?), nom. sg. f., 

no. 1 56. 80, 1, p. 230. 
usurs 'osores'(P), ace. pi., no. 19 2. 

117, a, 138, 178, 10. 

ualaemom 'optimum', ace. sg. n., no. 

2 10. 97, 189, 2. 
Valaimas 'Valaemae', gen. sg., no. 

19 4, 8, 10 (and so to be read in 11. 2, 

9, 12, for Valamais, Valaims, Valai- 


vehiian. , see eehiianasum. 
Velliam 'Velliam', gent., no. 20. 

169, 12. 
Verehasiui '*Versori'(?), no. 45 n, 

Verehasiu, no. 45 39 (171, 3, 

a). Cf. Atou/ret Fe/wro/set, no. 64, 

and Grk. Zeus Tpoirouos. 80, 1, 

vereiiai ' iuventuti' ( ?) , no. 4 ; gen . 


61, 3, 253, 2, p. 240. 
Fep<ropei '* Versori' , no. 64. With Acou/rei 

Fepvopei compare Grk. Zei>s fpo-rraios. 

101, 115,3, 138. 
veru 'portam', ace. pi. n., no. 15, ver., 

no. 14 ; dat. abl. pi. veruls, no. 26. 

15, 15. 
Vestirikiiui 'Vestricio', dat. sg.,no. 1 1. 

81, 174, 246, 1, a, 256, 4. 
Vesulliais '*Vesulliis', probably the 

name of a festival, no. 26, Vesuliais, 

no. 34. 107, 3, p. 247. 
Vesulliafs '*Vesullieius', gent., no. 46. 

176, 3, 253, 1. 
Vezkel'Vetusci'(?), no. 452,28. 256, 



Glossary and Index Umbrian 


Vibiiai'Vibiae', dat. sg., praen.(?), 

no. 19 3, 10. 
Vibis ' Vibius', praeu., nos. 37-38, Vii- 

bis, no. 68; abbr. V., nos. 4, 7, 8, 

12, 14, 15, 17 ; geri. sg., abbr. Vi., 

nos. 29, 30. 174. 
Vilnikiis ' Vinicius', gent., no. 4. 21, 

174, 256, 4. 
uincter 'convincitur', no. 2 21. 44, 

143, 213, 3. 
viii 'via', nom. sg., no. 1 56, viu, no. 3 ; 

ace. sg. viam, nos. 1 33, 3, via, no. 
3; 109, 2; loc. sg. viai, no. 1 57; 

ace. pi. viass, no. 3. 31, a, 101. 

Virriis, Virriiis 'Verrius 1 , gent., no. 
20 ; gen. sg. Virriieis, no. 26, Vir- 
riieis, no. 32; gen. pi. Viriium, 
no. 34. 38, 2, 174, 176, 5. 

Viteliii' Italia', no. 79 a, Vitelliu also 
found. 5, 39, 6, 162, 1, 250, 2. 

zicolom 'diem', no. 2 14, zico., no. 2 15; 
loc. sg. zicel[ei, no. 2 7; abl. 
sg. ziculud, no. 2 16 ; nom. or ace. 
pi. djifkulus (fragment) ; gen. pi. 
zicolom, no. 2 17 ; 268; abl. pi. 
zicolois, no. 2 25. 81, 88, 4, 100, 3, 
c, 134, a, 249, 2. 


a., abbr., 'asses', v b 10 etc., vii b 4. 
aanfehtaf 'infectas, non. coctas' (?), 

iia 33. 73, a, 263, 2. 
abrof 'apros', vii a 3, apruf, i b 24, 33. 

157, 1, 171, 11, a. 
abrunu 'aprum', ii a n ; ace. pi. 

abrons, vii a 43. 157, 1, 181, b. 
Acesoniam-e ' in Acedoniam ' (Aquilo- 

niam ?), a district of Iguvium, vi b 52 

(131, 6), Akefuniam-em, ib 16; 

loc. sg. Acersoniem, vii a 52 (109, 1), 

Akefunie, i b 43. 54, 144, a. See 

under O. Akudunniad. 
acnu 'annos' (?), ace. pi. n., v b 8 etc. 

159, a, 299, 7. 
akrutu, see ager. 
adro 'atra,' ace. pi. n., vii a 25, atru, 

i b 29 ; dat. -abl. adrir, vii a 9 etc., 

adrer, vii a is. 157, 2. 
afero, aferum, see anferener. 
afiktu ' infigito', i a 31. See an- and 

ager 'ager', no. 84 ; 91, 2, 117 ; gen. 

sg. agre, v b 9, 14 ; abl. sg. akru-tu, 

va 9. 32, 1. 

aha-, ah-, a- 'ab-'. 77, 2, 264, 1. 

vii a 23, 36, atripursatu, vi b 16, atro- 

pusatu, vib 36 (86, 7), ahtrepufatu, 

ii a 24 etc. , atrepuratu, ii b is. 51, a, 

264, 1. 
ahauendu 'avertito', vii a 27. Cf. 16, 

21, 161, 264, 1. 
ahesnes 'ahenis', iii is, 19. 83, 114, 

255, 3. 
ahtim-em 'ad caerimonium' (?), ib 12; 

ahtis-per 'pro caerimoniis', iii 24, 

29. 247, 1, a. 
Ahtu '*Actui, deo Agonio', iia 10, n. 

184, 251, 6. 
ai^'agito', imperat. sg., vi b is, vii a 

40, 45, aitu, ib29, 37, pi. aituta, iii 13. 

aiu ' agitationes, disturbances' (?), ii a 4. 

147, 3. 
alfu ' alba', ace. pi. n., ib 29 ; dat.- 

abl. pi. alfir, vii a 25, 26, alfer, vii a 

32, 34. 124. 

am-, an-, a-, ambr-, ampr-, apr- ' amb-' . 
89 1 161 with a. 

1 Alphabetical order as in Latin, hut with k under c; f, rs, after r; 5, s, after s, 
\J for o is put uuder o when forms with o are also found, otherwise under u. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


amboltu 'ambulato', vib 52. 161, 213, 
1, a. 

ambrefurent, ambretuto, see amprehtu. 

amparitu'conlocato, setup', imperat., 
iii 14 ; imperat. pass, amparihmu 
' surgito, raise oneself ', ii a 42. 215, 
1, 264, 1, 308, b. 

ampentu 'impendito' (see p. 302), im- 
perat. sg. , ii a 20, iii 23, ampetu, ii b 
10, 11, apentu iii 27 (cf. 108, 1, 135) ; 
fut. 2 sg. anpenes, ii b 27 (n from 
nd by 135); fut. perf. 2 sg. apelus, 
ii b 27, 3 sg. apelust, v a 17. 107, 3, 
135, 226, 264, 1. 

ampefia, a portion of the victim, per- 
haps the 'part about the foot', abl. 
sg., iia 29. 161, a. 

amprehtu 'ambito', imperat. sg., i b 21, 
apretu, ib20 (cf.l08,l),, 
vi b 56, 63, 64 ; fut. perf. 2 sg. am- 
prefuus, i b 20, 3 pi. ambrefurent, 
vib 56; 227. 161, 217, 4. 

an-, a- 'in-', verbal prefix. 264, 1. 

an-, a- 'in-', negative prefix. 98, 
263, 2. 

andendu 'intendito, imponito', vii a 25, 
antentu, ii a 20, iii is etc., iv 21, 27, 
atentu, iib 28. 135, 156, 264, 1. 

ander-, anter- 'inter-'. 98, c, 156, 
301, 1. 

andersistu '*intersidito, intervenito', 
vi a 6 ; 114; fut. perf. 3 sg. ander- 
sesust, vi a 7. 222, note. 

anderuacose ' *intervacatio, intermissio 
sit'(?),vi b 47, anter vakaze, i b 8. 35, 
247, 1, a, p. 306. 

anderuomu 'inter ', abl. sg., vi b 

41. 298. 

andirsafust ' circumtulerit, lustraverit', 
vii a 46, andersafust, viib3, aterafust, 
i b 40. 131, 161, a, 164, a, 210, 6, 
217, 227. 

anferener 'circumferendi, lustrandi', 
vi a 19 ; 135 ; infin. o/ero, vi b 48, 

aferum, ib 10; 108, 1. 161, a, 164, 

a, 217. 
anglaf ' oscines', ace. pi., vi a 5, angla, 

vial etc., ancla, via 18; nom. pi. 

anclar, via 16. 16, 12, 155, 264, 1. 
anglom-e 'ad angulum', via 9; an- 

glu-to 'ab angulo', vi a 8, 10. 155. 
anhostatu 'non hastatos', vi b 60, anos- 

tatu, vii a 48 ; dat. pi. anhostatir, 

vii a 28, so, anostatir, vi b 62, vii a 13, 

15. 98, 99, 3, 149, a, 263, 2. 
anouihimu 'induitor', vi b 49. 16, 13, 

215, 1, 237, 264, 1. 

anpenes, see ampentu. 

anseriato 'observatum', supine, vi a 6, 
aseriato, vi a i, 6, anzeriatu, i b 10 ; 
57, 242 ; pres. subj. 1 sg. aseriaia, 
vi a 2 ; pres. imperat. sg. aserio, 
vi a 4 ; 235 ; fut. imperat. sg. ase- 
riatu, vi b 47, azeriatu, i b 8 ; perf. 
pass, partic. abl. pi. aseriater, via i, 
anzeriates, ia i, iia 17. 102,4,108, 
1, 110, 1, 210,6, 264, 1. 

anstintu 'distinguito', iii 20, astintu, 
iii 18, 19. 146, 153, 264, 1. 

anstiplatu 'stipulator', vi a 3. 264, 1. 

anpif, in pustin anpif, probably 'in 
vices, by turns', ii a 25. 144, 299, 7. 

ansihitu 'non cinctos', vi b 59, ansihitu, 
vii a 48 ; dat. pi. ansihitir, vi b 62, 
vii a 13 etc. 73, 144, 263, 2. 

antakres 'integris', abl. pi., ii a 42, 
antakre, i b 36, 38. Always in the 
phrase antakres kumates ' with the 
whole and the broken (cakes?)'. 
32, 3, 263, 2, 325. 

antentu, see andendu. 

anter, see ander. 

antermenzaru 'intermenstruarum', ii a 

16. 110, 1. 

antefafust, see andirsafust. 
anzeria-, see anseriato. 

ape 'cum, ubi' (always temporal), vib 
5 etc. (17 times), ape, i b 34 etc. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


(8 times), api, i a 27, 30, 33, ap, iii 20, 
iv3i, oppei, viib 3. 16, 14, 139, 1, 
202, 8. 

apehtre 'ab extra, extrinsecus', adv., 
ivis. 142, 188,2, 263, 3, a, 264, 1. 

apelust, apentu, see ampentu. 

aplenia 'impleta', ace. pi. n., ii a 23 ; 
dat.-abl. pi. aplenies, iia 23. 161, a. 

apretu, see amprehtu. 

apruf, see abrof. 

ar-, ar- 'ad-', see under ars-, a?-. 

arnipo 'donee, until', vi b 25, 41. 202, 
10, 319. 

arp lataf ' arculatas, circular cakes', iv 
22. Cf. " arculata dicebantur circuli 
qui ex farina in sacrificiis fiebant." 
Festus ed. Thewrewk, p. 12. 154, 
249, 1. 

arvam-en 'in arvum', iii 11; loc. sg. 
arven, iii 13. 

arvia ' *arvia, frumenta, fruits of the 
field', ace. pi. n., i as etc. (7 times), 
arviu, ia 12 etc. (12 times), aruvia, 
iii 31 (31, 6), arwio, vi a 56 etc. (12 
times); abl. pi. arves, ia 6 etc. 
(11 times), arvis, ia 27, ib7 (173, 5). 
31, a, 102,1. 

ars-, af- 'ad-'. 132 with a, 299, 1. 

-a?, -a 'ad'. 133,6,299,1. 

afkani 'cantum', iv 28. 32, 3, 250, 1. 

af epes ' adipibus, fatty portions', abl. 
pi., i a 6 etc., aripes, i b 7, afpes, 
ia is (132), afeper, i b 30, 33, afiper, 
i a 27, afepe, i b 26, 44, ii a 7. An 
o- or a-stem, not a consonant-stem 
as in Latin. Occurs always in a 
phrase with following arves (see 
325), hence sometimes with final r 
even in Old Umbrian (cf. treatment 
before enclitics, 113, a). 

arsfertur '*adfertor, flamen', vi a 8, 
arfertur, vi a 3, vii b 3, affertur, i b 41, 
ii a 16, v a 3, 10 ; dat* sg. arsferture, 
vi a 2, af ferture, v b 3, 5, 6 ; ace. 

sg. arsferturo, via 17. 132 with a, 
246, 1. 

arsie 'sancte', voc. sg., vi a 24, vibs, 
27 ; gen. sg. arsier, vi a 24, vi b 27, 
asier, vi b 8. Probably from the 
same root as arsmor 'ritus'. 

arsir 'alius'(?),via 6, 7. 106, a, p. 302. 

arsmahamo 'ordinamini', vi b 56, ar- 
mamu, ibi9(132, a). 16, 15, 237, a, 
251, 3. 

arsmatiam 'ritualem, official', vib 49,50, 
arsmatia, vi a 19 etc. 16,15,251,3. 

arsmor 'ritus', nom. pi., via 26 etc. 
(4 times), 171, 13 ; ace. pi. arsmo, 
vi a so etc. (10 times), asmo, vi a 49. 
16, 15, 251, 3. 

Afmune '*Admono' or '*Admoni', epi- 
thet of Jupiter, dat. sg., ii b 7. 247, 
2, a. Perhaps from the same root 
as arsmor. 

af peltu ' adpellito, admoveto', iia 32, 
iib 19, iv 8. 132. 

afputrati'arbitratu', va 12. 59,251,6. 

arsueitu 'advehito, addito', vi a 56 etc. 
(11 times), afveitu, ii a 12 etc. (5 
times), arueitu, vi b 23, arveitu, i b 6 
(132, a), aveitu, iv i. 132 with a, 
143, 160. 

asa 'ara', abl. sg., vi a 9, asa, iii 23, 
iv 16, e-asa 'ex ara', ii a 38, asa-ku 
'apud aram', ii a 39, 43 ; asam-af 
'ad aram', iv 6, asam-a, ii a 39, iv 16, 
asam-e 'ad aram', vi a 10 (cf. 301, 2); 
- dat. sg. ase, ii a 19, iii 22. 33, 
112, a. 

aseria-, see anseriato. 

aseceta ' non secta', abl. sg., ii a 29 ; 
abl. pi. asecetes, iv 7. 211, 263, 2. 

asiane, meaning uncertain, probably 
loc. sg. , i a 25. 

asier, asmo, see ars-. 

asnata 'non umecta', ace. pi. n., iia 19, 
asnatu, ii a 34 ; abl. pi. asnates, 
iia 37, iv 9. 114, 263, 2, 325. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


aso 'arsum', perf. pass, partic., vibso. 
242, a, 244, 1, c. 

astintu, see anstintu. 

Acetus 'dis Ancitibus', iia 14. 

atentu, see andendu. 

atero ' malum, ruin', ace. sg. n., viia 
li, 27. p. 308. 

atefafust, see andirsafust. 

Atiersir 'Atiedius', adj., vii b 3; 
dat. sg. n. Atiief ie, v a 16, ii a i , 3 ; 
nom. pi. Atiersiur, v b 11, 16, Atiie- 
riur, v a i, 14 ; gen. pi. Atiersio, 
vii b 2, Atiief iu, ii a 21, v a 12, etc. ; 
dat.-abl. pi. Atiersier, vii b i, Ati- 
ersir, v b 8, 14, Atiiefies, iii 24, Atiie- 
fier, v a 4, 16 (or gen. sg.?), Atiief ie, 
iia2, iii 29. 172, 260, 2. 

Atiief ate 'Atiedati', dat. sg., ii b 2. 
259, 3. 

atripursatu, atropusatu, etc., see aha- 

atru, see adro. 

auie 'augurio', dat. sg., vib 11. 186, 
248, 3, a. 

aviekate 'auspicatae', dat. sg., ii a i, 3. 
248, 3, a. 

auiecla 'augurali', abl. sg. f., vib 52, 
aviekla, ib 14 ; ace. pi. m. auiehclu, 
vi a 10, auieclu, vi b 51, aviekluf-e, 
i b 14 ; abl. pi. auiehdeir, vi a 9, 
auiedir, via 12, 13. 248, 3, a. 

awi/' avis', ace. pi., vi b 47, 48, aueif, 
vi a 4, is, auuei, vi a 3 (24, a), avif, 
i b e, avef , i b 10 ; abl. pi. aueis, 
viai (29), avis, ii a 16, aves, iai. 101. 

auirseto 'non visum', vi a 28 etc., vi b 
30. 244, 4, 263, 2. 

azeriatu, see anseriato. 

benus ' veneris', fut. perf. 2 sg., ii b 16, 
3 sg. benust, vi b 53, 3 pi. benurent, 
vi b 57, benurent, v a 25, 28, v b 5 ; 
224 ; fut. perf. pass, benuso 'ven- 
tum erit', vi b 64, 65, vii a 2 ; 238, 2 ; 

fat. 2 sg. menes, i b is ; 125, 2, a, 

164, a. 151. 
berva 'verua', ii a 26, 33; abl. pi. 

berus, iia23, 35. 151. 
bio 'sacellura' (?), no. 83. Cf. Pael. 

biam. Etym. uncertain. 
bum ' bovem', ii a 5 ; abl. sg. bue, vi a 

25 etc. ; ace. pi. &M/, vi a 22, vi b 

i, 19, buf, i a 3, 11, 20 ; gen. pi. buo, 

via 54. 54, 151, 183 with b. 

-c, -k, pronom. enclitic, 201, 1. 

cabriner 'caprini', gen. sg., v b 12, n. 
157, 1, 255, 5. 

kabru 'caprum', iib n, kaprum, iib i, 
kapru, iib 10; gen. sg. kapres, 
iib 12. 157,1. 

calersu 'cal(l)idos, with a white fore- 
head', vib 19, kalefuf, ia20. 260, 

kanetu 'canito', iv 29. 88, 1, 141. 

capirse 'capidi', dat. sg., vib 24, 37, 
kapife, i a 29, 32, ii a 8 ; ace. sg. 
capirso, vi b 25 ; abl. sg. kapife, 
ii a 34, 41 ; ace. pi. capif, vi b 18, 
vii a 39, 45 (139, 1), kapi, ib29, 37, 
kapif, i a 18; 139, 1, 178, 10; - 
abl. pi. kapif us, ii a 33, iv 5. 

kartu 'distribuito', iia23. 17, 3. 

karu 'pars', v a 24, 27, v b 4 ; dat. sg. 
karne 'carni', ii a i, 3; abl. sg. 
karne ' came', ii a 30 ; abl. pi. kar- 
nus 'carnibus', iv 7. 17, 3, 97, 181 
with c. 

carsitu 'calato, appellate', imperat, vi 
a n, vii a 43, kafetu, i b 33, kaf itu, 
iii 21. 106,212,6. 

carsorn-e, name of some building or 
locality at Iguvium, vi a 13, 14. 
Etym. uncertain. 

Casiler '*Casili', gen. sg., vb H. 

Casilos '*Casilas', nom. sg., vb 13; - 
dat. sg. Casiiate, vb 16, Kaselate, iib 
6. 35. 259, ,3. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


Kastruciie '*Castrucii', gen. sg., gent., 
va3. 174,256,5. 

castrno 'capita'(?), ace. pi., vi a 30 etc. 
(11 times), kastruvuf, v a 13, 18, 
kastruvu, vaao, 22. 17, 2, 32, 1, 
138, 171, 13, 248, 4, a, ftn. p. 236 f. 

katel 'catulus', ii a 43; gen. sg. 
katles, ii a 22, 27, katle, ii a is ; 
ace. sg. katlu, ii a 18, 20, 29. 88, 4. 

caterahamo ' *catervamini, form in 
troops,' vi b 56, kateramu, i b 20. 
102, 4, 237, a. 

kazi, iii 16, is, meaning and etym. un- 

kebu 'cibo', iv 23. 123, 144, a. 

ceheft ' accensum sit'(?), perf. subj. pass. 
3 sg., vi a 20. 144, a, 227, 238, 2, 

cisterno 'cisterna', nom. sg., no. 83. 

Clauerniur '*Clavernii',nom. pi., vbs; 
dat. pi. Clauerni, v b 10, Klaver- 
niie, ii b 3. 173, 3. 

klavlaf ' clunis', ace. pi. , ii a 33 ; abl. 
pi. klavles, ii a 36, iv n. From *kla- 
uela- (cf. L. clava, davola), by 88, 4. 

kletram 'lecticam', iii 13 ; abl. sg. 
kletra, iii 13, iv 24 ; dat. sg. kletre, 
iii 14. 248, 4. 

Kluviier ' Cluvii', gen. sg., gent., v a 15. 

com, -co(m), -ku(m) 'cum', prepos. 
293 with a. 

com-, co-, ku-' con-'. 300,2. 

combifiatu 'nuntiato, mandate', im- 
perat. sg., vi a 17 etc. (5 times), 
kumpifiatu, i b 14, kupifiatu, i b 35 
(108, 1); pres. subj. 2 sg. kupifiaia, 
i b 35 ; perf. subj. 3 sg. combifiansi, 
vi b 52 ; 229 ; fut. perf. 3 sg. combi- 
fiansiust, vi b 49, combifiansiust, vi b 
52, combifiansust, viias; 229. 16, 
16, 86, 7, 136, 161. 

comohota 'commota, brought, offered', 
abl. sg., vi a 54. 17, 17, 244, 4, a. 

comoltu 'commolito, break in pieces' 
(cakes), imperat., vi b n, 41, vii a 39, 
44, 45, kumaltu, ii a 9, 41, iv 28, ku- 
multu, i a 34 ; perf. pass, partic. 
abl. pi. comatir ' commolitis', vi b 17, 
41, vii a 39, 44, 45, kumates, i a 34, 
ii a 42, iv a 29, kumate, i b 37, 38, ii a 
10. 97, 105, 2. 

conegos ' genu nixus', vi b 5, 16, vii a 
37, kunikaz, iv is, 18, 20. 35, 146, 6, 

Coredier '*Coredii', gen. sg., name of 
a god, vi b 45, Kureties, i b 4. 131, a, 
260, 2. 

couertu 'revertito', imperat., vib47, 
vii a 44, 45, kuvertu, i b 9, 36, 38, ii a 
39 ; fut. perf. 2 sg. kuvurtus, i b n, 
3 sg. couortus, vii a 39, courtust, vi a 
6 (51); 224 ; fut. perf. pass, couor- 
tuso, vib64; 238, 2. 17, 13, 97, 
101, 300, 2. 

Crabouie, Krapuvi, see Grabouio-. 

krematra'*crematra', ace. pi. n., iia 
23, krematru, ii a 28, krematruf, ii a 
26; 171, 13. 248,4, p. 309. 

cringatro 'cinctum', a sort of band 
worn about the shoulder as a token 
of office, ace. sg. , vi b 49, krenka- 
trum, ib 11, krikatru, iib27, 29. 
39, 3, 161. 

Cubrar 'Bonae', gen. sg., name of a 
goddess, no. 83. Cf. "Ciprumsabine 
bonum", Varro L. L. 5, 159. From 
the root of L. cupio (br from pr by 
157, 1). 

kukehes 'incendet, light up'(?), fut. 
3 sg., iii 21. 144, a. 

ku(m), see com. 

kumaltu etc. , see comoltu. 

kumiaf, see gomia. 

kumnakle 'in conventu', loc. sg., iii 7, 
8, kumnahkle, va is. (Some prefer 
the dat. in v a is, iii 7, and the gen. 
in iii 8.) 15, 4, 248, 3. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


kumne ' comitio', loc. sg., i b 41. 15, 4, 

107, 2 withftn., 251, 2. 
kunikaz, see conegos. 
kupifiatu etc., see combifiatu. 
kuraia 'curet', pres. subj., va5; 

perf. pass. part, kuratu, v a 24, 26, 

29. 67, 1, 112, 210, 1, 262, 1. 
Kureiate '*Curiati', dat. sg., lib 3. 

Cf. 259, 3. 

Kureties, see Coredier. 
curnaco 'cornicem', vi a 2 etc. ; abl. 

sg. curnase, vi a i ; 144. 51, 256, 6. 
kurclasiu ' *circulario, ultimo' (i.e. 

'that which completes the circle', 

and so 'last' ?), abl. sg., ii a n. 97, 

kutef ' murmurans, speaking low 1 , i a 6 

etc., kutep, i b 3 (25, a). 262, 2, 

kuveitu 'convehito, congerito', iia32, 

40. 143, 160, 300, 2. 
kuvurtus, see couertu. 
kvestretie ' quaestura', abl. sg., ib45, 

iia44. 246, 1, a, 251, 1. 
k vestur ' quaestor' ,va23,vb2. 21,63. 

daetom 'delictum', vi a 28 etc., vi b 30. 

300, 3. 
Dei, see DL 
deitu 'dicito', vib 56 etc., teitu, ii a 26 

etc. ; 143 ; fut. perf. 3sg. dersicust, 

vi b 63, 3 pi. dersicurent, vi b 62. 45, 

95, 223. 
dequrier 'decuriis', festival of the de- 

curiae, vbn, 16, tekuries, ii b i. 

26, 191, 10, a, 251, 4. 
dersa, see dirsa. 
dersecor ' debiti', vi a 26 etc. , vi b 29 ; 

171, 13. Probably from *de-deco- 

(L. decel). 

dersicust, dersicurent, see deitu. 
dersua 'prosperam', vi a 2 etc., desua, 

vib 51, 52, tesvam, ib 13. 132,6, 

258, 2. 

', ace. pi., vii b 2. 
144, 191, 10, 12, 263, 3. 

destram-e ' in dextram', vi b 49 ; loc. 
sg. in. destre, vi b 50, testre e, ii b 27, 
28 ; loc. sg. f . desire, vi b 4 ; 
destru-co 'ad dextrum', vib 24, 38, 
testru-ku, i a 29 ; adv. testru sese 
' dextrorsum', iii 23, iv 15; 190, 2, 
307. 36, 1, 89, 1, 145, 1, 188, 2. 

deueia ' divinam', vi a 10 ; abl. sg. 
deueia, via 9. 253, 2. 

Di'Iuppiter', voc. sg., vi a 25 etc. (29 
times), Dei, vi a 26, 27 ; ace. sg. 
Dei 'lovem', via 23, 24, 25. 183 
with a. 

dia 'det, faciat', vi a 20. 102, 3. 

difue ' bifidum' , ace. sg. n. , vi b 4. 102, 
3, 173, 1, 191, 2, a, 263, 1. 

dirsa 'det', pres. subj. 3 sg., vbis, 
dersa, vii a 43, 44, tefa, ib 34 etc., 
3 pi. dirsans, v b n, 16, dirsas, v b 8 ; 
45, 131, 213, 4; imperat. dirstu, 
vi b 17, 38, 39, teftu, ii a 40 (132), 
tertu, iv28 (132, a), ditu, vib 10, 16, 
25, vii a 38, titu, i a 33, tetu, ii a 9, 
ii b 21 ; 132 with note ; perf. 3 sg. 
dede, no. 82; 131, c, 223; fut. 
perf. 3 sg. dirsust, vii a 43, terust, 
i b 34 ; 223 ; pres. pass. 3 sg. terte, 
va?; 132, 238, 1. 

disleralinsust 'inritum fecerit', fut. 
perf., vi a 7. 114, 229, 262, 3, 
264, 1. 

ditu, see dirsa. 

dunum 'donum', no. 82, also dunu. 
107, 1, 131, c, 251, 2. 

dur ' duo', nom. m., vi b so, vii a 46 ; 
54, 82, 2 ; ace. f. tuf, i b 41 ; - 
ace. n. tuva, ii a 27, iii 32, 34 ; dat.- 
abl. duir, vb 10, is, tuves, iii 19, 
tuver-e, iia 33; 31, b. 191, 2. 

dupla 'binas', ace. pi. f., vi b 18 ; abl. 
pi. m. tupler, vai9. 191, 2, a, 
192, 1. 


(jrlossary and Index Umbrian 


dupwrsws'bipedibus', vi b 10. 54, 94, 

191, 2, a, 263, 1. 
dull 'iterum', adv., vibes. 190, 5, 

191, 2. 

e 'ex', see e^e. 

-e 'in', see -en. 

-e, -ei, pronom. enclitic. 201, 3. 

earn, eaf, see erec. 

ebetraf-e'm exitus', vi a 12, hebetafe, 

vi b 53 (r probably omitted by mis- 
take). 149, a. 

-ec, -ek, pronom. enclitic. 201, 2. 
eda'omni', abl. sg. f., viia 11, 27. 

Etym. uncertain, 
ekvine, loc. sg., ii a 13. 141, a. 
eest, eetu, see etu. 

e/'ibi, turn ibi', adv., via 4. 195, /. 
efurfatu ' expurgato'(P), vi b 17, vii a 38. 

p. 305. 
ehe 'ex', vi b 54, e-asa 'exara', ii a 38. 

300, 4. 

eAe-, e-'ex-'. 77,1,300,4. 
eheturstahamu 'exterminate, expellito', 

vi b 55, eturstahmu, vi b 53, etufs- 

tamu, ib 16. 16, 20, 77, 1, 131, a, 

237, 262, 1. 
ehiato 'emissos', viib2. 149, 171, 

11, a, p. 308. 
ehvelklu 'sententiam' (ehvelklu feia 

'take a vote'), v a 23, v b i. 36, 2, 

248, 3. 

ehueltu 'iubeto', vi a 2. 15, 1, 217. 
eikvasatis 'collegialibus'(?), iii 24, 29. 

29, a. 
eikvasese'collegis'(?), dat. pi. (or gen. 

sg.'collegii'?)va4, 16. 29, a, p. 301. 
eine, see enem. 
eiscurent ' arcessierint', v b 10, is. 29, a, 

213, 5, 224. 
eitipes 'decreverunt', va2, 14. 84, 

149, a, 218, 264, 2. 
emantur 'accipiantur', vas, emantu, 

vaio; ewps'emptus',no.84. 17,9. 

en-. 301, 2. 

-en, -em, -e'in'. 109, 1, 301, 2. 
endendu ' intendito, imponito', vib40, 
49, ententu, ib 12, iii 15 ; 135, 156 ; 

fut. perf. 2 sg. entelus, i b 12, 3 sg. 
entelust, vib 50; 107, 3, 135, 226. 

enem 'turn, deinde', vii a 44, ene, i b 35, 
ewe, via 10, 11. 202, 16. 

enetu 'inito', via i, enetu, ia i. 

enom 'turn', vi b 38 etc. (16 times), eno, 
vi b 16 etc. (9 times), ewnpm, vi b 5] 
etc. (5 times), enno, viia 38, enu, ib 
36 etc. (6 times) ; enuk, i a 30 etc. 
(3 times), inuk, ib 7 etc. (7 times), 
inumk, iv 23 ; -- enumek, i b 11 etc. 
(7 times), inumek, iii 9 etc. (13 
times). 190, 5, 202, 16. 

erec ' is', nom. sg. in., vii b i, erek, v a 
11, ere, vib so, ere, va 4 (201, 1); 
nom. -ace. sg. n. erse'id' (201, 1), 
vi a 8 (adv. 'turn', viae), efek, ia 
30, v a 26 (adv. 'turn', iii 33, 35, iv 3, 
21, 32); gen. sg. m. erer 'eius', via 
23 etc. (34 times), irer, vi a 25, erer-ek, 
iii 32; gen. sg. f. erar, via 23 etc. 
(41 times); ace. sg. f. earn, vib 16, 
24 ; abl. sg. m. n. eru-com, vi b so, 
eru-ku, iii 31 (eruk, adv., 'illic', iii 
14); abl. sg. f. erak, iii 12; gen. 
pi. erom, vii a 14, so, ero, vi b 62, vii a 
13, 28, eru, va8 (266); ace. pi. f. 
eaf, vii a 52, eaf, i b 42 ; ace. pi. n. 
eo, vi a 20, eu, ii a 2, ii b 9. See also 
er-ont. 195. 

ereclu 'sacrarium', 'shrine' or 'altar', 
ace. sg. , iv 13, ereclum-a, iii 35, iv 3, 
10, ereclum-af, iv 6 (aes ereclam-a? ) ; 

loc. sg. erecle, iv 17, 19. 112, a. 
eretu, see heri. 

erietu 'arietem', iia 6. 99, 4. 

erom, eru, see est. 

er-ont 'idem', nom. sg. m., vib 24, 
eri-hont, vi b so ; gen. sg. f . erar- 
unt, iv i ; abl. sg. m. eru-hu, ii b 


G-lossary and Index Umbrian 


22; 128, 2, a; abl. sg. f. era-hunt, 

ib23, era-font, vibes (201, 6); 

nom. pi. in. eur-ont, vi b 63 ; abl. 

pi. m. erir-ont, vi b 48 ; abl. pi. f . 

erer-unt, iv 5. 195,201,6. 
eruk 'illic', adv., iii 14. Abl. sg. of 

erec (cf. 190, 2). 
ems'magmentum'(?), ace. sg., vib 16, 

25, etc. (12 times), erus, i a 33, i b 34, 

etc. (12 times). 112, a, p. 304 f. 
erse 'turn', adv., vi a 6, efek, iii 33, 35, 

iv 3, 21, 32. See erec. 190, 6, 195, e. 
eskamitu, iv i, name given to some 

part of the struicula, but meaning 

esmei ' huic' , vi a 5, 18, esmik ' ei' , i a 28, 

31 ; loc. sg. esme 'in hoc', vi b 55. 

114, 195, c, 197, 1. 
eso 'hie', nom. sg. f., no. 83 ; abl. sg. 

m. n. essu, vi a 43, esu, vi a 25 etc. 

(13 times), esu-ku, ivso ; abl. sg. 

f. esa, vib 9, 14 ; gen. pi. (?) esum- 

ek, i b 8, esom-e, vi b 47 ; abl. pi. n. 

esir, vii a 10 etc., isir, vii a 21, 34 

(39, 4), esis-co, vi a 18. 145, 3, 196. 
esoc ' ita', adv., vi b 25, eso, vi a 2 etc. 

(14 times), iso, vi a 20 (39, 4), issoc, 

vii b 3 (39, 4), esuk, v a i, esu, ii a 3, 

va 14. 54, 190, 2, 196, c. 
esono- 'sacer,' adj., and neut. subst. 

'sacrum, sacrificium.' See sacri-. 

1) Adj. Dat. sg., f. esune, va 4; 
abl. sg. f . esuna, v a 5 ; ace. 
pi. f. eesona, vi a is, esona, vi a 

3, 5. 

2) Subst. Nom. -Ace. sg. esono, via 
57, esunu, i b 9, 38, ii a 20, 21 , 42, iii i , 14, 
iv 30, esonom-e, vi b 50, 52, esunum-e, 
i b 14, esunum-en, iii 20 ; dat. sg. 
esone, vi b 11 ; loc. sg. esune, v a 6 ; 

gen. pl.(?) esono, vi b 47, esunu, 
i b 8 ; ace. pi. esunu, ii a 2 ; abl. 
pi. esoneir, via is, esunes-ku, va 11. 
15, 3, 112. a, 255, f>. 

est 'est', vi a s etc. (very frequent), est, 
i b is, ii a is ; sent 'sunt', vi a i:> 
etc. ; pres. subj. 2 sg. sir, vi b 7, 26, 
si, vi b 26, sei, vi a 23, 3 sg. si, vi a 
38, 48, si, v a 6 etc. , sei, vi a 28 (see 
also anderuacose) , 3 pi. sins 'sint', 
vii b 4, sis, v a 6 ; 232 ; pres. infin. 
erom 'esse', vii b 2, eru, v a 26, 29, 
v b 5 ; fut. 3 sg. fust, vi a 7 etc., 
fust, i b 7 etc., fus, vi b 40, 3 pi. 
furent, v a 22 ; 221 ; fut. perf. 3 pi. 
fefure 'fuerint', iia4; 128, 2, a, 223; 

imperat. sg. futu, vi a 30 etc. , futu, 
ii a 22 etc., pi. fututo, vi b 61. 209. 

est 'ibit', see etu. 

estu 'istum 1 , ace. sg. m., ii b 24; 
ace. sg. n. este 'istud', vi a i etc., 
este, ia i ; ace. pi. n. esto, via 15, 
estu, ii a 2, ii b 23. 197, 4. 

esuf 'ipse', ii a 40, iv 15. 110, 5, 122, 
2, 197, 5. 

et, et 'et', vb 9, v a 6 etc. (very fre- 
quent). 92, 202, 15. 

etaians 'itent', pres. subj. 3 pi., vib 64, 
etaias, vi b 65, vii a i ; imperat. pi. 
etato, vi b 63, etatu, i b 21, 22 ; 236, 
2, a. 210, 2, 262, 1. 

etantu 'tanta', nom. sg., v b 6. Prefix 
e- as in L. e-quidem. 

etrani-a 'alteram', iii 34; dat. sg. f. 
etre, ii b 2 etc. ; abl. sg. n. etru, 
vi a 35, 38, 43 ; loc. sg. etre, ii b 14 ; 

ace. pi. f. etraf, ia 18; dat. pi. 
m. etre, ii b 3, 4, 6 ; abl. pi. n. 
etres, iii is. 188, 2, a, 191, 2. 

etu 'ito', imperat. sg., vi b 48, vii a no, 
eetu, vi b 54, etu, i b 10 etc. (65), pi. 
etuto 'eunto', vib 51, 52, 65, vii a i, 
etutu, i b is, 23, etuta, iii 11 ; fut. 
3 sg. eest, vi a 2, est, vi a 6 ; 221 ; - 
fut. perf. 3 sg. iust, via?; 224, o; 

pass. perf. subj. ier 'itum sit', 
vi b 54 ; 238, 2, 239, 320. 209. 

eturstfi.hiini, see eheturstahamu. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


eu, see erec. 

euront, see eront. 

eveietu'voveto', lib 8,11. 148, 212, b. 

ezariaf 'escas'(P), iv 27. 112, a. 

fahe, probably adv. , v b 13. Meaning 
and etym. wholly uncertain. 

famerias'familiae',,iib2. 106. 

/ar'far', vb 10, is; gen. sg. /arer, 
vb9, 14. 115, 1, a, 117, 182. 

farsio 'farrea', ace. pi. n., vi b 2,/asio, 
vi b 44, fasiu, ii a 12. 39, 1, 115, 1, 
252, 2. 

facefele '*sacrificabilem', lib 9. 261. 

fapia 'faciat', ii a 17; 144; feia 
'faciat', v a 23, v b i ; 219 ; infin. 
fapiu, ii a 16, facu, ii b 22; 100, 3, b, 
144 with b ; imperat. sg. fetu 
'facito', via 22 etc. (52 times), fetu, 
i a 3 etc. (48 times), feitu, vi b 3 etc. 
(5 times), feitu, i a 4 etc. (20 times), 
feetu, viia4i; 99, 1, 143, 219 with 
note ; fut. perf . 3 sg. fakust, iv 31, 
3 pi. facurent, vii a 43, fakurent, i b 
34 ; pass, partic. abl. sg. feta, ii b 
13. 32, 1, 136, 214, 2, 219. 

fato 'factum'(?), vib n. 325. 

fefure, see under est. 

feia, feitu, see under fapia. 

feliuf 'lactentis', ace. pi., i a 14, film, 
vib 3. 42. 

felsva 'holera'(?), va n. 21, 149, 6, 
258, 2. 

ferime, see following. 

ferine ' in feretro, ferculo'(?), vi a 57, 
vi b i, 19, 43, 45, vii a 4, ferine, i a 4, 
13, 22, i b 3, 6, 25 (aes ferime), iii 16 
(aes ferime, here retained by some, 
as a different word), iii 3t. 178, 6. 

fertu 'ferto', imperat. sg. , vi b so, fertu, 
ii a 17 etc., pi. fertuta, iii 13 ; fut. 3 
sg. ferest, ii a 26 ; 221 ; pass. pres. 
subj. ferar, vi b so ; 238, 2, 239. 36, 
1, 124, 217. 

fefehtru, meaning uncertain, ace. sg., 
iii 16, 18. 

fesnaf-e ' in fanum', ace. pi., ii b 16 ; 
loc. pi. fesner-e ' in fano', ii b n. 99, 
1, 114, 136, 251, 2. 

feta, fetu, see facia. 

fidam 'offam, pellet, a kind of cake', 
vii a 42, ficla, vi a 56 etc. (11 times), 
fikla, ii a is, 29 ; gen. sg. fiklas, ii 
a 41 ; 266. 248, 3. 

fiktu 'figito', ia28. 153. 

filiu, see feliuf. 

Fise 'Fiso, deo Fidio', dat. sg., i a 15, 
Fiso, vib 3. 137, 1, 171, 3, a. 

Fisio-, adj. , epithet of ocri-, ' the Fisian 
Mount' . Gen. sg. Fisier, vi a 30 etc. , 
Fisie, vi b 10 ; dat. sg. Fisie, vi a 
40, Fisi, vi a 30 etc. (12 times), Fisei, 
vi a 23 (173, 2) ; ace. sg. Fisim, vi 
a 41, 49, 51, Fisi, vi a 31 etc., Fisei, 
vi a 29 (29); abl. sg. Fisiu, vi a 23 
etc. , Fissiu, vi a 43, Fisiu, i a 5 etc. ; 
loc. sg. Fisiem, vi a 46 (169, 7, a), 
Fisie, vi a 26, 36, vi b 29. 252, 1. 

Fisouina ' pertaining to Fisovius', adj., 
abl. sg. f., vib 9, 14. 

Fisouio- '*Fisovius', name of a god. 
Gen. sg. Fisouie, vi b is ; dat. sg. 
Fisoui, vi b 5, vii a 37, Fisuvi, i a n ; 
ace. sg. Fisoui, vi b 6, 8 ; voc. 
sg. Fisouie, vib 9 etc. 258, 4. 
jZto'fitum'(?), vib n. 325. 

Fondlir-e ' in *Fontulis, at the Springs', 

vii a 3, Funtler-e, i b 24. 249, 1. 
/ons'favens', vi a 42 etc. (13 times), 
fos, vi a 23 etc. (4 times) ; gen. sg. 
/oner, vii a 20 etc. ; nom. pi. /oner, 
vi bei. 90, 1, 255, 2. 

-font, see -hont. 

frater 'fratres', nom. pi., vb 11, fra- 
teer, v b 16, frater, iii 5 etc. ; 76, 3, 
90,1,117; gen. pl.fratrom, viibi, 
fratrum, iii 10, fratru, ii a 21 etc. 
(9 times) ; dat. pi. fratrus, v b 8, 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


13, vii b i ; abl. pi. fratrus-per, 

ii a 2, iii 23, 28. 33, 124, 246, 2. 
fratreca ' *f ratrica, pertaining to the 

brotherhood', abl. sg., vii b 2. 
fratrecate ' magisterio, in the office of 

*fratricus', loc. sg., vii b i. 259, 

fratrexs '*fratricus, fratrum magister', 

viibi, fratreks, va23, vbi; 145,2; 

dat. sg. fratreci, vii b 4 ; 144, a. 

45, 256, 2. 
frehtef ' fricta', 'roasted pieces '(?), 

ace. pi., iia26. Also taken aspres. 

partic. nom. sg. 'frigidans'. 
frehtu 'frictum '(?), iv 31. pune frehtu 

' poscam et frictum' or ' poscam cali- 

dam '(?). Also taken as ' frigidum'. 
/rt/'fruges', ace. pi., vi a 42 etc. (5 

times), fri, vi a 30 etc. (6 times). 

59, 147, 4. 
frite 'fretu, fiducia', vi a 24 etc. 178, 5, 

frosetom 'fraudatum', vi a 28 etc. 69, 

138, 211, 262, 1. 
fuia ' fiat', iii i ; fut. fuiest ' fief, v a 

9. 215, 3. 

Fulonie 'Fullonii', no. 83. 
Funtler-e, see Fondlir-e. 
/wr/cw'purgant'(?), vi b 43, furfaO, 

i b i (25, a). 204, 2, p. 305. 
/wo 'forum', ace. sg., vii a 52, furu, 

i b 42. 51, 136. 
fust, f urent, futu, etc. , see est. 

gomia 'gravidas', vi a 58, kumiaf, i a 7. 
16, 17, 94. 

Grabouio- '*Grabovius', epithet of 
Mars, Jupiter, and Vovionus. Dat. 
sg. Grabouie, vi b 19, Grabouei, vi a 
22, vi b i, Krapuvi, i a 3, 11, 21 ; 
ace. sg. Graboui, vi a 23, Graboue, 
vi a 24, 25 ; voc. sg. Grabouie, vi a 
25 etc. (29 times), Crabouie, vi a 27, 
37. Connection with L. Gradivus 

attractive, but no satisfactory ex- 
planation of U. 6 : L. d. 258, 4. 

/ia&e'habet, restat'(P), vi b 54, habe, 
ib 18; pres. subj. habia, v a 17, 
19, 21 ; fut. hdbiest, vi b 50 etc. (5 
times) ; 218 ; imperat. sg. habitu, 
vi a 19, vi b 4, habetu, ii b 23 etc. 
(7 times), pi. habituto, vi b 51, habe- 
tutu, i b 15 ; fut. perf . 2 sg. habus, 
vi b 40, 3 pi. Aa6uren'ceperint', 
vii a 52. 212,3,218. 

habina ' agnas' (?), ace. pi., vi b22, 23, 24, 
habina, i a 27, hapinaf , i a 24 ; gen. 
pi. hapinaru, i a 33. 30, 6, 149, a, 

hahtu 'capita', imperat. sg., ii a 22, 
hatu, ib 11, hatu, vi b 49, pi. hatutu 
' capiunto', i b 42, hatuto, vii a 52. 
121, 216, 218. 

hebelafe, see ebetrafe. 

heri ' vult', iv 26 ; fut. 2 sg. heries, i b 
10, ii b 21, 3 sg. heriest, vii a 52, heries, 
vib 48 (127, 3) ; 221 ; perf. subj. 
3 sg. heriiei, ii a 16; 29, 42, 224, b, 
234, note, 320; pres. indie, pass. 
3 sg. herter 'oportet', ii a 40, iii i, 
herte, va 6, 8, 10, herti, v b 8, 11, 13, 16, 
hertei, viib2; 29, 39, 2, 216, 238, 
2, a; perf. subj. pass. 3 sg. herifi 
'oportuerit', v b 6 ; 227, 238, 2, 239; 
- perf. pass, partic. abl. sg. heritu 
'optato, consulto', vi a 27, 47, vi b 29, 
hereitu, vi a 37, eretu, ii a 4 (149, a); 
190, 2, 307. 15, 1, 149, 214, 2. 

heriei'ver, vii a 3, herie, vib 19, 20. 
202, 19. 

heris ' veP, i a 4, i b 6, heri, i a 4, 22, ii b 
9, 10, heri, vi a 57, vi b 46. 15, 1, 
202, 19. 

Iloier '*Hoii', gen. sg., name of a god, 
via 14. 

holtu ' aboleto' (?), imperat. , vi b 60, vii a 
49. 149, a. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


homonns 'hominibus', vb 10, 15. 54, 

149, 181 with- 6. 
Honde '*Honto, deo inferno', dat. sg., 

vi b 45, Hunte, i b 4, ii a 20, 34. 
hondomu 'infimo', abl. sg., vi a 9, 10. 

15, 5, 86, 1, 149, 156, 189, 1. 
hondra 'infra', prep., vi a is, vii a 52, 

hutra, i b 42. 15, 5, 149, 156, 188, 

2, 190, 3, 299, 4. 
hondu 'pessumdato'(?) v imperat., vi b 

60, vii a 49. 264, 2. 
-hont '-dem', pronom. enclitic. 149, a, 

201, 6. 
Horse ' *Hodio', dat. sg. , name of a god, 

vi b 43, Hurie, i b 2. 
hostatu 'hastatos', vi b 59, vii a 48 ; 

dat. pi. hostatir, vi b 62, vii a 13 etc. 

99, 3, 138, a, 259, 1. 
Hule '*Holae', dat. sg., name of a god- 
dess, iv n. 149, a. 
huntak 'puteum^?), iii 3, iv32. 256, 6. 
Huntia, name of the festival in honor 

of the god Hontus, abl. sg., ii a 15, 17. 

Probably ablative of time (295), 'at 

the Hontus festival'. 
hutra, see hondra. 

-i, -e, -ei, pronom. enclitic. 201, 3. 

-i = -en. 39, 5. 

lapusco '*Iapudicum', adj., ace. sg., 
vii a 47, Idbuscom, vib 58, lapuzkum, 
i b 17 ; gen. sg. lapuscer, vii a 48, 
labuscer, vi b 54, 59, vii a 12 ; dat. 
sg. labusce, vii a 12. 256, 1. 

Ikuvins ' Iguvinus', coin-legend; voc. 
pi. Ikuvinus, i b 21, 22, Ikuvinu, i b 
20, Houinur, vi b 63, louinur, vi b 56 ; 
ace. sg. f. Ifouinam, vi a 49 etc., 
Jowinam, vi b 12, liouina, vi a 31 etc., 
louina, vi a 29, 39 ; gen. sg. f . 
liuvinas, i b 2, 5 ; liouinar, vi a 32 
etc., louinar, vi a so etc. ; dat. sg. 
f . Ikuvine, i b is, lioueine, vi a 5, 
liouine, via is etc., louine, via 33 

etc. ; loc. sg. f . louinem, vi a 46 
(169, 7, a), liouine, vib 29, louine, 
vi a 26, 36 ; abl. sg. f . Ikuvina, i a 
5 etc., liuvina, i b 5 etc., liouina, vi a 
23 etc., Jowma, vi a 25 etc. 48, 148, 
187, 255, 5, 258, 4. 

iepi'ibi, then'(?), iii 21. The form is 
not satisfactorily explained. 39, 1, 
195, d. 

iepru, meaning uncertain, ii a 32. 
Sometimes explained as 'pro iis', 
but this is very doubtful. 39, 1, 
195, d. 

ier, see etu. 

t/e'ibi, eo, there', vib 39, 40, ife, iib 
12, 13; ifont 'ibidem', vi b 55; 201, 
6. 195, /. 

inenek 'turn', iii 20. Probably a mis- 
take for inemek (cf. inumek). 202, 

inuk, inumek, etc., see enom. 

iouies 'iuvenibus', dat. pi. vib 62 etc.; 

ace. pi. iouie, vi b 59, vii a 48. 96, 
100, 1, 186. 

louio- ' lovius', epithet of Tefer,Trebus, 
Hontus, and Torra. Also used with- 
out any other name, ibi (adj.),iia 6,8 
(subst.). Dat. sg. m. luvie, i a 24 etc. , 
luvi, i a 28, louie, vi a 58, loui, vi b 22 
(luvie, i a 8, louie, vi a 58, taken by 
some as f . ) ; dat. sg. f . luvie, i b 43, 
lowze, vii a 53 ; ace. sg. m. Joiri, 
vi b 26, 27 ; abl. sg. m. luviu, i b i ; 

voc. sg. m. louie, vib 28 etc., 
liouie, vi b 35 (this spelling after 
liouine etc.); voc. sg. f. louia, 
vii a 47, 49. 252, 1 with a. 

irer, see erec. 

isec 'item', adv., vi b 25, isek, iv 4. 39, 
4, 196, c. 

iseceles ' insectis', abl. pi., iv 7. Prob- 
ably mistake for isecetes. 39, 5. 

isir, tso, issoc, see eso, esoc. 

isunt 'item', ii a 28, 36, iii 16, 17. 39, 4. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


itek 4ta, iv 31. 195, /. 

iuka 'preces', ace. pi. n., iii 28, iuku, 
ii b 23. 249, 1. 

iuengar 'iuvencae', nom. pi., viib2; 
ace. pi. iuenga, vii a 51, iveka, i b 
40, 42 (108, 1). 31, 6, 156. 

luieskanes '*Iuiescanis', dat. pi., lib 6, 
luieskane, ii b 5. 

lupater'Iuppiter', voc. sg., iib 24; 
dat. sg. luvepatre, ii a 5 etc. (5 
times), luve patre, iib 7, luvip., ii a 
10, luve, i a 3, luue, vi a 22. Cf . 
also Di. 183 with a. 

iust, see etu. 

rnaletu'molitum', iiais. 97, 244, 4. 

mandYacZo'mantele', ace. sg., vi b 4, 
mantrahklu, ii a 19, mantraklu, ii b 
16. 97, 263, 1, p. 304. 

mani ' manu' , abl. sg. , vi b 24, mani, ii a 
32 (59) ; loc. sg. manuv-e, iib 23; 
185, 2; ace. manf, ii a 38. 185 
with 8. 

maronatei ' *maronatu, office of maro', 
loc. sg., no. 84; abl. sg. maronato 
(171, 6, a), no. 83. 247,2,259,2, 
302, p. 310. 

Marte ' Marti' , dat. sg. , vi b i , 43, Marte, 
ia n, ib 2, Marti, ii a 11 (or possi- 
bly 'Martio', to foil.). 

-Martfio-'Martius', adj., usually epithet 
of Cerrus. Gen. sg. Martier, v b 9, 
15, vi b 58 etc. (31 times), Marties, 
i b 28, 31 ; dat. sg. Martie^ vii a 3, 
Marti, i b 24 ; voc. sg. Martie, vi b 

57, 61. 

.Mafrer'Matris', no. 83. 33. 

me/a ' mensam, libum', ace. sg., vi a 56, 
vi b n, 20, vii a 4, 38, mefa, i a 10, 
ivi4; abl. sg. we/a, vi b 5, 9, 14, 
vii a 37, mefa, ii b 13 ; dat. sg. 
mefe, ii b 28. 110, 3 with a, p. 304. 

me/ie'mihi', vi a 5. 193 with a. 

menes, see benus. 

menzne'mense', ii a 17. 110,1. 
mers'ius', vi b 31, (mersest), vi b 55, 

(mem, mersei = mers-si 'ius sit 1 ), 

vi a 28, 38, 48, mers, ibis; abl. pi. 

mersus 'ex moribus', iiie; 132, a, 

287. 15, 6, 94, 132, 182. 
merso'iustum, prosperum' ('right, 

proper', and so 'favorable', used of 

birds of omen), ace. sg. m., via 3, 

4, 16, 17 ; ace. sg. f. mersta, vi a 3, 

4, 16, meersta, via 17 (76, 1) ; abl. 

sg. m. merstu, vi a i ; ace. pi. f . 

merstaf, vi a 4, mersta, vi a 3, 4, is. 

15, 6, 88, 3, 259, 1. 
mersuva ' iusta, solita', abl. sg. f., iii 

n ; ace. pi. m. mersuva, iii 28. 

15, 6, 132, a, 258, 2. 
mestru'maior', nom. sg. f., v a 24, 27, 

vb4. 147, 3, a, 188, 3. 
Miletinar '*Miletinae', gen. sg., vi a 13. 
motor 'nmltae', gen. sg., vii b 4 (269, 

a); nom. sg. muta, v b 2, mutu, 

v b 6 ; ace. sg. muta, v b 3. 49, 

105, 2, 146. 
mugatu ' mugito, muttito,make a noise' , 

irnperat., vi a 6 ; perf. pass. part. 

muieto, via?. 58,148,210,3,211. 
muneklu ' munus, sportulam', v a 17, 

19, 21. 67, 1, 248, 3. 
Museiate'*Musiatr, dat. sg., ii b 5. 

Cf. 259, 3. 
muta, see motor. 

n., abbr., 'nummis', no. 83. 

JVa/iarcom'*Narcum', ace. sg. n., vib 
58, vii a 47, Naharkum, i b n ; gen. 
sg. Naharcer, vi b 54, 59, vii a 12, 48 ; 
144, a ; dat. sg. Naharce, vii a 12. 
256, 1. 

naraklum 'nuntiatio, announcement' 
(of the results of inspecting the en- 
trails), ii a i. 147,2,248,3. 

naratu ' narrate, speak, announce', im- 
perat., via 22, 56, 59, etc. (14 times), 


Glossary and Index- Umbrian 


naratu, iias, ii b 8 etc. (5 times). 

147, 2. 
natine ' natione, gente', iiaai, 35, lib 

26. 147, 2, 181, 247, 1. 
neip ' non', vi a 27, 36, 46, vi b 29, vii b 3, 

neip, v a 29, ii a 4 ; prohib. neip 

'neve', vibsi, neip...nep 'nee... 

nee', vi a 6. 29, b, 92, 202, 20. 
neifhabas 'ne adhibeant', iv33. 29, 

84, 202, 20, 218. 
nep, see neip. 
nepitu ' inundate', imperat., vibeo, vii a 

49. 212, 6, 310. 
JVer., abbr. praen. (Nero or Nerius), 

no. 84. 
wer/'principes, optiinates', title of 

rank, ace. pi., vi a so etc. (13 times) ; 
dat. pi. nerws, vi b 62 etc. (5 times). 

15, 7, 180, 2, c. 
wertrw'sinistro', abl. sg., vi b 25, ner- 

tru-co, vi b 37, 39, nertru-ku, i a 32. 

16, 18, 188, 2. 

Tiersa' donee', via 6. 202, 11. 

nesimei 'proxime', adv., vi a 9. 15,8, 
29, 42, 138, a, 189, 1 (with ftn.), 
190, 1, 307. 

nmcu'ninguito' (transit., 'snow up- 
on'), vibeo, vii a 49. 114, a, 146, 
153, 161, 213, 3, 310. 

niru, meaning uncertain, ace. sg., iib 
15. Probably some sort of herb. 

nowe'nomen', vi a 30 etc. (13 times), 
numem, i b 17 (109, 1) ; gen. sg. 
nomner, vi b 54 etc. (4 times) ; dat. 
sg. no?nne, vi a 24 etc. (40 times) 5 
abl. sg. norawe, vi a 17, nomne-per, 
vi a23 etc. (40 times). 54, 181, 247, 

-ZV r o?iiar'Noniae', gen. sg., viai4. 

woswe'nisi', vi b54. 67, 1, 95, 202, 14, 

numem, see nome. 

numer 'nummis', abl. pi., van, 19, 21. 

Nurpier '*Nurpii', gen. sg., vi a 12. 

nufpener ' pondiis', designation of a 

small coin, abl. pi., v a 13. 94, 
263, 1. 

nuvime 'nonum', adv., ii a 26. 86, 1, 
190, 1, 191, 9. 

nuvis 'noviens', adv., ii a 25. 192, 2. 

ocar 'arx, mons', the Sacred Mount of 
Iguvium, nom. sg. , vib 46, ukar, i b 7 ; 
91, 2, b; gen. sg. ocrer, vi a 8 etc. 
(14 times) ; dat. sg. ocre, vi a 23 etc. 
(14 times) ; ace. sg. ocrem, vi a 49, 
51, vi b 12, ocre, vi a 29 etc. (G times) ; 
abl. sg. ocri-per, vi a 23 etc. (17 
times), ocre-per, vi a 25, 34, 35, ukri- 
per, ia 5 etc. (8 times), ukri-pe, i a 
12 ; loc. sg. ocrew, vi a 46, ocre, vi a 
26, 36, vi b 29, ukre, v a 16 (usually 
taken as dat.). Cf. "ocrem antiqui, 
. . . , montem conf ragosum dicebant." 
Festus ed. Thewrewk, p. 196. 99, 

3, 257, 2. 
oht, see uhtretie. 

owse'in umero', loc. sg., vib 50, uze, 
ii b 27, 28. 110, 1. 

ooserclom-e 'ad *observaculum'(?), via 
12. 77, 3. 

opeter'lecti, choice', perf. pass, partic. 
gen. sg. n., vb 9, 14; imperat. sg. 
upetu ' optato, deligito', va 7, iib i, 
8, 11, iii 22, 26, pi. upetuta iii 10. 
212, 6. For the meaning, cf. the 
early and poetical use of L. opto in 
sense of 'choose'. 

orer 'illius'(?), vi a 26, 36, 46, vi b 29; 
abl. sg. m. writ, vi b 55, uru, ibis; 
abl. sg. f. ura-ku, v a 5 ; abl. pi. 
ures, iv 33. 197, 2. 

ortom 'ortum', nom. sg. n., via 46, 
orto, vi a 26, 36, vi b 29 ; nom. pi. n. 
urtu 'orta', ii a 4 ; nom. pi. f. urtas 
'ortae, surgentes, standing up', iii 
10; abl. pi. urtes 'surgentibus', iii 

4. 17, 11. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


osatu ' operator, f acito, make', imperat., 
vi b 24, 37 ; pass, partic. nom. sg. 
f. oseto, no. 83. 17, 4, 49, 88, 3, 
122, 3, 211, 262, 1. 

ose 'opere'(P), abl. sg., via 26, 36, 46, 
vib29. 182, p. 303. 

ostendu 'ostendito, set out, furnish', 
imperat. sg., vi a 20, ustentu, i a 3 
etc. (12 times), ustetu, i a 17 etc. 
(6 times) (108, 1), pi. ustentuta, iii 
5; 135, 156 ; fut. pass, ostensendi, 
via 20; 39, 2, 137,2, 156, 221. 17, 
15, 49, 122, 1. 

ote 'aut', vb 10 etc. (6 times), ute, v a 
23 etc. (4 times). 43, 69, 92, 202, 17. 

oui ' ovis', ace. pi. , vi b 43, uvef , i b i ; 

ace. sg. uvem, iii 8 etc. (5 times), 
uve, ii a 10, i a 31. 101. 

p., abbr., ' pondo', vb 9, 14. 

paca 'causa', prepos., vi a 20. 304. 

pacer 'propitius', nom. sg. m., vi a 23 

etc. (13 times) ; 91, 2 ; nom. sg. f. 

pacer, vii a 14, 17, 31, 50 ; 187, 2, a ; 

nom. pi. pacrer, vi b 61. 187, 2, 
257, 2. 

Padellar 'Patellae', gen. sg., via H. 

91, 2, a, 107, 3, 158. 
pafe, see poi. 

pane ' quam', adv., vii a 46, pane, i b 40. 

92, 190, 6, 202, 4. 

panta' quanta', nom. sg. f., vb2;- 

acc. sg. f. panta, v b 3. 150. 
panwpei'quandoque', viib i. 54, 201, 

4, 202, 12. 
parfa 'parram', vi a 2 etc. (5 times), 

parfam, i b 13 ; abl. sg. parfa, vi a 

l. 115,2. 
pars-est 'par est', vii b 2. 117, &, 


pose' pace', via so etc. (15times). 144. 
-pater 'pater' in lupater, voc. sg., iib 

24 ; dat. sg. in luve patre, ii b 7 

etc. 32, 1. 

-pe,-pei '-que', pronom. enclitic. 201,4. 

pehatu, see pihatu. 

peica 'picam', ace. sg., vi a 3 etc. (4. 
times) ; abl. sg. peica, vi a 1. 48. 

peico 'picum', ace. sg., via 3 etc. (4 
times); abl. sg. peiqu, via l (26). 

Peiefiate'*Peiediati', dat. sg., ii b 4. 
Cf. 259, 3. 

peiu 'piceos', ace. pi. m., vii a 3, peiu, 
i b 24 ; ace. pi. f . peia, vii a 6, peia, 
ib 27. 144, 6. 

pelmner ' pulmenti, pulpamenti, meat', 
gen. sg., vb 12, 17. 36, 2, 125, 1. 

pelsatu ' sepelito'(?), vi b 40 ; gerun- 
dive nom. sg. m. pelsans, ii a 43, ace. 
sg. m. pelsanu, ii a 6, iii 32, ace. pi. 
f . pelsana, vi b 22, pelsana, i a 26. 
262, 1, a, p. 305. 

peperscust, see perstu. 

pepurkurent'poposcerint', fut. perf., 
vbs. 97,145,1,223. 

pequo 'pecuum', gen. pl.(?), vi a 30 etc. 
(11 times). 26, 184, p. 236 f. 

per-. 299, 5. 

-per 'pro'. 91, 2, 300, 8. 

-per with numerals. 127, 3, 192, 2, 
299, 5. See ftn. p. 321. 

peracm-'sollemnem, sacrificial', and 
subst. 'hostia'. Ace. sg. m. perak- 
nem, ii a 10, perakne, ii a 5, 12, ii b 7, 
10; ace. sg. n. (subst.) perakne 
'hostiam,' ii a 5, 14 ; ace. pi. n. 
perakneu, v a 7. For peracnio, vi a 
54, see under peracri-. The meaning 
is not essentially different from that 
of seuacni-. The two words occur 
together only in iib 8, n, and here 
possibly sevakne is used substan- 
tively. 159, a, 187, 2, 263, 1, a. 

peracri- ' opimus, in perfect condition'. 
Ace. sg. perakre, ib40; abl. sg. 
peracri, via 34 etc. (7 times), pera- 
crei, vi a 25, 29 ; gen. pi. peracrio, 


G-lossary and Index Umbrian 


vii a 51, vi a 54 (in vi a 54, aes perac- 
nio, but cf . bueperacri, vi a 34, 45, 53) ; 
abl. pi. peracris, vi b 52, 56. 187, 
2, 299, 5. 

Peraznanie '*Perasnaniis', dat. pi., 

percam 'virgam', vi bss, perca, vi a 19 
etc. (6 times) ; ace. pi. perca, vi b 
51, perkaf, ib is. 139, 1. 

peretom 'peritum', vi a 27, 37, 47, vi b 30. 

pernaiaf 'anticas', ace. pi. f., i b 10 ; 
abl. pi. f. pernaies, i a 2. 61, 3, 
253, 1, 300, 8, a. 

perne'ante,' adv., vibn. 300, 8, a. 

persaea etc., perse, persi, perso, see 
under rs = f. 

perscZo'precationem, sacrificium', ace. 
sg., vi a i, persklum, i a i, persklum- 
af , iii 21 ; gen. sg. perscler, vi a 27 
etc. (4 times), pescler, via 47 etc. 
(4 times) ; abl. sg. persdu, vi b 36 
etc. (4 times), pesclu, vi b is, vii a 8, 
persklu, iii 12. 97, 116, 1, 129, 2, 
145, 1. 

persmmw'precator,' imperat. sg. pass, 
(dep.), via 55 etc. (20 times), pers- 
nihimu, vib 17 etc. (4 times), pes- 
nimu, vib 9, 23, persnimu, i b 7, 21, 
persnihmu, ii a 27 etc. (15 times), pes- 
nimu, iaeetc. (23 times), pi. persni- 
mumo, vi b 57, persnihimumo, vii a 
47, pesnimumo, vi b 64, 65, vii a i ; 
perf. pass, partic. nom. sg. m.persms, 
vi b 39, pesuis, vib40, 41. 97,116,2, 
145, 1, 146, 214, 1, 237, 262, 3. 

personro-'flgmentum'(?), subst. m. 
Ace. sg. pesondro, vi b 24, 37, 39, 40, 
pesuntru, i a 27, pesuntrum, i a so, 
pesutru, ii a 8, persutru, ii b 13, per- 
suntru, ivn, 19; dat. sg. persun- 
tre, iv 21 ; abl. sg. persontru, vi b 
28, persondru, vi b 31, 35 ; ace. pi. 
pesondro, vib 37 (171, 11, a) ; abl. 
pi. pesondris-co, vi b 40. p. 305. 

perstico, see under persi, below. 

perstu'ponito'(P), imperat., ii a 32, 
pestu, iib 19; fut. perf. 3 sg. pe- 
perscust, vi b 5, pepescus, vii a 8. 
116, 3, 146, 213, 5. 

pert ' trans', ii a 36. 15,9,299,5. 

pertentu 'protendito,' ii a 31, iv 8. 
299, 5. 

pertom-e, ace. sg., vi a 14, name of some 
building or locality at Iguvium. 

persaeo- 'humi stratus, pronus'(?), adj. 
Ace. pi. f. persaea, vii a 41, 54, pe- 
rsaia, vii a 7, pefaia, i b 28, 32, 44 ; 
ace. sg. m. pefaem, ii a 11, iii 32 
(173, 1); nom. ace. sg. n. ('sacri- 
fice ' being expressed or understood) 
persae, vi a 58, vi b 3, pefae, ii a is, 
22 (173, 1). 61, 3, 253, 1, p. 304. 

persi, pefe, see pirse. 

persi 'pede', abl. sg., vib 24 etc., peri, 
i a 29, 32 ; persi-co or persei-co ' ad 
pedem', vi b 25 (aes perstico); ace. 
sg. peru, ii a 24 (or 'fossam'?). 131, 
178, 5, a. 

perso 'solum, fossam, trench for the 
libations', vib 24, 37, persom-e, vib 
38 etc. , per um, i a 29, 32, perum-e, ii a 
27, iii 33, peru, ii a 9. Cf. Grk. irtdov. 

pesetom 'peccatum', via 27, 37, 47, vib 
30. 144, 211. 

pestu, see perstu. 

petenata 'pectinatam, comb-shaped', 
iv4. 259, 1. 

Petrunia-per 'pro Petronia', ii a 21, 35. 

peturpursus 'quadrupedibus', vib 11. 
54, 94, 131, 150, 191, 4, a, 263, 1. 

pihaclu 'piaculo', abl. sg. , vi a 25 etc. 
(12 times) ; gen. pi. pihaclo, vi a 54, 
pihaklu, v a 8. 248, 3. 

pihatu i pia,to\ imperat., vi a 29 etc. (15 
times), pehatu, iii 3 ; perf. subj. 
pass. 3 sg. pihafi, vi a 38, 48, vi b si, 
pihafei, vi a 29 ; 227, -238, 2, 239 ; 
gerundive gen. sg. pihaner, vi a 19, 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


pehaner, vi a 20, peihaner, vi a 8 ; - 
perf . pass, partic. nom. sg. m. pihos, 
vi b 47, pihaz, i b 7; 35. 48, 83, a, 
102, 2, 262, 1. 

Piquier '*Piquii', gen. sg., vb 9, 14. 
258, 3. 

pir ' ignis, incendium', nom. sg., via 
26 etc. (5 times) ; ace. sg. pir, vi b 
49,50, pir, ibi2etc. (6times),pwrom-e 
'in ignem', vib 17, vii a 38 (180, d); 
abl. sg. pure-to, vi a 20, pure, i b 20. 
15, 11, 55, 59, 99, 6, 180, d. 

pirse,per e, etc. ' quod, si, cum', conjunc- 
tion, pirse, vi a 46, vi b 55(?), pirsi, 
via 5, 48, persi, vi a 37, 38, perse, vi a 
47, vi b 29, so, si, persei, vi a 26, 27, 28, 
36, piri, iv 32, pefe, ibi8(?), iias. 
45, 190, 6, 202, 2. 

pis-est ' quisquis est', vib 53. 113, a, 

pisfter'quilibet', vib 41. 15, 1, 90, 2, 
127, 3, 200, 1, 216. 

pisi ' quis, quisquis'. 113, a, 199, 200, 1. 
Indef . pisi, vi a 7. 
Indef . rel. pisi, vii a 52, vii b i , 
'quisquis'; pisipumpe'quicumque,' 
va 3, 10; pife 'quidquid', v a 5; 
ace. pi. pifi, vii b 2 (with definite 

pistu 'pistum', ii b 15. 

plenasier '*plenariis', loc. pi., v as, 14. 
42, 112, a, 254. See urnasier. 

plener 'plenis', abl. pi., vii a 21, 34. 
42, 255, 1. 

podru/ipei'utroque', adv., vi a 11 (in 
seipodruhpei ' seorsum utroque') ; 
gen. sg. putrespe 'utriusque', iv 14. 
54, 88, 4, 157, 2, 188, 2, a, 190, 2, 
200, 2, 201, 4. 

poi'qui,' nom. sg. m., via 5, vib 24, 
53, poe, vi b 50, poet, vi a i ; dat. 
sg. m. pusme, ii a 40 ; 114, 197, 1 ; 
abl. sg. f. pora, vib 65, vii a i; 67, 1, 
199, d; nom. pi. m. purl, vbio, 

is, pure, v a 6, 25, 28, v b 4 ; ace. pi. 
f . pa/e, vii a 52. 199. See also porse. 

*pompe'quinque'. 37, 150 with a. 

po?ii'posca' (mixed wine and vine- 
gar ?), abl. sg., vi a 57 etc. (12 times), 
pone, vi a 59, puni, i a 4 etc. (22 
times) ; ace. sg. pune, ii a 18 etc. 
(6 times) ; gen. sg. punes, ii a 41 ; 
dat. pi. punes, iv33. 54, 251, 2, a. 

ponmaer'calatoris'(?), gen. sg., vib 
51, punicate, ibis. 259, 1. 

ponne ' cum' , conj . , vi b 43, vii b 2, pone, 
vi b 48, 49, pune, i b i etc. (14 times), 
puni, i b 20. 92, 135, 190, 5, 202, 3. 

popZom'populum', ace. sg., vii a is, 
vii b 3, poplo, vi b 48, vii a 29, 46, pu- 
plum, i b 10, puplu, i b 40 ; gen. sg. 
popler, vi a 19 etc. (4 times) ; dat. 
sg. pople, vi b 61 etc. (6 times) ; 
abl. sg. poplu, vi b 54, poplu-per, vi b 
43 etc. (15 times), poplu-per, i b 2, 5 ; 
loc. sg. pople, vi b 55. 49. 

pora, see poi. 

porca'porcas', ace. pi., vii a 6, purka, 

portatu ' portato', imperat. , vi b 55, pur- 
tatu, i b 18 ; pres. subj. 3 sg. por- 
taia, vii b i ; 232 ; fut. perf. 3 sg. 
portust, viibs; 211, 224. 

porse, pure, conj., used also for some 
cases of rel. pronoun, pure ' quod, 
cum, quomodo', conj., ii a 26, iii 5, 
v a 7 ; used for nom. sg. m. , porse, 
vi b 63, vii a 46, si, pom, vi a 6, porsei, 
vi a 9 ; for nom. pi. , pom, vi a 19, 
porsei, vi a is ; for ace. pi., porse, 
vi b 40. 49, 190, 6, 199, /, 202, 1. 

posZ'post,' prep., vi a 58 etc. (4 times), 
pus, ia 7, 14, 24 (139, 2) ; puste, i a 
25 (or loc. sg. of a noun *posti- ?). 
49, 300, 6. 

posi'pro, in, according to' (distrib.), 
vb 8, 12, H, 17, pustin, ii a 25, iv in, 
pusti, v a is, 18, 20, 21. 15, 10, 299, 7. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


*post-pane ' postquam', conj. , in poster- 
tio pane ' postquam tertiuin', vii a 46, 
pustertiu pane, i b 40. 202, 4, 300, 
6, a. 

pustnaiaf ' posticas' , ace. pi. f . , i b 1 1 ; 
abl. pi. f. pusnaes, iaa. 61, 3, 
139, 2, 253, 1. 

postne i posV, adv., vibn. 300, 6, a. 

postra ' posteras, posteriores ' (pretra 
. . . postra ' the former . . . the lat- 
ter'), ace. pi. f.,yb 13; ace. pi. n., 
used predicatively in sense of ' retro ' 
(306), postro, vi bs, vii a 8, pustru, 
iib 19, pustra, iia32. 88, 4, 188, 

postro 'retro', adv., vii a 43, 44, pustru, 
i b 34, 36. 190, 6, a. 

pracatarum ' saeptarum' (?), vi a 13. 

praco, name of some locality at Igu- 
vium, gen. pi. (or ace. sg.?), viais. 
Possibly related to Low Latin par- 
cus (whence Eng. park etc.) and 
from the same root as L. com-pesco. 

pre'prae', via 22 etc. (8 times), pre, ia 
2, n, 20. 63, 300, 7. 

pre-'prae-', 300, 7. 

prehabia 'praebeat', v a 5, prehubia, 
v a 12. 86, 4. 

prepa 'priusquani', vi b 52. 202, 4. 

prepesnimu ' praefator', ii b 17. 300, 7. 
See persnimu. 

preplotatu ' *praeplauditato, strike 
down'(?), imperat., vi b 60, preploho- 
tatu, vii a 49. 262, 1. 

presoliaf-e, name of some building or 
locality in Iguvium, vi a 12. 

Prestota ' Praestita' , voc. sg. , vi b 57 
etc. (19 times) ; gen. sg. Prestotar, 
vii a 20, 22, 33, 36 ; dat. sg. Prestote, 
vii a 6, 8, 24, Prestate, i b 27. 35, a. 

pretra 'priores' (see postra), ace. pi. f., 
v b 12. 188, 2. 

preve 'singillatim', adv., i a 28, ii a 9. 
190, 1. 

prever 'singulis', abl. pi. m., v a 13, 18. 

17, 10, 65, 192, 1. 
preuendu 'advertito', vii a 11. 16, 21, 

preuislatu 'praevinculato', imperat., 

vii a 49, preuilatu, vi b 60. 144, 

248, 1. 
prinuatur 'legati, deputies, assistants', 

nom. pi., vib so etc. (5 times), prinu- 

vatus, i b 19, 23, prinuvatu, i b 15, 41 ; 
abl. pi. prinuatir, vi b 55, 56, 57. 

No satisfactory etymology. 
pro- 'pro-'. 300, 8. 
procanurent '*procinuerint', fut. perf., 

via 16. 32, 3, 224. 
promom 'primum', adv., vii a 52, pru- 

mum, iii 15, prumu, iii 3, 23. 189, 1, 

a, 190, 5, 191, 1. 
Propartie ' Propertii' , gen. sg., gent., 

no. 84. 

prufe 'probe', adv., v a 27. 190, 1, 307. 
prupehast ' ante piabit', iv 32. 17,8, 

300, 8. See pihatu. 
prusekatu 'prosecato', imperat., iia28, 

iii 33, 35, iv 2, prusektu, ii a 28 (211); 

perf. pass, partic. ace. pi. n. pro- 

seseto, vi a 56, prusecetu, ii b 12, 

gen. pi. proseseto, vi b 16, 38, dat. 

pi. prosesetir, vi b 44, 46, proseset'.r, 

vi a 56 etc. (9 times), proseseter, vi b 

20, prusejete, iia 12. 210, 3, 211. 
prusepia 'prosicias', ace. pi., ii a 23. 
prusikurent 'pronuntiaverint', fut. 

perf., v a 26, 28. 94, 154, 225. 
pruzufe ; praestante'(?), iv 23. 94, 

137, 2. 
pue ' ubi, where', adv., vi b 38, 39, 40, 55, 

pue, i b is. 54, 202, 7. 
Puemune 'Pomono' or 'Poinoni', dat. 

sg. iii 26 etc. (6 times) ; gen. sg. 

Puemunes, iv 3 etc. (4 times). 83, 

247, 2, a. 
pufe 'ubi', vi as, vib so, vii a 43, pufe, 

i b 33. 55, 92, 200, 3, 202, 5. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


pumpe ' -cumque' in pisi pumpe ' qui- 
cumque', va 3, 10. 201, 4, 202, 3. 

pumper ias ' *quincuriae, groups of 
five', nom. pi., ii ba. 37, 150, 191, 
5, 251, 4. 

puni 'posca', see poni. 

puni 'cum', see ponne. 

puntes 'quiniones, pentads', nom. pi., 
iii 9, 10 ; abl. pi. puntis, iii 4. 146, 
153, 191, 5, 247, 1, a. 

Puprike 'Publico'(P), epithet of Pue- 
mune, dat. sg., iii 27, 35, iv 10, 12, 
Pupf ice, iv 24 ; gen. sg. Pupf ikes, 
iv 11, 13, Pupf ices, iv 4, Puprces, iv26. 
106, a. 

pur- 'por-'. 264, 1. 

purka. see porca. 

purdouitu 'porricito', imperat., vi a 56, 
purtuvitu, ii a 24 etc. (10 times ; in iv 
20 with = t ; see 25, a), purtuvetu, 
ii b n, purtuetu, ii b n (31, 6) ; - 
fut. 2 sg. purtuvies, ii b 28 ; 221 ; 
fut. perf. 2 sg. purtiius, i a 27 etc. (5 
times ; aes once purtitius) ; 224, 6 ; 
- fut. perf. 2 sg. purtincus, i b 33, 
3 sg. purdinsiust, vii a 43, purdinsus, 
vi b 23, 37, 38, purdinsust, vi b 16, 24 ; 
144, 229, 264, 1 ; perf. pass, partic. 
purditom 'porrectum', nom. sg. n., 
vii a 45, purdito, vi b 42, purtitu, i b 
39, ii a 43, iv 31, v a is ; ace. pi. f . 
purdita, vi b 18, purtitaf, i a 18. 16, 
10, 51, 96, 102, 3, 215, 1. 

pure, pureto, purome, see pir. 

purtifele '*porricibilem', ii b 25. 261. 

Purtupite 'Porricienti'(?), iv H. Prob- 
ably mistake for Purtuvite. 

pure, seeporse. 

pus, see post. 

puse 'ut', via 59 etc. (11 times), pusi, 
vi a 20 etc. (7 times), pusei, vi a 27 
etc. (3 times), puze, i b 34 etc. (3 
times). 55, 137, 2, 200, 3, 202, 6. 

pusme, see under poi. 

puste, pustin, pustnaiaf, see under 
post etc. 

randem-e, name of some building or 
locality in Iguvium, vi a 14. 

ranu, meaning uncertain, probably 
name of some kind of liquid, abl. sg., 
ii b 19. 

re-per ' pro re', abl. sg. , vii b 2, ri, v a 5 ; 
- dat. sg. ri, v a 4. 186. 

re- 're-'. 264,1. 

rehte 'recte', adv., v a 24, 26, 29. 42, 
142, 190, 1. 

restatu ' instaurato, offer anew', im- 
perat., iias; pres. part. nom. sg. 
m. restef, i b 9, reste, vi b 47 ; 110, 

4. 213, 4, a, 264, 1. 

revestu ' revisito, inspicito', v a 7, 9. 

137, 1, 264, 1. 
ri, see re-per. 
ro/w'rufos', ace. pi. m., vii a 3; ace. 

pi. f. ro/a, vii a 6. 72, 96. 
.Rttfrer'Rubri', gen. sg., viai4. 55. 
rufru ' rubros,' ace. pi. m. , i b 24 ; 

ace. pi. f . rufra, i b 27. 55, 96, 136, 

257, 1. 
Rubinam-e 'in *Rubiniam', vii a 43, 

44, Rupinam-e, i b 35, 36 ; loc. sg. 

Rubine, vii a 6, Rupinie, i b 27. 100, 

3, b. 
rusem-e, meaning uncertain, vii a 8, 9, 23. 

s., abbr., 'semissem', vbn. 
sacri- 'sacrificial', adj., and neut. 
subst. 'hostia'. 187, 2, 257, 2. 

1) Adj. Ace. pi. f. sakref, ia 18, 
19; nom.-acc. sg. n. sakre, ii a 6 
(possibly subst.), sacre, no. 84. 

2) Subst. Nom.-acc. sg. sakre, iia 

5, 21, iii 8, 9, etc. ; ace. pi. sakreu, 
v a 6 ; abl. pi. sacris, vi b 52, 56. 

sacro- 1 - sacrificial'. Ace. pi. f. sakra, 
i b 29, 37, sacra, vi b 18, vii a 40, 45. 
257, 1. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


Note that esono- means 'sacred' or, 
as subst., 'sacred rite, sacrifice' (i.e. 
the ceremony), while sacri-, sacro-, 
means 'pertaining to the sacrifice' 
(sacrificial cups etc.) or, as subst., 
the 'sacrifice' (i.e. the object sacri- 

Sa/iatara'Sanctam', probably the 'Sa- 
cred Way', ace. sg., viia39, 44, 45, 
Sahata, vii a 5, 39, Sahta, i b 35, Sa- 
tam-e, ib38; loc. sg. Sahate, vii a 
41, Sate, ibsi. 73, 75, 142. 

/SaZier'Salii', gen. sg., vi a 14. 

salu'salem', iiais. 

saJwom'salvum', ace. sg. m. n., via 
51 etc. (5 times), saluuom, via4i 
(31, 6), saluo, vi a 31 etc. (8 times) ; 
ace. sg. f. saluam, vi a 51, salua, vi a 
31 etc. (4 times) ; ace. pi. f . (see 
322) salua, vi a 32 etc. (6 times), 
saluua, via 42 (31, 6). 258, 1. 

sanes'sanis', abl. pi., ivs. 

<Sansio-'*Sancius', usually epithet of 
Fisovius, but also of Fisus, Jupiter, 
and Vesticius. Once (ii b 10) used 
alone. Voc. sg. San&ie, vi b 9 etc. 
(6 times), Sace, iib 24; ace. sg. 
Sansi, vi b 8, Sansi, vi b 6 ; dat, 
sg. Sansie, vi b 3, Sansii, vii a 37 (173, 
2), Sansi, vibs, Sapi, i a is, iibio, 
17, Sape, ii a 4. 144, 252, 1, a. 

sarsife'sarte, wholly', adv., vi b n. 
244, 3, 325. 

Sape, Sapi, see Sansio-. 

Satanes'Satanis', dat. pi., iib 4, Sa- 
tane, ii b 4. 

Sate, see Sahatam. 

saiutM'sauciato'(?), irnperat., vi b 60, 
vii a 49. 212, 6. 

scalse-to ' ex patera' , vibie, skalce-ta, 
iv 15, 18, 20; loc. sg. scalsie 'in 
patera', vi b 16, vii a 37; 178, 6. 

scapla ' scapulam', vi b 49. 

screMo'scriptum', nom. sg. n., viibs ; 
nom. pi. n. screihtor, via 15; 171, 
13. 48, 121. 

se^e?7iemar'seminarium', adj., ace. sg. 
n., vii a 52, sehmeniar, i b 42. 257, 4. 

se/wnenier'sementivis', dat. pi., vb n, 
16, semenies, ii b i . The sehmenier 
dequrier were the seed-time festivals 
of the dectiriae. Cf . L. feriae semen- 

sei'seorsum', adv., via n (in seipo- 
druhpei ' seorsum utroque') . 200, 2, 
263, 2. 

set 'sis, sit', see est. 

sewm'inedio', abl. sg., vibie, sehemu, 
vibse. 189, 1, a, 305. 

sent, see est. 

seples 'simpulis', abl. pi., iiin. 

sepse'sane, completely '(?), adv., vi b 
11. 244, 1, 6, 325. 

senu'servato,' 'observe' and ' pre- 
serve ',imperat., via n etc. (29times), 
serituu, vii a 15, seritu, ii a 24. 102, 4. 

sem'sede,' abl. sg., via 5. 298. 

semfaj'sedeto', imperat., vib4i; 
pres. partic. nom. sg. m. serse, via 2 
etc. (7 times), zefef, i a 25, 33, 34 
(137, 2, note); 110, 4. 131, 212, 3. 

sese' versus', adv., in testru sese'dex- 
tro versus', iii 23, iv is, and supru sese 
'sursus', ivs. 307. 

seso 'sibi', vi b 51. 193 with 6. 

sestentasiaru ' sextan tariarum, bi- 
monthly '(?), iii 2. 145, 1, 191, 6, 
p. 301. 

sestu'sisto', pres. indie. 1 sg., ii b 24, 
2 sg. seste, ii b 22 (90, 2); imperat. 
sg. sestu, iib 22. 45, 213, 4. 

sesust, see sistu. 

seuacni- 'sollemnis, sacrificial', and 
subst. 'hostia'. In many passages 
it is uncertain whether the form is 
used as adj. or subst. 159, a, 187, 
2, 263, 1 with a. See also peracni-. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


1) Adj. Ace. sg. sevakne, ii a 21, 
iii 22, iv 16, 18, 19, sevakni, iii 25, 26, 
27; abl. sg. sevakni, ii a 38, 39, 
sevakne, iv 23 ; ace. pi. sevaknef , 
iv 22 ; abl. pi. sevaknis, ii a 36, 37, 
iv 25, sevakne, iv 9 (178, 9). 

2) Subst. m. Ace. sg. sevakne, 
ii b 8, 9, 10 (adj. possible in all these); 

ace. pi. seuacne, viib i. 

seuom 'totum', ace. sg. n. (probably 
persclo understood ; cognate ace. 
after persnimu), vi a 56, sevum, i a 5; 

abl. pi. n. seueir 'omnibus', via 
18. 15, 12, 258, 1. 

sihitu, see sihitu. 

sim'suem', ace. sg., iibi, si, iib7; 

ace. pi. sif , i a 7, 14, sif, vi b 3, si, 
vi a 58. 59, 183. 

sir, si, sins 'sis, sit, sint', see est. 

sistu 'sidito', iii 8; 114; fut. perf. 
3 sg. sesust 'sederit' (given here 
rather than with sersitu on account 
of andersesust beside andersistu), 
vi a 5. 138, 222, note. 

smursim-e, name of some building or 
locality in Iguvium, ace. sg., vi a 13. 

snata ' umecta', ace. pi. n. , ii a 19, snatu, 
ii a 34 ; abl. pi. snates, iv 9, snate, 
iia37. 114, 325. 

somo 'suminuin,' ace. sg. m., via9; 
abl. sg. m. somo, vi a 10 ; 171, 6, a ; 
- loc. sg. sume, iia 15, iii i. 57, 
125, 1, 189, 1. 

soniw'sonato' (transit., 'fill with noise, 
confuse'), imperat., vi b 60, sunitu, 
vii a 49. 37, a, 51, &, 212, o, 310. 

sopir 'siquis'(?), vib 54. 199, 202, 14, a. 

sopo- 'suppus, supinus, the under', 
adj. ;neut. pi. usedsubst., 'the under 
parts' (Grk. vima). Ace. sg. f. sopa, 
vi b n, sopam, vii a 38 ; ace. sg. m. 
supu, iv 17 ; ace. pi. f. supaf, ii a 
22 ; ace. pi. n. sopo, vi b 5, swpo, 
vii a 8, supa, i a 9, 16, ii a 22, so, 32. 

57, 306, p. 304. The adjective, ex- 
cept in ii a 22, is used predicatively, 
in sense equivalent to an adverb or 
preposition 'under'. See 306. 

sorsalem 'suillam'(?), adj., ace. sg. f., 
vi b 39 ; gen. sg. f . sorsalir, vi b 38. 
57, 260, 1, p. 305. 

sorser 'suilli', gen. sg., v b 12, 17; 
here also, probably, ace. sg. sorsom, 
vi b 24, sorso, vi b 38, suf um, i a 27, so, 
sufu, ii a 8, 9 ; abl. sg. sorsu, vi b 
28, 31, 35, 37; ace. pi. m. used 
subst., sufuf, ia 33. 57, 260, 1, 
p. 305. 

spahatu 'iacito', imperat., vib 41 ; 
imperat. pass, (dep.) spahmu, vi b 17, 
spahamu, vii a 39; perf. pass, partic. 
nom. sg. n. spafu, va20. 110, 3 
with a, 308, 6. 

spanti 'latus', ace. sg., iii 34, iv 2, 
spantim-ar, iii 33. 247, 1, a. 

spantea 'lateralia', ace. pi. n., ii a so. 

spefa ' *spensam, sparsam', ace. sg. f., 
vi a 56 etc. (4 times) ; abl. sg. spe/a, 
vi b 5 etc. (5 times). 110, 3, p. 304. 

Speture ' *Spectori', name of a god, dat. 
sg., iia 5. 142. 

speturie '*spectoriae', adj., dat. sg. f., 
iia 1,3. 246, 1, a. 

spinia 'columnam, barrier'(P),, 
ii a 36, spina, ii a 38 (100, 3, 6), spi- 
niam-a, ii a 37, spinam-ar, ii a 33. 
Denotes some object, near the altar, 
which played a part in the ritual 

stakaz 'statutus', ii a 15. 262, 1. 

staflarem '*stabularem, ovillam'(?), 
adj., ace. sg. f., vi b 39 ; ace. sg. m. 
stqflare, vi b 37, 40. 136, 248, 2, 
p. 305. 

staflii '*stabularem, ovillum'(?), adj., 
ace. sg. m., i a 30. Footnote, p. 305. 

stahmei 'statui', dat. sg., vi a 5, 18. 
262, 3. 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


stahmito 'statutum', nom. sg. n., vi as ; 

dat. sg. stahmitei, vi a is, stahmei- 
tei, via 5. 262, 3. 

stahu 'sto', no. 84; imperat. sg. 
stahitu, vi b 56, pi. stahituto, vi b 53 ; 

fut. 3 pi. staheren, i b 19 ; 128, 2, 
a. 83, 204, 6, 210, a, 215, 1. 

statita 'statuta', ace. pi. n., iia42. 

262, 3. 
statitatu 'statuito', imperat., iiaaa, 

iib 19, iv 9. 262, 1. 
stiplo 'stipulare', pres. imperat., vi a 2 ; 

235 ; fut. imperat. sg. stiplatu 

'stipulator', vib48, 51, steplatu, ib 

13. 45. 
strusla ' *struiculam, struem', a sort of 

cake, ace. sg., via 59 etc. (6 times), 

struhp la, ii a is, 28, iv 4, strucla, iii 34 ; 

gen. sg. struhclas, ii a 41 (266), 
iv i. 58, 144, 249, 2. 

su 'sub', no. 83. 302. 

sub-, su-'sub-'. 302. 

subahtu ' deponito, setdown, lay aside', 
imperat., ii a 42, subotu, vi b 25 (? see 
35, a); perf. pass, partic. subator 
'omissi', vi a 27, 36, 46, vi b 29 ; 171, 
13. 121, 218, 302. 

subocau 'invoco', vi a 22 etc. (15 times), 
subocauu, vii a 20 etc. (8 times, all 
in vii). Also taken by many as 
perf. 'invocavi'. 102, 2, 153, b, 
204, 6, p. 303. 

suboco 'invocationes', ace. pi. n., via 
22 etc. (9 times). Also taken by 
many as pres. 1 sg. 'invoco'. 279, 
p. 303. 

subotu, see subahtu. 

subra 'supra', adv., vi a is, vi b n, etc., 
subra, v a 20 ; subra, prep. , vi a is ; 
299, 8. 55, 157, 1, 188, 2, 190, 3. 

sukatu' declarato'(?), ivie. 94, 154. 

sufafiaf 'partis exsertas (hostiae), the 
projecting parts' (?), ace. pi., iia22; 

gen. sg. sufafias, ii a 41 ; 266. 302. 

sufefaklu, meaning uncertain, ace. sg., 

iii 17, 19. 302. 
sume, see somo. 

sumel 'simul', ii a 27. 36, 2, 86, 3. 
sumtu 'surnito', imperat., i a 9, 16. 

114, c. 

sunitu, see sonitu. 
supa, see sopo-. 
super 'super', prep., ib4i, iv 19. 55, 

301, 3. 
superne 'super', prep., vii a 25. 55, 

301, 3. 
supru sese '*supro-versus, sursus', adv. , 

iv 3. 157, 1, 190, 2, 307. 
supu, see sopo-. 
surur ' item', vi a 20 etc. (6 times), suror, 

vi b 37 ; sururont, vi b 39 etc. (9 

times), sururo, vib 48 (128, 2, a); 

suront, vib 8 etc. (11 times). 197, 

6, 201, 6. 
sufum, see sorser. 
sutentu 'subtendito, supponito', ii a 23. 

sue 'si', conj., vi a 7, 16, vii b 3, sve, 

va24, 27. 63, 202, 14. 
svepis 'siquis', ib is, iv26. 199, 202, 

14, a. 
swepo'sive', vib 47, svepu, ibs. 133, 

202, 1. 
sueso'suo', poss. pron., loc. sg., viib 

i, svesu, i b 45, ii a 44. 194 with 6. 
sviseve'in sino', loc. sg., ii b 14, is. 

p. 309. 

Serfer 'Cerri, Genii', gen. sg., vib 57 
etc. (25 times), Serfer, vib 61 etc. (4 
times), Cerfe, ib28, 31 ; dat. sg. 
Serfe, vii a 3, erf e, i b 24 ; voc. 
sg. Serfe, vib 57, 61. 115, 2. 

Se?$o-'*Cerrius,' epithet of Praestita, 
JTorra, and Hontus. Gen. sg. f. Ser- 
fiar, vii a 20 etc. (4 times) ; dat. sg. 
f. Serfie, vii a 6 etc. (4 times), gerfie. 
i b 28, 31 ; dat. sg. m. Serfi, vi b 45, 


G-lossary and Index Umbrian 


efi, i b 4 ; voc. sg. f . Serfia, vi b 

57 etc. (19 times), Serfia, vi b 61, 

vii a 16. 252, 1 with a. 
cersiaru ' f eriarum epularium'(?), gen. 

pi., iia 16. 
cersnatur'cenati', nom. pi., v a 22. 

116, 2, 144. 
sesna'cenam', v b 9, 13, 15, is. 116, 2, 

144, 251, 2, a. 
siMtt'cinctos', ace. pi., vib 59, sihitu, 

vii a 48 ; dat. pi. sihitir, vii a 14, 

28, 50, sihitir, vi b 62, sitir, vii a is. 

73, 144. 
cihcera 'cancellos'(?), ace. pi., iiiis. 

Possibly from *kinkeda- (cf . Grk. xry- 

/cXi'Ses, L. cingo), but very uncertain. 
simo 1 - retro', adv., vibes, viiai,cimu, 

ib23. 54, 189, 1, a, 190, 2. 
cive'citra', adv.,iib 11. 189, 1, a, 190, 

1, 258, 1. 'On this side' is in this 

passage 'outside', contrasted with 

fesnere ' within the temple' of the 

following clause. 

T., see Titis. 

-ta, see -to. 

tafle'in tabula', loc. sg., lib 12. 

Talenate'*Talenati', dat. sg., iib4, 5. 

259, 3. 
tapistenu'caldariolam'(?), iv so. 99, 

Tarsinatem ' Tadinatem', vi b 58, vii a 

47, Tar inate, i b te, 17 ; gen. sg. 

Tarsinater, vi b 54 etc. (8 times) ; 

dat. sg. Tarsinate, vii an. 259, 3. 
tases Tacitus', via 55 etc. (11 times), 

tasis, vi b23, tacez, i a 26 etc. (8 times); 

nom. pi. tasetur, vib 57, vii a 46. 

137, 2, 144, 306. 
tekuries, see dequrier. 
tekvias'decuriales', nom. pi. f., ii b i. 

31, a, 191, 10, a. 
te/e'tibi', vi a is, tefe, ib is, ii b 24. 

124, 193 with a. 

Tefrali ' *Tefrali, pertaining to Tefer', 

adj., abl. sg., vib28, 35. 
Te/re'*Tefer,' voc. sg., vib 27 etc. (10 

times), 171, 5 ; ace. sg. Tefro, vib 

26, 27; dat. sg. Tefrei, vib 22, Te- 

fre, i a 24, Tefri, i a 28. 
tefru-to ' ex rogo, from the (place of the) 

burnt-offering', abl. sg., vii a 46 ; 
ace. pi. n. tefra 'carnes creman- 

das', ii a 27, iii 32, 34, iv2. 15, 13, 


tehtefim'tegumentum'(?), iv20. 
teio, see tiom. 
teitu, see deitu. 

femi*'teneto', vib 25. 212,3. 
tenzitim, meaning uncertain, ace. sg., 

i b 6, tesedi, vi b 46. 131, a. 
terkantur ' suffragentur'(P), pres. subj. , 

iii 9. 308. Possibly related to Grk. 

d{pKo/, etc., the meaning being 

'point out (with approval)'. Cf. 

Goth, ga-tarhjan ' point out', 
ten/mas' terminates', no. 84. 
termnom-e ' ad terminum', ace. sg. , vi b 

57, 63, 64 ; abl. sg. termnu-co, vi b 53, 

55, 57 ; abl. pi. termnes-ku, i b 19. 

103, 1. 
ferZira'tertium', adv., vib 64. 190, 5, 

191, 3. 
erto-'tertius', adj. Ace. sg. n. terti, 

iia 28; 172, 173, 1; ace. sg. f. 

tertiam-e, vi a 13, tertiam-a, iv 2 ; 

dat. sg. f . tertie, ii b 6 ; abl. sg. n. 

tertiu, vi a 45 ; loc. sg. tertie, ii b 

14. 191, 3. 
terio'tertium', adv., vii a 46, tertiu, 

i b 40. 190, 2, 300, C, a. 
tefte, tefust, etc., see dirsa. 
tesedi, see tenzitim. 
resenoctr'*Tesenacis,' abl. pi., vibi, 

s, Tesonocir, vi a 20, vii a 38, Tese- 

nakes, i a n, 14. 35, a, 256, 7. 
testre etc., see destram-e. 
tesvam, see dersua. 

Glossary and Index Umbrian 


Teteies 'Tetteius'(?), i b 45, ii a 44. 61, 

3, 253, 2. Cf. also 174, end. 
tettom-e, name of some building in 

Iguvium, vi a 13, 14. 
tetu, see dirsa. 
Ti., see Titis. 
tikamne ' dedicatione', ii a 8. 45, 107, 

2, a, 247, 3. 
ftora'te', ace. sg., vi a43etc. (33 times), 

iio, vi a 24 etc. (8 times), teio, vi a 22, 

tiu, ii a 25. 193 with c. 
tifel'dedicatio', iiai5; ace. sg. ti- 

jlu, iii 25, 27; abl. sg. tiplu, iib 22. 

45, 88, 4, 95, 144, 248, 1. 
ticit 'decet', ii a n. 39, 5, 144, 212, 3. 
Titis, praen., gen. sg., ' Titi'(?), ib 45 ; 

abbr. Ti., iia44, T., vas, 15, T., 

no. 84. 

titu, see dirsa. 

Tfofte'Latii', gen. sg., vbo. 129, 1. 
-to, -ta, -tu'ex, ab'. 285,300,9. 
toco 'sale (conditas)'(?), probably adv., 

v b 13. Cf. L. tucceta (pi.) and 

tucca (Corpus Gloss. Lat. II, p. 

202 ; also tur(e) tuc(ca) vin(o), CIL. 

V 2072). 
todcom-e ' ad urbicum', ace. sg., vi a 

10; nom. pi. totcor, via 12; 171, 

13 ; abl. pi. todceir, vi a 11 ; 144, a. 

15, 2, 89, 1, 158, 187, 1, 256, 2. 
torn 'tauros', ace. pi., vi b 43, 45, turuf, 

ibi, turup, ib4 (25, a) ; abl. pi. 

tures, i b 20. 69. 
totar ' civitatis, urbis', gen. sg., via 30 

etc. (44 times), tutas, ib2, 5; dat. 

sg. tote, vi a 5 etc. (24 times), tute, 

i b 13 ; ace. sg. totam, vi a 41 etc. 

(9 times), tota, via 29 etc. (4 times), 

tuta, i b 16 ; abl. sg. tota-per, vi a 

23 etc. (35 times), tuta-per, i a 5 etc. 

(12 times), tuta-pe, iii 24 ; loc. sg. 

tote, vi a 36, vi b 29, toteme, vi a 26, 46 

(169, 7, a). 15, 2, 72. 
touer, see tuer. 

traf 1 - trans' , prepos. , vii a 39, trahaf, vii a 

41, traha, vii a 5, 39, 44, 45, tra, i b 31, 

35, iiais. 110, 4, 301, 4. 
trahuorfi 'transverse', adv., vii a 25. 

115, 3, 138, 190, 1, 301, 4. 
Trebe'*Trebo', dat. sg., i a 8, Trebo, 

via 58. 171, 3, a. 
re&e#'versatur', via 8. 15, 14, 94, 

212, 6. 
TVeWauir'Trebulanis', adj., abl. pi., 

vi a 19 etc. (12 times), Treblaneir, vi a 

22, Treplanes, i a 2, 7 ; ace. pi. Tre- 

blano, vi b 47, Treplanu, i b 9. 255, 4. 
tremitu ' tremefacito', imperat., vi b 60, 

vii a 49. 212, b, 310. 
tremnu 'tabernaculo', abl. sg., vi a 2, 

16. 15, 14, 94, 125, 1, 251, 2, 298. 
tribfipu'ternio', nom. sg., va9; 110, 

5; abl. sg. tribrisine, via 54; 132, 

a. 106, a, 144, 181. 
H/'tris', ace. pi. m. f. , via 58 etc. (11 

times), treif, via 22 (74), trif, ib24, 

tref, i a 7 etc. (7 times), tre, i a 3 etc. 

(4 times) ; ace. pi. n. triia, iv 2 ; 

abl. pi. tris, iii 18. 191, 3. 
n/o'tribuin', ace. sg., vibss, vii a 47, 

trifu, i b 16 ; gen. sg. trif or, vi b 54 

etc. (4 times) ; dat. sg. trifo, viia 11; 

abl. sg. trefi-per, iii 25, 30. 184, 185. 
noper'te,r', adv., vi b 55, viia 51, tri- 

iuper, i b 21 etc. (5 times). 192, 2, 

p. 321, ftn. 

tripler' trims', abl. pi., v a 21. 192, 1. 
-tu, see -to. 
tuder ' finem', ace. sg., viaio, 11 ; 

nom. pi. tuderor, vi a 12 ; 171, 13 ; 

ace. pi. tudero, vi a is, 16 ; dat. -abl. 

pi. tuderus, vi a n (288), vi b 48. 16, 

20, 131, a, 182. 
tuderato ' finitum' , perf. pass. part. 

nom. sg. n., vias. 16, 20, 131, a, 

262, 1. 
tuer'tui', poss. pron., gen. sg. , via 27 

etc. (6 times), touer, vi b 30 (2 times) ; 


Glossary and Index Umbrian 


abl. sg. f. tua, vi a 30 etc. (13 
times), tuua, vi a42 (31, 6). 194 with a. 

tuf, tupler, see under d-. 

tuplak 'furcam'(?), ace. sg. n., iii 14. 
32, 3, 178, 11, 179, 191, 2, a, 192, 1, 
263, 1. 

tures, see torn. 

Tursa '*Torra', voc. sg., vi b 58, 6i,vii a 
47, 49 ; gen. sg. Tursar, vii a 46 ; 
dat. sg. Turse, vii a 41, 53, Turse, iv 
19, Tuse, ib 31, 43. Related to L. 
terreo, not torreo. Cf . tursitu. 

Turskum'Tuscum', adj., ace. sg. n., 
ibn, Tuscom, vibss, vii a 47; 
gen. sg. n. Twscer, vi b 54 etc. (4 
times) ; dat. sg. n. Twrsce, vii a 12. 
256, 1, 116, 1. 

tfumiw'terreto', imperat., vibeo, vii a 
49, tusetu ' f ugato' , i b 40, pi. tursituto, 
vii a 51, tusetutu, i b 41 ; pres. subj. 
3 pi. Zumcmdu'fugentur', vii b 2; 
39, 1, 51, 156. 17, 12, 51, 97, 115, 
1, 212, 2. 

tuta, tutas, etc., see totar. 

tuva, tuves, etc., see dur. 

u v, see under v. 

ukar, ukri-per, see ocar. 

ufestne 'operculatis'(?), iv 22. 138, a. 

uhtretie '*auctura', loc. sg.<?), v a 2, 

15. 246, 1, a, 251, 1, p. 301. 
uhtur 'auctor', title of an official, nom. 

sg., iii 7, 8; ace. sg. uhturu, iii 4. 

69, 142, p. 301. 
ulo 'illuc', adv., vi b 55, ulu, i b 18, v a 

25, 28, v b 4. 54, 190, 2, 197, 3. 
umen 'unguen', ace. sg., iia 19, 34; 

abl. sg. umne, iia 38. 125, 2, 151, 


umtu 'unguito', ii a 38, iv 13. 153, a. 
une, see utur. 
unu 'unum', ace. sg. m., ii a G, 8. 67, 

1, 191, 1. 
upetu, see opeter. 

urfeta 'orbitam', a wheel-shaped object 

held in the hand as a token, ii b 23. 

urnasier '*urnariis', abl. pi., va2, 15; 

gen. pi. urnasiaru, iii 3. 112, a, 
146, 254, p. 301. 

urtas, see ortom. 

wrv, uru, ures, see orer. 

uretu 'adoleto', imperat., iii 12, iv 30. 
106, 212, 3. 

usace, ii a 44, usaie, i b 45. 144, 6. 
Probably adj., loc. sg., but meaning 
and etym. wholly uncertain. Pos- 
sibly from *opsakio-, as if L. *opera- 

ustentu, see ostendu. 

ustite 'tempestate'(?), loc. sg., iia 15, 
iii 2. Etym. unknown. 

ute, see ote. 

utur 'aquam', ace. sg., ii b 15 ; abl. 
sg. une, ii b 20. 131, a, 135, a, 180, 
2, d. 

uvem, see oui. 

uze, see onse. 

IT., abbr. praen., 'Vibius', nos. 83, 84. 

vakaze, uacose, see anderuacose. 

vapefe 'sella', abl. sg., iii 7; ace. pi. 
uapef-e, viajo, vibr>i, vapef-em, 
i b 14 ; abl. pi. uapersus, vi a 9, 
uapersus-to, vi a 12, 13. 104. 

vaputu 'ture'(?), abl. sg., ii b 10, n 
(for iib 10, see footnote, p. 302); 
abl. pi. vaputis, ii b 13. Probably 
connected with L. vapor. 

Uarie 'Varii', gent., gen. sg., no. 83. 

was 'vitium', vi a 28, 38, 48. 145, 2. 

uasirslom-e, name of some locality in 
Iguvium, vi a 12. 

uasor 'vasa', nom. pi., vi a 19 ; 171, 13; 

ace. pi. uaso, vi b 40 ; abl. pi. 
vasus, iv 22. 182. 

udsetom 'vitiatum', perf. pass, partic. 
nom. sg. n., vi a 37, itasetom, vi a 47, 
vi b 30, waseto, vi a 27 ; ace. sg. n. 

Glossary and Index Umbrian 


uasetom-e, vi b 47, vacetum-i, i b 8 
(p. 306). 211. 

vatra 'extari'(P), adj., abl. sg. f., iii 31. 

uatuo 'exta'(P), ace. pi. n., vi a 57 etc. 
(6 times), vatuva, i a 4 etc. (5 times), 
vatuvu, i b 25. Etym. wholly uncer- 
tain. See p. 304. 

uef 'partis', ace. pi., v b 12, n. 136, a. 

Uehier 'Veiis', abl. pi., vi b 19, 22, 
Uehieir, vi a 21, Vehiies, i a 20, 24. 

ueiro, see uiro. 

veltu 'deligito', imperat., iv2i. 36, 2, 
105, 2, 217. 

venpersuntra 'ficticia'(?), adj., abl. sg. 
f . , ii a 30, vepesutra, ii b is ; ace. 
sg. f. vepesutra, ii b is ; abl. pi. f . 
vempesuntres, iv 7. 263, 2. 

In ii a so the word agrees with 
karne of the preceding clause, simi- 
larly in iv 7 with karnus. In the 
other two passages it is used sub- 
stantively, the word for flesh being 

vepuratu 'restinguito'(?), imperat., iia 
41. 262, 1. 

vepurus 'non igneis, (sacrifices) with- 
out fire'(?), adj., abl. pi., van. 
263, 2. 

uerfale 'tempi um', place marked off 
for taking the auspices, vi a 8. 136. 
Cf. 'In terris dictum templum locus 
augurii aut auspicii causa quibus- 
dam conceptis verbis finitus', Varro 
L. L. 7, 8. 

uerir 'porta', abl. pi., via 58 etc. (11 
times), uereir, vi a 22, ueris-co, vi a 
19 etc. (9 times), veres, i a 2 etc. 
(6 times) ; ace. pi. uerof-e, vi b 47, 
veruf-e, i b 9 (171, 13). 15, 15. 

veskla 'vascula', ace. pi., ii a 19, ves- 
klu, i b 29, 37, ii a 34, ii b 19 ; abl. 
pi. uesclir, vii a 9 etc. (8 times), ves- 
kles, ii a 31, 37, etc. (5 times). 88, 4, 
99, 7, 144, 249, 2. 

uesticatu 'libato', imperat. , vi b 16, vii a 
8 etc. (5 times), vestikatu, ii a 24 etc. 
(4 times); uesticos 'libaverit', vi b 
25 ; 230, a, 308, a. 308, c. 

uestis 'libans', vi b 6, 25, uesteis, vi a 22. 
308, c. 

vesticia 'libamentum', ace. sg., iv 14, 
19, vesticam, i a 28, vestica, i a n, 31, 
vesteca, iv 17, uestisiam, vi b 39, ues- 
tisia, vi b 6 etc. (5 times) ; gen. sg. 
uestisiar, vi b 16, 38, vii a 38 ; abl. 
sg. vesticia, ii a 27, vistica, ii b 13 
(39, 5), uestisia, vi b 5, uestisa, vii a 
37. Like L. libamentum, not wholly 
confined to liquid offerings. 308, c. 

Uestisier '*Vesticii', gen. sg., name of 
a god (probably of libation, like 
L. Libasius), viai4; dat. sg. Ves- 
tice, ii a 4. 308, c. 

uestra 'vestra', abl. sg. f., vi b 61. 194. 

Vesune '*Vesonae', dat. sg., name of a 
goddess, iv 3, 6, etc. 247, 2, a. 

vetu 'dividito', i b 29, 37. 136, a. 

wa 'via', abl. sg., vib52etc., via, iii 
n, vea, ib 14, 23. 31, a, 101. 

vinu'vinum', ace. sg., iia is, 40, lib 
14 ; abl. sg.' vinu, i a 4 etc., uinu, 
via 57, vib 19, 46. 21. 

uiro 'viros', vi a 42 etc. (8 times), ueiro, 
vi a so, 32, 39. 99, 5, 171, 11, a. 

uirseto 'visum', via 28, 38, 48, vib 30. 
45, 244, 4. 

Uistinie ' Vestinii', gent. , gen. sg., no. 84. 

vitlaf ' vitulas', ace. pi., ib3i, uilla, 
vii a 41. 

vitlu 'vitulum', ace. sg., iib2i, 24; 
ace. pi. vitluf, ib i, vitlup (25, a), 
i b 4, uitlu, vi b 43, 45. 39, 6, 88, 4. 

uocu-com 'ad aedem'(?), abl. sg., vib 
43, 45, vuku-kum, ib i, 4; ace. sg. 
vuku, iii 21, vukum-en, iii 20 ; loc. 
sg. vuke, iii 3, 21. 67, 1. Connec- 
tion with L. lucus (by 104) is also 
held by some. 

352 Glossary and Index Umbrian [Z7o/io>ie-zefef 

' *Voviono' or '*Vovioni', 'deo Vufiune, see Uofione. 

votorum', dat. sg., vib 19, Vufiune, vufru 'votivum', ace. sg. m., lib 21, 24, 

iaso. 247, 2, a. 25. 152,257,1. 

Uois., abbr. praen., 'Volsii'(?), no. 84. vurtus 'mutaverit', fut. perf., iia2. 

Cf. 105, 3. 17, 14. 

Uoisiener 'Volsieni', gen. sg., no. 84. Vupiia-per 'pro Lucia'(?), adj., abl. 

105, 3. sg. f., lib 26. 72, a. 

womw, see anderuo?nu. vutu 'lavato', imperat., iiaso. 104, 

uouse 'voto'(?), dat. sg., vib 11. 213, 1, a. 

152, a. Vuvfis 'Lucius'(?), ib45, iia44. 72, a, 

vuke, vuku, see uocu-com. 104. 
vuf etes ' votis, consecratis', abl. pi., 

ii a 31, iv 25. 152. zefef, see sersitu. 




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